Title of Invention

HYDROGENATION OF VEGETABLE OILS AND UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

Abstract There is provided an improved process for the hydrogenation of edible vegetable oils, and/or free fatty acids which comprises carrying out said hydrogenations in a hydrogenator adapted for vibratory to and fro motion in the presence of nickel catalysts characterized in that the catalysts used comprise shaped catalysts obtained of plurality of thin rods preferably in the form of a hollow spherical shape or similar substantially spherical shapes.
Full Text COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
TITLE: HYDROGENATION OF VEGETABLE OILS AND FATTY ACIDS:
PRIOR ART;
It is well known to hydrogenate vegetable oils and fatty acids using NICKEL CATALYST
Since use of nickel catalyst has been successful in the Industry; there has not been any
attempts to understand the several intrinsic problems in the use of nickel catalyst and ways to
solve the problem have not naturally been studied.
Attempts have been made to carry out the hydrogenation at around 180°C.At this temperature,
the overall rate of hydrogenation is controlled by the rate of diffusion of hydrogen to the
catalyst surface, rate of diffusion of oil to the catalyst and diffusion of the product- fat- from
the catalyst surface to the bulk of the liquid.
It has also been attempted to enhance hydrogenation, to use higher stirrer speeds but this
results in leakage of the contents and higher power consumption. Though the time of
hydrogenation is some what reduced due to this technique, yet the time consumed is still long.
Several researchers have worked on different routes and have suggested various techniques.
See for example the following pate ts.
a) G.B. 658188, published on 03.10.1951, a very old patent. In this patent particulate nickel is
suspended with or without promoters and the medium is agitated mechanically. The draw back
has already been explained.
b) G.B. 1154230. PUBLISHED ON 04.06.1969. The starting method conditions the feed which
contain free sterol and which are substantially gum free. Conventional nickel catalysts have
been used. The overall production rate is not very high compared to the inputs of materials,
time and energy.
OBJECT OF THE INVENTION:
In this process there is suggested several alternatives to improve the rate of diffusion of
hydrogen to the catalyst surface, rate of diffusion of oil to the catalyst surface and also rate of
diffusion of the product fat to the bulk.
BRIEF DETAILS OF THE INVENTION:.
To tackle the conventional problems, attempts have been made from several angles. Like
1) To vibrate the reactor mechanically at selected and regulated speeds based on the contents
of the reactor.
2) To employ specific shape of the nickel catalyst thereby dispensing with the old concept of
using particulate catalysts.
3) It is found that preformed thin strips j rods of nickel bent to form a cage like construction of
different shapes, most preferably a sphere does the job better.

BRIEF STATEMEN OF THE INVENTION.
Thus according into this invention there is provided an improved process for the hydrogenation
of edible vegetables oils, and / or free fatty acids which comprises carrying out said
hydrogenations in a conventional manner in the presence of conventional nickel catalysts
characterized in that the catalysts are used in the form of specially formed shapes using a
plurality of thin rods, preferably in the form of a hollow sphere, or similar shapes.
The other salient features of the process are as follows.
1) the said rods are most preferably round in cross section preferably being 0.5 to 0.75 cm in
diameter.
ii) the diameter of the sphere is preferably 5 to 6 cm.
iii) the said sphere is formed by using a plurality of curved thin nickel rods, assembling these
rods into a spherical shape and joining the top and bottom meeting ends independantly
permanently.
iv) the top ends and bottom ends of the thin rods are separately joined using preferably small thin
plate of nickel at each end.
v) uniform distance is maintained between the plurality of rods while assembling the same into
the shape of a sphere.
vi) if desired the middle portion of the sphere is strengthened using a thin round long curved rod
running along the circumference of the sphere.
BRIEF DETAILS OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS:
In the drawings accompanying the specification, the following are explained;
Figure 1 shows an isometric view of a preferred embodiment.
Figure 2 shows the top view of figure 1,
Figure 3 shows a cross section along the arrow A—A in figure 1.
Figure 4 shows a cross section of a thin rod

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS:
It will be noticed that the sphere is made up of a number of curved thin rods 1 of round cross
section.
The numbers of rods is selected to requirements and are assembled to form spherical shape 2 of
necessary diameter.
The top ends 3 and the bottom ends 4 of these rods are joined separately and permanently in any
suitable manner such as welding using suitably curved small thin plates.
The number of rods can be as per requirements though only ten such rods are shown herein
forming the hollow spherical shape.
The diameter of each rod is preferably uniform.
Similarly the diameter of the sphere can be as per requirements and depends on the number of
rods and the distance between the rods in the assembled condition.
If desired the middle portion of the sphere is strengthened using a thin round long curved rod
running along the circumference of the sphere. Such a rod can be at any other position also.

