Title of Invention

AN ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOSITE AND A CATIONIC CELLULOSE

Abstract An organic-inorganic composite and a cationic cellulose are disclosed. The organic- inorganic composite comprises an inorganic phase and an organic phase, wherein the organic phase is formed of a strengmening additive of a cationic cellulose or a substituted starch ionically crosslinked by a crosslinking additive in situ, wherein the crosslinked strengthening additive forms a polymer network and the ionic interactions between the strengthening additive and the crosslinking additive substantially strengthen the organic- inorganic composite.
Full Text CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
[0001] The present application claims the benefit of previously filed co-pending
Provisional Patent Application, Serial No. 60/603,491, filed August 20, 2004, and
incorporates by reference the contents therein.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0002] The field of the invention is polymer chemistry, more specifically,
polymer chemistry for additives to improve the properties of compositions of matter for
use in forming composite articles of manufacture, coatings and materials.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
[0003] Several types of charged substituted starches are commercially available
and are currently used in paper-making and water treatment applications. Cationic
starches are traditionally used on the wet end of paper manufacturing to increase wet
strength and bind anionic "trash" in the wood pulp. Anionic and amphoteric starches are
also used in paper formulations and at the size press of paper-making to improve finish
and dry strength. Amphoteric starches contain both cationic and anionic substituents.
Charged starches are also used as fiocculants in water treatment plants to remove
contaminants. The cationic groups on charged starches are commonly quaternary amines
and the anionic substituents are usually carboxylate or phosphate groups.
[0004] Some charged cellulose derivatives are also known. Carboxymethyl
cellulose, an anionic cellulose derivative, is the most commonly used cellulose ether. It is
mainly used as a thickener, but it is also used as an emulsion stabilizer, and textile warp
sizing.
SUMMARY
[0005] Ionic interactions between a strength enhancing additive and a
crosslinking additive provide a stable binding agent that substantially increases the







toughness and strength of composites, coatings and other materials. For example, ionic
interactions limit the crosslinked strength enhancing additive to the surface of a
wallboard core that is transformed during insitu crosslinking. By selectively modifying
the polymer or crosslinker, a network of polymer and inorganic crystals is formed that
synergistically increases the nail pull resistance and strength of a composition of matter
formed by mixing an inorganic phase, the strength enhancing additive and the
crosslinking additive with water. It is thought, without limiting in anyway, that
hydrophobic and hydrophilic substituent groups may be selected to provide chemical
affinity for gypsum crystals, for example.
[0006] The additives disperse substantially throughout the composite by
dissolution and are retained within composite by the ionic interactions, which prevents
excessive migration to the surfaces of the composite.
[0007] For example, cationic cellulose can be produced by substituting some of
the hydroxyl groups along the polymer backbone with cationic substituents, such as those
containing quaternary amines. The cationic cellulose can be used with an ionic
crosslinking additive to form a crosslinked polymer network in the same way as cationic
starches described herein.
[0008] For example, cationic starches can be used to impart strength
improvement to gypsum composites. The amount of improvement is dependent on the
molecular weight, and thus viscosity, as well as the degree of substitution of the starch.
Un-thinned cationic starches are too viscous to diffuse out of the granule during heating
and thus remain as discrete particles in the inorganic matrix. Acid-thinning decreases
viscosity, allowing the starch to disperse throughout the gypsum core and increasing the
nail pull resistance of the composite. The cationic nature of the starch results in greater
improvement than with an acid-modified starch of similar viscosity. This can be
attributed to greater interaction with the polar surface of the gypsum crystals. Although
acid-thinning increases starch dissolution, much of the starch migrates completely to the
faces, reducing the amount of reinforcement in the core. Strength enhancement is
improved by including an anionic polymer that interacts with the acid-thinned cationic
starch to form a network of ionic cross-links that binds the starch in the core.
[0009] The combination of a cationic starch with an anionic cross-linker
provides a unique method of obtaining strength-enhancing starch distribution and
retention in the gypsum core while maintaining low slurry viscosity. The starch granules
remain un-dissolved during mixing because of their cold water insolubility. The
temperature of the stucco slurry in wallboard plants varies, but is often warmer than 100







