Title of Invention

AN IMPROVED POWER TRANSMISSION CHAIN

Abstract A chain having a plurality of inside links and guide links. The plurality of inside links each have a pair of apertures and are interleaved and connected to form rows. The plurality of guide links each have a pair of apertures and are placed outside of alternate rows of interleaved inside links to form guide rows. Connecting pins are received in the apertures and extend across the rows of the chain securing the links together. Spacing elements are found on opposite side of the chain, specifically between the guide links and the adjacent outermost inside links. The spacing elements act to maintain a spaced relationship between each of the guide link sand adjacent outermost inside links. At least one of the spacing elements on one side of the chain is a spring link holding the inside links in compressive frictional contact therebetween.
Full Text POWER TRANSMISSION CHAIN HAVING LINKS WITH LATERAL SPACING
ELEMENTS
REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This is a continuation-in-part of copending application serial number 10/132,485,
filed April 25, 2002, entitled "Power Transmission Chain Having Links With Lateral
Spacing Elements", which is a divisional patent application of application serial number
09/506,349, filed February 17, 2000, entitled "Power Transmission Chain Having Links
With Lateral Spacing Elements," now US patent number 6,406,394, which claims benefit
from provisional application number 60/131,413 filed on April 28, 1999. The
aforementioned application(s) are hereby incorporated herein by reference.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to the field of power transmission chains. More particularly,
the invention pertains to a power transmission chain containing spacing elements to
increase fatigue strength and decrease incidence of chain strand resonance.
DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART
One aspect of the invention relates to a silent or rocker joint chain, which has links
having inverted teeth for engagement with an associated sprocket. Generally, rocker joint
chains are used with sprockets for power transmission in transmissions, transfer cases,
engine timing systems, and the like. Rocker joint chains are well known in the art.
Examples include U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,651,746; 5,345,753; and 5,372,554 which are
incorporated herein by reference.
Rocker joint chains are formed by the assembly of rows of links in lateral and
longitudinal directions. Each link typically has a pair of teeth and a pair of pin apertures.
The links are interlaced and then connected to each other by connecting pins inserted in
each pin aperture. Guide links are utilized as the outermost links of the chain to maintain
the chain on the sprockets when the chain is wrapped around the sprockets during
operation. Guide links may be installed in the center or at both outer edges of the row of
link plates arranged in the lateral direction. The guide links are conventionally press fit
over pins, which connect the interlaced inside or articulating links. Guide links typically
do not include inverted teeth.
Conventionally, a rocker joint is used as the connecting pin. The rocker joint is
comprised of a pair of long and short pins. A first short pin, referred to as the rocker, is
paired with a second longer pin. The longer pin has both ends fixed to guide links at the
outmost flanks of the chain.
Conventional rocker joint chains are limited in the transfer of load between the
rocker and the inside links that are positioned at the outermost end of the rocker. The
limitation is due to the fact that only partial contact is obtained between these same inside
links and the end of the rocker. A separate limitation concerns the contact between the
outermost inside links and the sprocket. Due to the required chamfer on sprocket teeth
and the axial clearance between the sprocket teeth and chain guide links only partial
contact is achieved between the same inside links and the sprocket.
Prior art rocker joint chains showing the disadvantages in conventional chain
designs are shown in FIGS. 1-3 and 14. The chain is comprised of rows of links.
Alternate rows of links, or guide rows, have guide links press fit on their ends. The
remaining rows, or non-guide rows, have inside links as their outermost links.
FIG. 1 shows a prior art rocker joint chain in a side view. Rows of inner links 21 in
a guide row 12 alternately interleave with rows of inner links 21 in a non-guide row 14
and held by rocker joints comprising pairs of pins 16 and rockers 18. A guide link 20 is
fixed to the each end of the guide row 12 of inner links 21 by pins 16 which extend
outwardly from the rows of inside links.
In the prior art rocker joint chain 10, shown in FIG. 2, there is a clearance 30
between the end of the rocker 18 and the guide link 20. This clearance 30 exists because
of necessary manufacturing tolerances of the individual rockers 18 so that they are spaced
from the guide links 20 after the assembly process. There also exists an end radius 19 on
the rocker 18, which is necessary to prevent excessive local stresses in the pin 16 and
rocker 18, and also for ease of assembly of the chain 10. The clearance between the
rocker 18 and the guide link 20 and the shortening of the rocker as a result of the end
radius of the rocker, result in only partial bearing contact between the outermost inside
links 22, 23 of the non-guide row, and the rocker. The partial bearing contact limits the
load carrying capability of the chain because all of the links are not carrying their full
share of the load.
FIG. 3 shows an exaggerated cross section through the chain of the prior art and
sprocket 40. The chain 10 is shown slightly out of position, i.e., raised vertically. The
limitation in this design is that the contact area between the outermost inside links 22, 23
and sprocket tooth 25 is limited due to the chamfer 26 on the sprocket teeth and the
necessary axial clearance between the chain 10 and sprocket 40. Thus, the partial
engagement or partial contact occurs between the outermost inside links 22, 23 of the non-
guide row and the sprocket.
FIG. 14 shows a conventional rocker joint chain with a centered spring link 32.
Spring links are used in chains conventionally, to help control chain strand vibration by
increasing the internal friction in the chain. Compression of the centered spring link 32, in
the direction shown by the arrow, forces the links in the rows to press against each other
causing friction. The compression of the inside links 21 in the non-guide row 14 against
the outside guide links 20 could cause a gap great enough that the rocker pin 18 may
become disengaged from the outside guide links 20, forcing the non-guide row 14 of
inside links 21 apart, resulting in a loss of chain strength.
The present invention also has application to silent chains with round connecting
pins. An example of a round pin silent chain is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,758,209, which
is incorporated herein by reference. While there is no rocker in a round pin chain, the
spacing elements, especially when they are spring links, help center the inside links
between the guide links. This helps provide full engagement of the inside links with the
sprocket teeth, helping to distribute the load between the chain and the sprocket more
evenly than in a chain without spacing elements. This affect is also beneficial in a rocker
joint chain.
The present invention also has application to chain belts, as shown in U.S. Pat.
Nos. 4,580,999 and 5,439,423 which are incorporated herein by reference.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A chain having a plurality of inside links and guide links. The plurality of inside
links each have a pair of apertures and are interleaved and connected to form rows. The
plurality of guide links each have a pair of apertures and are placed outside of alternate
rows of interleaved inside links to form guide rows. Connecting pins are received in the
apertures and extend across the rows of the chain securing the links together. Spacing
elements are found on opposite side of the chain, specifically between the guide links and
the adjacent outermost inside links. The spacing elements act to maintain a spaced
relationship between each of the guide link sand adjacent outermost inside links. At least
one of the spacing elements on one side of the chain is a spring link holding the inside
links in compressive frictional contact therebetween.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal side view of a portion of a prior art rocker joint chain.
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of a portion of a prior art rocker joint chain.
FIG. 3 is a sectional end view illustrating the spacing between the sprocket and guide links
in a prior art rocker joint chain.
FIG. 4 is a sectional view of the power transmission chain of the present invention
showing the projections from the guide links.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of the power transmission of the present invention showing an
alternate location of the projections.
FIG. 6A is a perspective view of the inside face of the guide link with two projections.
FIG. 6B is a perspective view of the outside face of the guide link with two projections.
FIG. 6C is a perspective view of the inside face of the guide link with four projections.
FIG. 6D is a perspective view of the outside face of the guide link with four projections.
FIG. 6E is a longitudinal side view of a portion of a power transmission chain of the
present invention showing the guide link side opposite the projections.
FIG. 7 is a sectional end view showing the projections.
FIG. 8 is a sectional view showing the location of the washers.
FIG. 9 is a sectional view showing the curved end elements of the guide links.
FIG. 10 is a partial sectional view showing an embodiment of the curved mid-elements of
the guide links.
FIG. 11 is another embodiment of the curved mid-elements.
FIG. 12 is a side view of a chain belt.
FIG. 13 is a sectional view of the chain belt of FIG. 12 with spacing elements. Fig. 1
shows
FIG. 14 shows top down view of a prior art rocker joint chain with a centered spring link.
FIG. 15A shows a top down view of another embodiment in which a pair of spring links in
one configuration are used as spacing elements.
FIG. 15B shows a top down view of another embodiment in which a pair of spring links in
a different configuration are used as spacing elements than that shown in FIG 15A.
FIG. 16 shows a top down view of an alternative embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 17A and 17B show a side view and top view from the chain point of view of an
example of a spring link used in the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present invention addresses the above-described problems by providing in a
power transmission chain, in general terms, a spacing element to ensure that there is full
engagement of the rocker and the non-guide row of links to increase the fatigue strength of
the chain, while keeping the friction present in the chain at a point such that chain strand
resonance is prevented. The present invention also allows increased sprocket width
providing better contact between the chain and sprocket. The present invention is
explained below with reference to the embodiments illustrated by the attached figures.
FIG. 4 shows a sectional view of a preferred embodiment of a rocker joint chain
111 of the present invention. As in the prior art, the chain is constructed from the
assembly of interleaved rows of links. Inside links 121 are flanked by guide links 120 and
connected by connecting pins, each comprising a pin 116 and a rocker 118. The guide
links 120 and inside links 121 are shown more clearly in FIG. 6E. The inside links shown
in FIG. 6E are shown as each having a pair of depending teeth adapted to contact the teeth
of an associated sprocket (not shown). It should be understood that other configurations of
inner links are contemplated, such as links with a single depending tooth as disclosed in
U.S. Pat. No. 5,435,789, incorporated herein by reference.
In the chain of the present invention, the guide links maintain the lateral alignment
of the chain on the sprockets. The guide links 120 are located along the outside of the
chain, i.e., flanking the outermost inside links 122, 123 and do not have teeth for
engagement with the sprocket teeth. The guide link 120 has projections 160 formed on an
inner face. The projections 160 bear upon outermost inside links 122, 123 and act to
maintain a space between the main body of the guide links 120 and the inside links 122,
121, 123. Complete bearing contact between the rocker 118 and the outermost inside links
122, 123 at surface 134 is provided by virtue of the slight increase in rocker length
allowed by the increased space between the guide links 120 and the outermost inside links
122, 123.
An alternate embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 4 is illustrated in
FIG. 5. Projections 162 are formed on the outside face of the outermost inside links 122,
123. Each projection 162 serves the same function as projection 160 in FIG. 4, i.e., which
is to space apart the inside links 121, 122, 123 from the guide links 120 to provide
increased axial clearance. While operating like the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the
present embodiment requires the manufacture of three different link types as opposed to
two.
FIGS. 6A and 6B show an inside and outside view respectively of one embodiment
of a guide link of the present invention. Guide link 120 has a pair of projections 160 on an
inside surface 180 of the link plate. The projections 160 are located below the guide link
plate apertures 106. The corresponding recesses or locations 168 are shown on the outside
surface 182 of the guide link 120.
FIGS. 6C and 6D show an inside and outside view respectively of another
embodiment of a guide link of the present invention. Guide link 220 has two pair of
projections 260a, 260b on an inside surface 280 of the link plate. The projections 260a are
located below the guide link plate apertures 206, and the projections 260b are located
above the guide link plate apertures 206. Note that the top of the guide link has been
widened above each aperture to allow space for both the aperture and the projection. The
corresponding recesses or locations 268a, 268b are shown on the outside surface 282 of
the guide link 220.
FIG. 6E shows one embodiment of the location 168 of the projections 160 formed
into the guide links 120 shown in FIG. 4 and FIGS. 6A and 6B. However, the projections
160 can be located in any portion of the guide link which allows contact with the
outermost inside links 122, 123 and provides the desired axial spacing. The projections
160 can be formed by various methods including pressing, stamping, molding, machining
or the like. Location 168 may also correspond to a recess or dimple formed on the outer
face of the guide link 120 when creating the projections on the inner face of the guide link
120 by a stamping process.
FIG. 7 shows a preferred embodiment of the chain and sprocket in cross section.
