Title of Invention

"NOVEL PLANT DYE"

Abstract This invention relates to the extraction of natural dye from the flowers of Clerodendrum thomsonae for dyeing of wool and silk yarns. Different dyeing variable were optimized. The dye produces different shades of pink and peach. Colourfastness tests of these dyed samples were also Passessed against crocking, washing, light and perspiration.
Full Text FIELD OF INVENTION
This invention relates to a novel plant dye.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
Indian has a rich heritage of knowledge of natural dyes. Till 1356, all dyes were extracted from a variety of plants and few front animal and mineral sources. But this art lost its importance because of the discovery of synthetic dyes in the second half of the 19th century which pushed the old Indian art of dyeing with natural dyes into oblivation.
Natural dyes derived from biodegradable natural sources are now again a comeback as the prime colorants on textiles because they have several advantages from the point of view of health, safety, ecology and produce colours that are gentle, soft and subtle. It is believed that from the pollution point of view natural dyes are safer and less polluting and therefore their use can be propagated in a big way. However, it is also clearly understood that the natura dyes could not be substitute for synthetic dyes due to inadequate availability for global consumption. However natural dyes can stay side by side with synthetic dyes for the colouration of textiles for niche market particularly in developed countries where there is great awareness for environment protection and demand for environment friendly products irrespective of their higher cost.
Synthetic dyes have replaced almost all the natural colouring matter but the production of synthetic dyes involves many violent reactions which are conducted at high temperature and pressure using primary chemicals isolated from petroleum. During the manufacturing process of synthetic dyes many chemicals are required which have been found to be carcinogenic (cancer inducing), mutagenic (hereditary modifying) and sensitizing (allergic). Production and application of synthetic dyes release vast amount of waste and unfixed colorants. This causes health hazards, environmental pollution and upset the ecological balance. The drawbacks of synthetic dyes have prompted environmentalists, researchers and manufactures of textiles to look fro eco-friendly products and technologies. There is an increasing realization in the textile industry world wide to develop eco-friendly products and technologies. There is an increasing realization in the textile industry world wide to develop eco-friendly methods of dyeing textiles.
In this context plant dyes, which have found limited application so far, have the potential to minimize the above problems.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
An object of the present invention is to propose natural dye from new plant source.
Another object of the present invention is to propose dyeing conditions using selected natural dye of the present invention.
Yet another object is propose application of extracted dye liquor on natural fibres such as wool and silk yarns.
Still another object relates to the assessment of colourfastness of the dyed samples against washing, crocking, perspiration and light.
DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION
According to this invention there is provided a novel process for preparing a natural plant dye extracted from the flowers of clerodendrum thomsonae used for dyeing of wool and silk yearns comprising:-
- heating fresh flowers with water and HCI at 70-80°C for 30-60 minutes, wherein the amount of HCI was 0.5 to 1.0 ml per 100 ml water,
- the temperature of the solution so obtained being brought down to room temperature, the pH of the filtrate was kept between 4-4.5.
A new dye source i.e clerodendrum thomsonae (Clerodendon
thomsonae) commonly known as bleeding heart vine, bag flower, white bleeding heart is used. The flowers of this plant were used for dyeing of wool and silk yarns. Fresh flowers of Clerodendrum were collected from Pantnagar (Uttaranchal) and nearby areas in the month of April-May when the flowers is in its full bloom. The wavelength of the selected dye was estimated with the help of UV-VIS-Spectrophotomer and it was 499 nm.
Clerodendrum thomsonae belongs to Verbenaceae family, is a native of Vhina, has wide adaptability and does very well in India. Clerodendrum, the most admitted garden plants is remarkable for its bushy growth habit and for the enormous bunches of blooms which are rendered even more conspicuous for their long protruding stamens. Tropical or subtropical shrubs or plant raised from seeds grows well in most soils and in reasonably sheltered site in such or light shade. Clerodendrum is a free-growing shrub, 6-12 feet high or more and 6-8 feet wide, bearing large loose clusters of flowers with white corollas and deep brownish-red calyces. The large, heart shaped leaves of this medium sized, semi-herbaceous shrub smell like drains. Some of its species have medicinal properties also for e.g. Clerodendrum japonicum commonly known as "Ref glory bower" is an important medicinal plant in southeast china, its roots and flowers are used to treat arthritis, liver problems, eye dysfunction, hemorrhoids, hernia and insomnia.
EXAMPLE Extraction of dye
Five to ten gram fresh Clerodendrum flowers were taken is a beaker containing 100 ml water and 0.5-1 ml HCI an then heated at 70-80°C for 30-60 minutes. The content was cooled to room temperature, filtered and the filtrate was used for dyeing.
Dyeing
Dyeing of wool and silk yarn was carried out at 70-80°C in a beaker containing filtered dye solution having pH 4-4.5 for 30-60 minutes. The material to liquor (M:L) ratio was kept 1:30.
Preparation of yarns Scouring of wool
The woolen yarn skeins were scoured with 2% Lissapol D and 0.2% sodium carbonate at 60°C for 30 minutes to remove the impurities of the wool, keeping the material to liquor (M:L) ratio 1:50. The scoured skeins were rinsed thoroughly and dried.
Degumming of silk
In order to remove the natural gum present in silk, degumming was carried out. Degumming solution v/as prepared by dissolving 2 g/litre of non-ionic detergent in water. Silk yarns were added in this solution for 45 minutes, keeping the material to liquor (M:L) ratio 1:50. The yarns were then thoroughly rinsed to remove the traces of detergent and dried in shade.
Optimization of dyeing variables
Following dyeing parameters were c p imized on wool and silk: '
1. Dye extraction time
2. Acid concentration
3. Dye material concentration
4. Dyeing time
The details of optimized dyeing conditions of selected dye are given in table 1.
Table 1: Optimum Dyeing conditions of Clerodendron dye for wool and silk yarns.