F. The starch must therefore have limited or no solubility at this temperature. This is
accomplished with a cationic starch by limiting the degree of substitution (DS). For
example, one embodiment has a degree of substitution selected in a range less than 3
wt%.
|0010] For example, the starch granules swell and burst, releasing starch into
solution. Granule swelling is increased by electrostatic repulsion of the cationic groups of
the starch and granule rupture is facilitated by the stress of the gypsum crystals on the
swollen granules, such as during a forming process. The molecules in solution natturally
diffuse to water devoid of starch, resulting in distribution of starch substantially
throughout the composite. When the cationic starch encounters the anionic crosslinking
additive, which could be an anionic starch, the two additives interact to give a synergistic
increase in viscosity. The high viscosity of the ionically cross-linked polymer system
prevents further migration of the starch, such as during evaporation of the water, and
improves starch retention in the composite. The cationic starch solution precipitates
during evaporation of the water, producing a reinforcing film over the gypsum crystals. If
the DS of the cationic starch is too low, the starch is likely to retrograde. Retrogradation,
or re-association of starch molecules, reduces film strength and negatively affects
strength-enhancement. Therefore, the DS of cationic starches for composites should be at
least 0.3 wt%. It is preferred that the cationic starch have a peak viscosity of between
100 and 10,000 cps for 20 wt% solids at 195 F and a DS of between 0.3 and 3 wt%. More
preferably, it has a peak viscosity of between 1,000 and 3,000 cps for 20 wt% solids at
195 F and a DS from 1.5 to 2.5 wt%.
[0011] Viscosity measurements were used to analyze the interaction between
cationic starches and anionic crosslinking additives, including anionic starches. A rapid
viscoanalysis (RVA) technique was used to determine starch viscosity response to
cooking and subsequent cooling. The procedure begins by adding a cool (25C) chamber
of starch to a rheometer with a hot water jacket (90C). The temperature of the chamber
rises quickly to 90C and is held at 90C for 8 minutes and then cooled to 50C over the
next 4 minutes and held at 50C for an additional 10 minutes. The rheometer used was a
Brookfield DVII+ Pro with spindle #SC4-21 and a TC-U2P water bath. A general
response of starches to this type of temperature profile is low initial viscosity for the
insoluble starch dispersion, increase to peak viscosity at the gel temperature of the starch
as granules swell, decrease to trough viscosity as granules burst and starch enters
solution, and increase to final viscosity as the solution is cooled. Starch granules in a
gypsum matrix follow a similar temperature profile as the composite is dried. Although







there is no cooling stage during drying, the final viscosity indicates the behavior of the
starch as intra-molecular interactions increase, as when concentration increases as the
composite dries. Thus, both cooling and drying lead to similar increases in the
synergestic viscosity of the additives. The viscosity profiles and values for cationic
starches and anionic starches and polymers were measured individually and compared to
various combinations to determine the level of ionic association.
[0012] A blend of two polymers in solution that have no interaction has a
viscosity that follows a logarithmic rule of mixtures. This allows the calculation of the
theoretical viscosity of a blend of starches if there was no association. The increase of the
measured viscosity of a combination of cationic and anionic starch over the theoretical
viscosity indicates the degree of interaction between the two. This technique can be used
to determine the DS, viscosity, and ratio of starches for which there is maximum
interaction. A commercially available cationic starch, Cato 2A from National Starch and
Chemical Co, was acid-thinned for two hours. Wescote 30S0, an anionic starch from
Western Polymer Co, was also acid-thinned for two hours. The two were tested by RVA
using various ratios and a total of 20 wt% solids. All combinations showed an increase in
the peak, trough, and final viscosities over the expected values. The greatest increase was
in the final viscosity, when the inter-molecular interactions are the strongest. A peak in
final viscosity -was found at around 25 wt% of anionic starch to total weight of solids
(both anionic and cationic starches) (1:3 ratio).
[0013] Cationic starches can be combined with anionic starches or anionic
cellulose ethers to improve gypsum composite strength. Certain anionic synthetic
polymers also show interaction with cationic starches and can be used to improve
retention in the core. High molecular weight polymers with a high concentration of
anionic groups associate most strongly with cationic starches because of more
opportunities for interaction per polymer chain. For example, 1 million molecular weight
(MW) poly(styrene sulfonate) increases the viscosity of cationic starches at low additive
levels. However, lignin sulfonates, which are commonly used in gypsum wallboard as
dispersants, give no synergistic viscosity rise with cationic starches even at higher
concentrations. Advantages of using anionic starches include no increase in slurry
viscosity and no migration prior to starch dissolution. Similar properties may be achieved
using anionic cellulose ether, such as carboxymethyl cellulose, by using an anionic
cellulose ether with a DS that is low enough to prevent dissolution in cold water. Cold
water means water at a processing temperature less than the temperature of the
composition when it is heated, such as during setting or drying, for example.







[0014] Cationic cellulose ether may be used in some cases in place of cationic
starch as a strength enhancing additive. Cellulose ethers may impart higher tensile
strength and toughness than cationic substituted starches. The cationic cellulose may be
used in combination with an anionic cellulose, anionic starch, or synthetic anionic
polymer to ionically cross-link it. The preferred cationic cellulose ether of the invention
has a low enough DS to make it cold water insoluble but is soluble at higher
temperatures. Cold water soluble charged cellulose ethers may also be used but may
increase the viscosity of the slurry. A low molecular weight charged cellulose ether and a
complementary cold water insoluble charged cellulose ether may be used to prevent
migration without significantly increasing slurry viscosity. Herein complimentary refers
to ionic-cationic or cationic-anionic complementary charges.
[00151 Any combination of complementary charged polysaccharides or a charged
polysaccharide with a complementary charged synthetic polymer may be used to improve
strength enhancement and retention in the core. Examples include but are not limited to:
cationic cellulose ether with anionic cellulose ether; cationic starch with anionic starch;
cationic starch with anionic cellulose ether; cationic cellulose ether with anionic starch;
anionic cellulose ether with cationic synthetic polymer; cationic cellulose ether with
anionic synthetic polymer; anionic starch with cationic synthetic polymer; and cationic
starch with anionic synthetic polymer.
[0016] Also, a cationic synthetic polymer may be added with other anionic
synthetic polymers to improve the strength enhancement and retention in the core, so
long as the specific polymers are selected to be retained in the wallboard core.
[0017] Specifically, Figures 1-4 show the synergistic effect of adding an anionic
substituted starch and a cationic, acid-modified starch on the measured viscosity of slurry
including water and 20 wt% solids (combination of the two additives). It is believed,
without limiting the invention, that the synergistic increase in viscosity is associated with
a decrease in migration of the substituted starch, such that the substituted starch is
dispersed substantially throughout the composite. Thus, the substituted starch
substantially strengthens the composite.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWTNGS
[0018] Figs. 1-3 are RVA plots showing the synergistic interaction between
cationic and anionic starches. In each chart, the mixture is compared to each starch
alone. The total solids in each run is 20%.
[0019] Fig. 4 shows synergy of CAT02A and Wescote 3050 for increasing
CAT02A polymer percent addition.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
[0020] The drawings and detailed description describe specific examples of the
invention; however, detailed examples and descriptions herein do not limit the scope of
the invention. It is preferred that the present invention be limited not by the detailed
description and drawings, but only by the claims that are eventually issued.
[0021] Figure 1 shows the synergestic effect of combining 10wt% ICBM
Anionic Starch #44 with a 10 wt% of CATO 2A, 2-hour, acid-modified starch. The
synergistic effect increases both the tough viscosity and me final viscosity.
[0022] Figure 2 shows a synergistic effect similar to that in Figure 1 for 10 wt%
ICBM Anionic Starch #40 and 10wt% CATO 2A.
[0023] Figure 3 shows the synergistic effect of combining 15 wt% CATO 2A
with 5 wt% Wescote 3050. With only 5 wt% Westcote 3050, the trough viscosity is not
substantially different from 20 wt% of the substituted Starch Westcote 3050; however,
. the final viscosity shows a dramatic synergistic effect.
[0024] Figure 4 shows that the synergistic effect varies depending on the ratio of
the crosslinking additive to the strengthening additive. It is preferred to use no greater
than 75 wt% of crosslinking additive to total weight of additives.
[0025] In another preferred embodiment, the amount of crosslinking additive is
no greater than 30 wt% of the total weight of both the strengthening additive and
crosslinking additive.
[0026] In one embodiment, the degree of substitution of the strength enhancing
additive is selected in a range from 0.5-3 wt%, which prevents dissolution of the strength
enhancing additive during mixing in cold water, but provides sufficient charged
substituent groups to ionically crosslink with the crosslinking agent The range selected
depends on several factors, including the ratio of crosslinking additive to strength
enhancing additive.



[0027] SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose
[0028] 1400 parts of a 90 % by weight aqueous solution of ethanol/isopropyl
alcohol (50:50) mixture was added to 100 parts ground cellulose. The suspension was
cooled to 20°C. 4 parts of 50 % by weight aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added
dropwise in a period of 30 minutes. After stirring for one hour, 3 parts monochloroacelic
acid was added to the mixture which was then heated to 70°C and held at that temperature
for three hours. The mixture was then cooled to room temperature and neutralized by
using a 37 % by weight hydrochloric acid. The product was filtered and washed several
times by using a 75% ethanol solution until the filtrate gave a negative response to silver
nitrate solution. The solid was then dried in an overnight at 50°C.
Preparation of 2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammounium chloride cellulose
[0029] 1400 parts of a 90 % by weight aqueous solution of ethanol/isopropyl
alcohol (50:50) mixture was added to 100 parts ground cellulose. The suspension was
cooled to 20°C. 4 parts of 50 % by weight aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added
dropwise in a period of 30 minutes. After stirring for one hour, 7 parts glycidyl
trimethylammonium chloride was added to the mixture which was then heated to 70oC
and held at that temperature for three hours. The mixture was then cooled to room
temperature and neutralized by using a 37 % by weight hydrochloric acid. The product
was filtered and washed several times by using a 75% ethanol solution. The solid was
then dried in an overnight at 50°C.
Preparation of carboxymethyl starch
[0030] Acid-thinned dent com starch (10% w/w) was dispersed in an aqueous
solution of isopropyl alcohol (7% by weight). While the mixture was vigorously stirred at
room temperature, 3 parts of sodium hydroxide and 5 parts of sodium monochloroacetate
were added. The temperature of the mixture was then raised to 40°C and stirred at that
temperature for 3 hours. The resulting carboxymethyl starch was filtered and washed
several times with 85% ethanol until the filtrate gave a negative response to silver nitrate
solution. The obtained starch was then dried in an oven overnight at 40°C.

[0031] To determine the degree of substitution (DS), the carboxymethyl groups
in the CMS were first converted to the acid form by acidifying with hydrochloric acid.
The acidified starch was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate gave
negative response to silver nitrate solution. The starch was pregelled and titrated with a
standardized solution of sodium hydroxide. Table 1 shows the results for the products
obtained according to the example.

Preparation of 2-hydroxypropyltriniethylammounium chloride starch
[0035] 1400 parts of a 90 % by weight aqueous solution of ethanol/isopropyl
alcohol (50:50) mixture was added to 100 parts acid-thinned dent corn starch. The
suspension was cooled to less than 20°C. 4 parts of 50 % by weight aqueous sodium
hydroxide solution was added dropwise in a period of 30 minutes. After stirring for one
hour, 7 parts glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride was added to the mixture which was
then heated to 70°C and held at that temperature for three hours. The mixture was then
cooled to room'temperature and neutralized by using a 37 % by weight hydrochloric acid.
The product was filtered and washed several times by using a 75% ethanol solution. The
solid was then dried in an overnight at 50°C.
Preparation of hydroxypropyl starch
[0036] A 2 L steel reactor was charged with 100 parts acid-thinned dent corn
starch, 1.5 parts sodium hydroxide, 3 parts sodium chloride, and 500 parts of water. The
reactor was sealed and then flushed several times with nitrogen. The mixture was
vigorously stirred at room temperature for 20 minutes. The reactor was then charged with
3 parts propylene oxide, and the resulting mixture was then heated at 50°C for 4 hours.
Following the desired amount of time, the mixture was cooled to 30°C and stirred at that
temperature for 19 hours. The slurry was then neutralized with 37% by. weight
hydrochloric acid. The white solid was washed with water followed by an additional

wash of an aqueous solution of methanol. The solid was then filtered and dried at 50°C
for 12 hours.
[00371 The hydroxypropyl substitution content was determined according to
the method of ASTM D 3876-96 (2001). The hydroxypropyl starch was dried in an oven
to remove residual moisture and then treated with an aqueous solution of hydroiodic acid,
liberating ispropyl iodide . The isopropyl iodide was extracted in situ with an organic
solvent and quantitated by gas chromatography using an internal standard technique.
Table 2 shows the results for the products obtained according to the procedure outlined
above.

Preparation of hydroxyethyl starch
[0040] A 2 L steel reactor was charged with 100 parts starch, 1.5 parts
sodium hydroxide, 3 parts sodium chloride, and 500 parts of water. The reactor was
sealed and then flushed several times with nitrogen. The mixture was vigorously stirred at
room temperature for 20 minutes. The head space was evacuated and the stirrer turned
off. The head space was pressurized with 20 psi of ethylene oxide after which the stirrer
was turned on, and the resulting mixture was then heated at 50°C for 3.5 hours. Following
the desired amount of time, the mixture was cooled to 30°C and stirred at that
temperature for 19 hours. The slurry was then neutralized with 37% by weight
hydrochloric acid. The white solid was washed with water followed by an additional
wash of an aqueous solution of methanol. The solid was then filtered and dried at 50°C
for 12 hours.
[0041] The hydroxypropyl substitution content was determined according to
the method of ASTM D 4794-94 (1998). The hydroxyethyl starch was dried in an oven to
remove residual moisture and then treated with an aqueous solution of hydroiodic acid,

liberating iodoethane . The iodoethane was extracted in situ with an organic solvent and
quantitated by gas chromatography using an internal standard technique. Table 3 shows
the results for the products obtained according to the procedure outlined above.




WE CLAIM :
1. An organic-inorganic composite, comprising an inorganic phase and an organic
phase, wherein the organic phase is formed of a strengthening additive of a cationic
cellulose or a substituted starch ionically crosslinked by a crosslinking additive in situ,
wherein the crosslinked strengthening additive forms a polymer network and the ionic
interactions between the strengthening additive and the crosslinking additive substantially
strengthen the organic-inorganic composite.
2. The composite of claim 1, wherein the cationic cellulose has a cationic substituent of
a quarternary amine.
3. The cationic cellulose of claim 2, wherein the crosslinking additive is of an anionic
polymer selected from one of the group consisting of an ionic substituted starch, an anionic
cellulose ether, an anionic synthetic polymer.
4. The cationic cellulose of claim 3, wherein the crosslinking additive is of an anionic
cellulose ether.
5. The cationic cellulose of claim 4, wherein the anionic cellulose ether is a
carboxymethyl cellulose.
6. The cationic cellulose of claim 5, wherein the cationic cellulose has a degree of
substitution of the cationic substituent selected in a range from 0.5 to 3 weight percent.
7. The composite of claim 1, wherein the substituted starch has a degree of substitution
selected in a range from 0.5 to 3 wt%.
8. The composite of claim 1, wherein the substituted starch is a of a starch ether.