DETAILED STUDY AND THE RESULTS.
Several experiments conducted have shown the following advantages,
1) Due to the motion of the liquid past the wire/rods, fats produced at the surface of the
catalyst are swept away by the displaced liquid at a rate faster than molecular diffusion.
2) The reaction of hydrogen with the oil at the catalyst surface occurred at a rate which is
dependent on the solubility of hydrogen in the oil.

3) Since fine particulate nickel is not used, it is easier to separate the shapes from the
hydrogenated oil.
4) Due to all these and other reasons accompanying the modification, the time required for
hydrogenation is reduced thereby enhancing more production in the same time.
5) There is also cost saving due to less power consumption.
A. Example (Crude Oil Hydrogenation)

B Example (Fatty acid Hydrogenation)



I CLAIM:
1. An improved process for the hydrogenation of edible vegetable oils, and/or free fatty
acids which comprises carrying out said hydrogenation in a hydrogenator adapted for
vibratory to and fro motion in the presence of nickel catalysts characterized in that the
catalysts used comprise shaped catalysts obtained of plurality of thin rods of cross
section 0.5 to 0.75 cm in diameter preferably of hollow spherical shape or similar
substantially spherical shapes.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the diameter of the hollow spherical shaped
catalyst is preferably 5 to 6 cm.
3. A process as claimed in anyone of claims 1 or 2 wherein the said hollow spherical
shaped catalyst is formed by using plurality of curved thin nickel rods, assembling theses
rods into a spherical shape and joining the top and bottom meeting ends independently
permanently.
4. A process as claimed in claim 3 wherein the top ends and bottom ends of the thin rods
are separately joined using preferably small thin plate of nickel at each end.
5. A process as claimed in claim 4 wherein uniform distance is maintained between the
plurality of rods while assembling the same into the shape of a sphere.
6. A process as claimed in claim 5 wherein if desired the middle portion of the sphere is
strengthened using a thin round long curved rod running along the circumference of the
sphere.
7. An improved process for the hydrogenation of edible vegetable oils and/or free fatty
acids substantially as hereindescribed with reference to the examples.


There is provided an improved process for the hydrogenation of edible
vegetable oils, and/or free fatty acids which comprises carrying out said
hydrogenations in a hydrogenator adapted for vibratory to and fro motion in
the presence of nickel catalysts characterized in that the catalysts used
comprise shaped catalysts obtained of plurality of thin rods preferably in the
form of a hollow spherical shape or similar substantially spherical shapes.

Documents:

00825-kol-2007-correspondence others.pdf

00825-kol-2007-description provisional.pdf

00825-kol-2007-form 1.pdf

00825-kol-2007-form 2.pdf

00825-kol-2007-form 3.pdf

825-KOL-2007-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-ABSTRACT.pdf

825-KOL-2007-AMANDED CLAIMS.pdf

825-KOL-2007-AMANDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION.pdf

825-KOL-2007-CANCELLED PAGES.pdf

825-KOL-2007-CLAIMS.pdf

825-KOL-2007-CORRESPONDENCE 1.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-CORRESPONDENCE 1.3.pdf

825-KOL-2007-CORRESPONDENCE 1.4.pdf

825-KOL-2007-CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 1.1.pdf

825-kol-2007-correspondence1.5.pdf

825-KOL-2007-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE) 1.1.pdf

825-kol-2007-description (provisional).pdf

825-KOL-2007-DESCRIPTION COMPLETE.pdf

825-KOL-2007-DRAWINGS.pdf

825-kol-2007-examination report.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM 1 1.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM 1.1.pdf

825-kol-2007-form 13.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM 13.pdf

825-kol-2007-form 18.1.pdf

825-kol-2007-form 18.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM 2 1.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM 2-1.1.pdf

825-kol-2007-form 26.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM 26.pdf

825-kol-2007-form 3.pdf

825-KOL-2007-FORM-27.pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-abstract.pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-claims.pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-description (complete).pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-drawings.pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-form 1.pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-form 2.pdf

825-kol-2007-granted-specification.pdf

825-KOL-2007-PA.pdf

825-kol-2007-pa1.1.pdf

825-KOL-2007-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf

825-kol-2007-reply to examination report1.1.pdf


Patent Number 249757
Indian Patent Application Number 825/KOL/2007
PG Journal Number 45/2011
Publication Date 11-Nov-2011
Grant Date 08-Nov-2011
Date of Filing 29-May-2007
Name of Patentee DR. AMALESH SIRKAR
Applicant Address 76/A, BONDEL ROAD, KOLKATA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 DR. AMALESH SIRKAR 76/A, BONDEL ROAD, KOLKATA-700 019
PCT International Classification Number C07B 39/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA