|Title of Invention||
"METHOD OF DETERMINING MATURITY OF INTACT MANGO IN TREE"
|Abstract||Mango is the most desired fruit and is grown all over India The fruit has great potential for high market value if taste and flavour of ripe mango are of high quality. These quality parameters depend upon maturity at harvest. A method for knowing the maturity objectively with reasonable level of accuracy by using HunterLab colour values (a & b) is embodied in this invention. The maturity index predicted under this invention ensures to know the maturity level of mango for harvest at proper time, which leads to reasonably better quality ripe mango. The method has high commercial values, as mango is a commercial fruit for both domestic consumption and export.|
|Full Text||Field of Invention:
This invention relates to method of determining maturity of mango in tree using a colour values measured by a colorimeter for knowing proper harvesting time.
Maturity of mango presently is determined subjectively by experience, which often leads to misjudgment. It is determined based on flowering dates, fruit setting in tree, change in colour of mango etc. But all these parameters itself are not uniform. Full tree does not bloom or does not bear fruits at once and thus maturity level changes even in a single tree and causes harvesting of immature and over matured mango. Immature mangoes have inferior taste and aroma upon ripening and over matured one possess short shelf life.
Some destructive methods of determination of maturity based on total soluble solids (TSS) contents and acidity contents are also available. But all of them are destructive in nature and involve laborious laboratory work. Due to these reasons these methods are not being practiced in field. Hence an attempt is made by applicants to overcome these shortcomings by developing a method of determining maturity of intact mango using a hand held colorimeter usable even on a tree. It will help to determine appropriate harvesting time of individual mango in tree.
Objects of the Invention:
The invention is concerned with solving one or more problems of the prior arts set forth above. The objective of this invention more specifically are defining the maturity index for mango, measure the colour values, total soluble solids content and determine maturity index using them directly with the help of computer or reading through a developed chart to know its maturity for proper harvesting time.
Brief Description of Drawings
Fig. 1 shows the way of holding the mango and colorimeter in close contact to acquire the colour values a and b.
Fig. 2 shows a chart comprising a strip of colour values a along the x-axis and colour values b along the y-axis. Curved lines indicate the level of maturity of mangoes in percentages.
Fig. 3 shows observed vs predicted maturity index determined using the established relationship between the maturity index and colour values or read directly from the developed chart directly.
Detailed Description of Invention
In accordance with one aspect of this invention maturity index in percentage for mango was defined as TSS values in °Brix divided by eight and multiplied by 100 and were correlated with colour values greenness (a) and yellowness (b) of mango directly or by computing its second derivatives. If the said index comes to be 100, mango is considered to
be properly matured. If it is less or more than 100 mangos are assumed immature or over matured, respectively.
In accordance with other embodiments of this invention, a method to compute maturity index of mango on-site using colour values (a and b only) taken by a colorimeter was developed to provide an easy nondestructive method for determining maturity of mango so that a properly matured mango is harvested to have a better quality ripped mango which fetches higher market values and increases returns to the mango growers.
The present invention now more elaborately described.
Take the HunterLab colour values (L, a and b) of mango at any position using any colorimeter. Discard the values of L and compute the maturity index Im in percent using the following equations:
The Norris second derivatives of a and b values are computed and used to know maturity index of mango by Equation (2) as below:
Equations (1) and (2) both may be used for knowing the maturity, however, variations in from actual may be 10 - 13 % in case of Equation (1) and about 3 - 4 % in case of Equation (2). Estimation of maturity using Equation (1) is easier as it contains direct values of a, b and a x b. In case of using Equation (2) one more step is required as it consists of second derivatives of a and b values.
Working on the Invention
The method of knowing maturity in terms of total soluble solids of mango embodied herein could be used to know the maturity stage of individual mango with reasonable accuracy and almost no efforts. One can follow the given flow chart for working on the invention to get the desirable results.
For reading the maturity level from chart (Fig 2), take the colour values a and b of mangoes using a colorimeter and mark these values on colour strips at x- and y-axes respectively. Draw perpendicular lines from marked points on the both colour strips. Estimate the maturity level by reading from the curved lines near the point of intersections of these perpendicular lines. The variations in estimations may be as indicated in calibration and validation curves (Fig. 3).
By following the above steps one can estimate the maturity index of Dusheri, an important variety of mango in India, without harming it and with almost no effort. The method herein facilitates harvest of mango at correct stage (depending upon the end use) and sorting/grading of mangoes based on eating quality (taste) to get higher assured prices in market and to have an idea of remaining shelf life for future marketing.
The following typical examples are given to illustrate how the process of the present invention is carried out in actual practice and should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention:
Each mango in a tree is having different level of maturity and so the taste upon ripening after harvest. The maturity and taste are perceptional quality parameters, which now can be estimated using colour and following the above steps. One can segregate the mango of similar quality using this technique and label them with certain assured level of maturity. Level of maturity will help in deciding the end use and remaining shelf life of mangoes.
Suppose the maturity level of mangoes using this technique comes to be 60 %, it means they are immature and will not give good taste upon ripening. It may be used for making pickle if TSS level is low. If maturity comes near to 100 %, mangoes are fully mature and can give good taste upon ripening after harvest. This mango may have shelf life of about one week after harvest at room temperature. If estimated maturity comes suppose 250 %, mango is over mature/ripe and shelf life may be even less than one or two days.
• Non-destructive determination of maturity level.
• On-line applicability for commercial level of sorting and grading of mangoes.
• Known level of maturity and/or ripeness will help in estimating the shelf life of
mango which in tern will help in decision making for their use, storage and transport. • Quality base pricing and other decision based quality parameters (table
purpose/processing) can be adopted.
4. We Claim:
1. The method of determining maturity of mango variety in terms of total soluble
solids content comprising following steps:
(i) Measuring colour values using colorimeter
(ii) Determination of total soluble solids (TSS) content of mangoes using the conventional method
(iii) Correlation of colour values with total soluble solids content measured in steps (i) and (ii) to establish the maturity index and its chart with colour values to determine the maturity of mango.
2. The method as claimed in claim (1) wherein variety of mango used is Dusheri.
|Indian Patent Application Number||2418/DEL/2004|
|PG Journal Number||06/2012|
|Date of Filing||02-Dec-2004|
|Name of Patentee||INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||KRISHI BHAWAN, DR. RAJENDRA PRASAD ROAD, NEW DELHI-110001, INDIA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23L 1/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|