9. The composite of claim 8, wherein the starch ether has hydroxyethyl substituents.
10. The composite of claim 1, wherein the crosslinking additive is of an anionic polymer
selected from one of the group consisting of anionic substituted starch, an anionic cellulose
ether, on anionic synthetic polymer.
11. A cationic cellulose, comprising a cellulose having one or more the hydroxyl groups
substituted by a cationic substituent, wherein the cationic cellulose is ionically crosslinked
by a cross linking additive selected from anionic substituted starch or anionic cellulose ether.
12. The cationic cellulose of claim 11, wherein the cationic substituent is a quarternary
amine.
13. The cationic cellulose of claim 12, wherein the crosslinking additive is of an anionic
cellulose ether.
14. The cationic cellulose of claim 13, wherein the anionic cellulose ether is a
carboxymethyl cellulose.
15. The cationic cellulose of claim 11, wherein the cationic cellulose has a degree of
substitution of the cationic substituent selected in a range from 0.5 to 3 weight percent.


An organic-inorganic composite and a cationic cellulose are disclosed. The organic-
inorganic composite comprises an inorganic phase and an organic phase, wherein the
organic phase is formed of a strengmening additive of a cationic cellulose or a substituted
starch ionically crosslinked by a crosslinking additive in situ, wherein the crosslinked
strengthening additive forms a polymer network and the ionic interactions between the
strengthening additive and the crosslinking additive substantially strengthen the organic-
inorganic composite.

Documents:

03780-kolnp-2006-abstract.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-assignment.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-claims.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-correspondence others.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-correspondence-1.1.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-description(complete).pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-drawings.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-form-1.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-form-3-1.1.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-form-3.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-form-5.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-g.p.a.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-international publication.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-international search authority report.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-pct others.pdf

03780-kolnp-2006-priority document.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-(21-12-2011)-ASSIGNMENT.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-(21-12-2011)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-(21-12-2011)-FORM-16.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-(21-12-2011)-FORM-3.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-(21-12-2011)-PA-CERTIFIED COPIES.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-ABSTRACT 1.2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-AMANDED CLAIMS 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-AMANDED CLAIMS.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-AMANDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-ASSIGNMENT.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-CORRESPONDENCE 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-CORRESPONDENCE 1.2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE) 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE) 1.2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-DRAWINGS 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-DRAWINGS 1.2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECIEVED.PDF

3780-KOLNP-2006-EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 1-1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 1-1.2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 18 1.1.pdf

3780-kolnp-2006-form 18.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 2-1.2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 3-1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 3.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM 5.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-FORM-27.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GPA.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-ABSTRACT.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-CLAIMS.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-DRAWINGS.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-GRANTED-SPECIFICATION.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-OTHERS.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-PETITION UNDER RULR 137.pdf

3780-KOLNP-2006-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf


Patent Number 249845
Indian Patent Application Number 3780/KOLNP/2006
PG Journal Number 46/2011
Publication Date 18-Nov-2011
Grant Date 16-Nov-2011
Date of Filing 15-Dec-2006
Name of Patentee INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, LLC
Applicant Address 626, BANCROFT WAY, SUITE 3B, BERKELEY, CA 94710
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 POLLOCK, JACOB FREAS 740, COVENTRY ROAD, KENSINGTON, CA 94707
2 SAITO, KEN 3287, MONAGHAN STREET, DUBLIN, CA 94568
3 TAGGE, CHRISTOPHER D. 1124, CEDAR STREET, SAN CARLOS, CA 94070
PCT International Classification Number C08L 1/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/US2005/029727
PCT International Filing date 2005-08-19
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 10/952123 2004-09-27 U.S.A.
2 60/603491 2004-08-20 U.S.A.