Projections 160 are shown on guide links 120, which bear upon outermost inside links
122, 123. With the additional axial space created by the projections 160, the sprocket 140
width can be increased to assure full contact with all the inside links 121 including the
outermost inside links 122, 123. The additional contact will reduce wear and contact
stress between the chain and sprockets, which may in turn allow substitution of lower cost
materials or processes for the sprocket, reducing overall system cost.
FIG. 8 illustrates another embodiment of the present invention. A washer 164
encircles the rocker joint between the guide links 120 and the inside links 121. The rocker
118 and the outermost inside links 122, 123 are in full contact at surface 134 due to the
increased length of the rocker 118 allowed by increased clearance in the axial direction.
The washer 164 need not be integral with the guide links or the inside links.
In FIG. 9 guide links 120 have curved end elements or portions 166 located at each
of the distal ends of the guide link 120. Each curved end portion 166 extends inwardly
toward the adjacent outermost inside link. The desired axial spacing is maintained by the
curved end portions 166 bearing upon the outer face of the outermost inside links 122,
123.
FIGS. 10 and 11 illustrate in a simplified partial view alternate embodiments of the
curved end portions 166 of FIG. 9. Curved mid-portions 170, 172 are portions of the guide
link 120 which deviate from the typical flat plate-like guide link shape of the prior art.
The curved mid-portions 170, 172 are located in the midsection of the guide link 120 and
serve to maintain a space between the guide link 120 and an adjacent outmost inside link
122. An identical curved guide link 120 with a curved mid-portion 170 or 172 would be
placed on the opposite side of the chain.
FIGS. 12 and 13 illustrate a power transmission chain belt 210. Generally, as
shown in FIG. 12, the chain belt includes links arranged in sets A and B which are
interleaved or "laced" with one another. A "set" of links are those links which are grouped
transversely together; at times a set of links is referred to as a "rank." Each link is
provided with a pair of apertures 215, each aperture being adjacent to an end of the link
plate, with the apertures in a set being aligned with one another. When interlaced with
other sets of links, the apertures 215 at one end are transversely aligned with those in the
interleaved set, so that the connecting pin interconnects the interlaced links. The
connecting pin typically includes a rocker 218 and a pin member 216. The pin member
216 extends through and is press fit to the apertures of the outermost link plates 220 which
are located on the flanks of alternate sets of links. The rocker 218 extends through the
apertures of the remaining links, at times referred to as the inside links 221, stopping short
of the outermost or guide links 220. Struts 217 for engaging a pulley transmission (not
shown) are provided to the chain either positioned in a passageway defined by toes which
depending from each link or wrapped around the chain. Load blocks (not shown) may be
wrapped about the chain to engage a pulley transmission.
As shown in FIG. 13, spacing elements or members 260 are applied to inside faces
of the guide links 220. The benefit of spacing elements as applied to a chain type belt is
directed to the increase in contact area between the rocker pin and the outermost inside
link aperture.
FIG. 15A shows another alternative embodiment of the present invention in which
a pair of separated spring links 332 are used as spacing elements. A front and side view of
an example of a spring link 332 that may be used in the embodiment are shown in FIGS
17A and 17B. As in the other embodiments of the present invention, the chain is
constructed from an assembly of interleaved rows of links. Inside links 121 are flanked by
guide links 120 and connected by connecting pins, each comprising a pin 116 and a rocker
118. The guide links 120 are located along the outside of the chain, i.e., flanking the
outermost inside links 122, 123 and do not have teeth for engagement with the sprocket
teeth. A pair of spring links 332 are used as spacing elements between the non-guide row
114 of the outermost inside links 122, 123 and the row of outside guide links 120. The
springs links 332 are arranged such that the ends of the spring links are in contact with the
inside links. As in the other embodiments of the present invention, the spacing element
provides an increased amount of space, allowing for a longer rocker pin, which will not
cause a gap. In this case the spacing element is a spring link. Unlike in the prior art, the
inside links 121 in the non-guide rows 114 are not compressed in such a fashion as to
allow the rocker pin 118 to become disengaged from the inside links 121. Thus, the spring
links 332 provide a spacing element between the outside guide links 120 and the inner
links 121 in non-guide rows 114 and also increases the internal friction in the chain
helping to control chain strand vibration. Figure 15B shows an alternative configuration
of the above embodiment. The spring links 332 in this configuration perform the same
function as in Figure 15 A, but are rotated 180°, such that the ends of the spring links are in
contact with the guide links.
FIG. 16 shows another embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment,
one spring link 400 is placed on one side of the chain between the non-guide row 114 of
inside links 121 and the outside guide links 120. On the other side of the chain is an
outside guide link 120 that has a pair of projections 160 on an inside surface 180 of the
link plate 120. The projections 160 are located below the guide link plate apertures 106.
The corresponding recesses or locations 168 are shown on the outside surface 182 of the
guide link 120. However, the projections 160 may be located in any portion of the guide
link which allows contact with the outermost inside links 122, 123, and provides the
desired axial spacing. The projections 160 may be formed by various methods including
pressing, stamping, molding, machining or the like. The combination of the spring link
400 and the projections 160 ensures that the rocker pin 118 protrudes completely through
the outermost non-guide row 114 links 122, 123 lending full support to the chain.
The spacing thus provided between the guide link and the inside links allows the
rocker to contact against the entire bearing surface of the aperture of the outermost inside
link. In addition, the spacing provides complete engagement of all the inside links with
the entire width of the sprocket. Minimizing the clearance between the rocker and guide
link serves to lessen the amount of rocker movement and helps to maintain the stated
advantages.
Those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains may make modifications
and other embodiments employing the principles of this invention without departing from
its spirit or essential characteristics particularly upon considering the foregoing teachings.
The described embodiments are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not
restrictive and the scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated by the appended claims
rather than by the foregoing description. Consequently, while the invention has been
described with reference to particular embodiments, modifications of structure, sequence,
materials and the like would be apparent to those skilled in the art, yet still fall within the
scope of the invention.
WE CLAIM
1. An improved power transmission chain of the type in which a plurality of interleaved
inside links, each of the inside links having a pair of apertures, the inside links
being interleaved and connected into a series of rows, a plurality of guide links,
each of the guide links having a pair of apertures, the guide links being placed
outside of alternate rows of interleaved inside links to form guide rows, and
connecting pins received in the apertures, the connecting pins extending across the
rows of the chain and having ends secured within the apertures of the guide links,
thereby connecting the inside link and the guide links, wherein the improvement
comprises:
spacing elements on opposite sides of the chain, located between the guide
links and an adjacent outermost inside link, the spacing elements
acting to maintain a spaced relationship between each guide link
and outermost adjacent inside links;
at least one of the spacing elements being a spring link for holding the
inside links in compressive frictional contact therebetween.
2. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein the spacing elements on
both opposite sides of the chain are spring links.
3. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein one of the spacing
elements is a spring link and the spacing element on the opposite side of the chain
is washer.
4. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein one of the spacing
elements is a spring link and the spacing element on the opposite side of the chain
are a plurality of protruding members formed on an outer face of the adjacent
outermost inside link projecting toward the guide links.
5. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein one of the spacing
elements is a spring link and the spacing element on the opposite side of the chain
are a plurality of protruding members formed on an inner face of the guide links
projecting toward the adjacent outermost inside links.
6. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein one of the spacing
elements is a spring link and the spacing element on the opposite side of the chain
are curved mid-portions of the guide links.
7. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein the spacing elements
maintain a space between the guide links and the outermost inside links.
8. The improved power transmission chain of claim 1, wherein the connecting pins further
comprise a first rocker pin and a second pin, the second pin being press fit into the
apertures of the guide links.
9. The improved power transmission chain of claim 8, wherein the second pin is round.

A chain having a plurality of inside links and guide links. The plurality of inside
links each have a pair of apertures and are interleaved and connected to form rows. The
plurality of guide links each have a pair of apertures and are placed outside of alternate
rows of interleaved inside links to form guide rows. Connecting pins are received in the
apertures and extend across the rows of the chain securing the links together. Spacing
elements are found on opposite side of the chain, specifically between the guide links and
the adjacent outermost inside links. The spacing elements act to maintain a spaced
relationship between each of the guide link sand adjacent outermost inside links. At least
one of the spacing elements on one side of the chain is a spring link holding the inside
links in compressive frictional contact therebetween.

Documents:

249-KOL-2004-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-ABSTRACT.pdf

249-KOL-2004-AMANDED CLAIMS 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-AMANDED CLAIMS.pdf

249-KOL-2004-AMANDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION.pdf

249-kol-2004-assignment.pdf

249-kol-2004-claims.pdf

249-KOL-2004-CORRESPONDENCE 1.2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-CORRESPONDENCE 1.3.pdf

249-KOL-2004-CORRESPONDENCE 1.4.pdf

249-KOL-2004-CORRESPONDENCE-1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

249-KOL-2004-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE) 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

249-KOL-2004-DRAWINGS 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-DRAWINGS.pdf

249-KOL-2004-EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECIEVED.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 1 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 1-1.2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 13 1.1.pdf

249-kol-2004-form 13.pdf

249-kol-2004-form 18.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 2 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 2-1.2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 3 1.2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 3 1.4.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 3-1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 3-1.3.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 3.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 5 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-FORM 5.pdf

249-kol-2004-gpa.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-ABSTRACT.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-CLAIMS.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-DRAWINGS.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-LETTER PATENT.pdf

249-KOL-2004-GRANTED-SPECIFICATION.pdf

249-kol-2004-international publication.pdf

249-KOL-2004-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

249-KOL-2004-OTHERS 1.2.pdf

249-KOL-2004-OTHERS 1.3.pdf

249-KOL-2004-OTHERS.pdf

249-KOL-2004-PCT SEARCH REPORT.pdf

249-KOL-2004-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

249-KOL-2004-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf

249-kol-2004-specification.pdf

249-KOL-2004-TRANSLATED COPY OF PRIORITY DOCUMENT 1.1.pdf

249-kol-2004-translated copy of priority document.pdf


Patent Number 249637
Indian Patent Application Number 249/KOL/2004
PG Journal Number 44/2011
Publication Date 04-Nov-2011
Grant Date 31-Oct-2011
Date of Filing 14-May-2004
Name of Patentee BORGWARNER INC.
Applicant Address 3850 HAMLIN ROAD, AUBURN HILLS, MI 48326, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 MARK E. MICHAELS 5283 BRAKE HILL ROAD, HOMER, NEW YORK 13077
2 MARK A. GIOVANNINI 2073 GRAVEL ROAD, SENECA FALLS NEW YORK 13148
3 ROGER P. BUTTERFIELD 5797 STILLWELL ROAD, TRUMANS BURG, NEW YORK 14886
4 TIM J. LEDVINA 80 TOROK ROAD, GROTON, NEW YORK 13073
5 DENNIS J. BUBEL 166 TROY ROAD, ITHACA, NEW YORK 14850
PCT International Classification Number F16G13/04;F16G5/18
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 10/447,787 2003-05-29 U.S.A.