(Table Removed)
The extraction time of the selected source ranged between 30 minutes to 60 minutes acid concentration from 0.5 ml to 1.0 ml/100 ml water, amount of dye source from 5g to 10g in 10 ml of water and dyeing time from 30 minutes to 1 hours.
Mordanting
Wool and silk yarns were mordanted with alum (5-20%), ferrous sulphate (1-4%), copper sulphate (0.5-2%) & stannous chloride (1-4%) at 40-50 °C for 30 minutes either by premordanting method (the yarns were mordanted prior to dyeing and was then carried forward for dyeing) or simultaneously mordanting method (the yarns were dyed by adding the mordant into the extracted dye liquor at the start) or post mordanting method (the dyed yarns were mordanted). The mordanted yarns were finally rinsed in tap water and dried in shade.
NOTE : Concentration of the mordants has to be taken on the weight of the yarn.
Working example (for dyeing of 10 gm yarn):
Water (ml) : M : L (1:30)
10 x 30 = 3GO ml water
Dye source (g) : 6g/100 ml water
6x300/100 = 18 g
Acid concentration (ml) : 1 ml/ 100 ml water
1 x300/ 100 = 3 ml
Mordant : 5% on weight of yarn
10 x 5/100 = 0.5 g
Note: M : L represents material (yarn) to liquor (water) ratio Evaluation of Fastness Properties
The dyed yarn samples were assessed for the colour fastness tests to light, washing, crocking, and perspiration as per the test procedure.
Light fastness test: Light fastness of dyed samples was evaluated by exposing the samples to daylight under prescribed conditions and fading was carried out as per the test no. IS 686-1957.
Washing fastness test: Washing fastness test was carried out as per the recommendations of IS: 3361-1979 in a launderometer.
Perspiration fastness test : The test was carried out by using perspirometer as per the test method 13:971-1956.
Rubbing fastness test : Crock meter was used to test the rubbing fastness of dyed samples according to the IS: 766-1956.
Clerodendrum dye exhibited excellent colour fastness to crocking, good colour, fastness to washing and light and fair colour fastness to perspiration on wool and silk yarns.
Advantages of the invention
Most of the natural dyes based on the vegetable origin are renewable, biodegradable eco friendly. They produce rare and uncommon shades which are soft and lustrous and in some cases the shades are enhanced with the age during use. Only shades of yellow, brown, black are available in abundance but very few sources which are ornamental plants give shades of pink. The Clerodendrum flowers, which are widely distributed in the lands as waste and not being used for any other purpose, can be used as a source of natural dye for dyeing of textiles. The Clerodendrum dye exhibited excellent colour fastness to crocking, good colour fastness to washing and light and fair colour fastness to perspiration on wool and silk yarns. It can be said that indigenous knowledge based on our long and rich tradition could be further developed and harnessed for the purpose of commercialization and employment generation.
It is to be noted that the present invention is susceptible to modifications, adaptations and changes by those skilled in the art. Such variant embodiments employing the concepts and features of this invention are intended to be within the scope of the present invention, which is further set forth under the following claims: -





WE CLAIM;
1. A novel process for preparing a natural plant dye extracted from
the flowers of clerodendrum thomsonae used for dyeing of wool
and silk yearns comprising:-
- heating fresh flowers with water and HCI at 70-80°C for 30-60 minutes, wherein the amount of HCI was 0.5 to 1.0 ml per 100 ml water,
- the temperature of the solution so obtained being brought down to room temperature, the pH of the filtrate was kept between 4-4.5.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the extraction medium for dyeing was acidic having dye source at the rate of 5-10 g/100 ml of water, time period for dyeing was 30-60 minutes and dyeing temperature was kept 70-80° the ratio of yarn to water (M : L) was kept 1:30.

Documents:


Patent Number 249691
Indian Patent Application Number 1694/DEL/2006
PG Journal Number 45/2011
Publication Date 11-Nov-2011
Grant Date 03-Nov-2011
Date of Filing 24-Jul-2006
Name of Patentee NATIONAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION.
Applicant Address "ANUSANDHAN VIKAS", 20-22, ZAMROODPUR COMMUNITY CENTRE, KAILASH COLONY EXTENSION, NEW DELHI-110 048.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 MANISHA GAHLOT DEPTT. OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES, COLLOEGE OF HOME SCIENCE GBPUA&T PANTNAGAR-263 145 UTTARANCHAL, INDIA.
2 NARGIS FATIMA DEPTT. OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES, COLLOEGE OF HOME SCIENCE GBPUA&T PANTNAGAR-263 145 UTTARANCHAL, INDIA.
3 NEEMA PAPNAI DEPTT. OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES, COLLOEGE OF HOME SCIENCE GBPUA&T PANTNAGAR-263 145 UTTARANCHAL, INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number C22C 38/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA