Title of Invention

"A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF LOW FAT-REDUCED CALORIE CAKES"

Abstract The present invention relates to a formulation for the preparation of low-fat reduced calorie cake. Cakes are characterized by high levels of fat and sugar in their formulation. Fats impart tenderness, give a moist mouthfeel, confer structure, lubricate during chewing and also contribute to flavour of the product. Formulation of low fat-reduced calorie cake contains 80% reduction in the fat level than the normal control cake. Therefore can also be considered as low -fat health snack food. Formulation of low fat-reduced calorie cake formulation contains 25% less sugar than the formulation of control cake. The low fat-reduced calorie cake formulation contains a well balanced combination of glycerol, honey and liquid sorbitol which gives an improving effect on the texture, moistness of the crumb, mouthfeel, taste, flavour and overall quality of the cake.
Full Text The present invention relates to a formulation for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cakes.
Cakes are characterized by high levels of fat and sugar in their formulation. Fats impart tenderness, give a moist mouthfeel, confer structure, lubricate during chewing and also contribute to flavour of the product. Fat also give structure to the batter, and incorporate air into batter. Fat is also a concentrated source of energy yielding 9 kilocalories per gram. When the fat content of the baked food is significantly decreased the resulting product is considered to be much less desirable.
In spite of the number of important functions played by fat in improving the overall quality of the baked products, the current consensus is to reduce the fat content or to replace the fat in the baked products to safeguard from a number of serious health hazards. Nutritionists and medical practitioners advise to lower the intake of fat and in specific saturated fat, as a measure towards reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes and obesity (Singhal R.S., Gupta A.K., and Kulkarni P.R. 1991. Low calorie fat substitutes. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2: 241 - 244). As a consequence, the number of low-calorie foods, of which baked foods is one of the most important, has been increasing steadily over the past couple of decades. A rich biscuit or a cake may derive 50 - 60% of its calories from fat.
One approach to balancing calorie intake and output is to lower the calorie density of the food eaten. Since fat contributes 9 Kcal/g, while carbohydrate and protein contributes only 4 Kcal/g, it is an obvious candidate for removal (Stauffer C.E. 1993. Fats and fat replacers. In: Advances in Baking Technology. Edited by B.S. Kamel and C.E. Stauffer. VCH publishers, Inc., New York. PP: 336 -369). It is essential that fat substitutes should have functional analogy to the fats they replace. The most difficult and challenging part of reformulating with these fat substitute ingredients is to match the tenderness, moist mouthfeel, lubricity and the organoleptic factors contributed by the fat in the bakery products, such as cakes, as nearly as possible.

Reference may be made to Saito Kanae (Low calorie food like rice cake, JP2003144070) wherein low calorie food like rice cake was developed using a mixture of glutinous rice and steamed wheat grains converted into paste form. The drawback is the use of rice and steamed wheat grains.
Reference may be made to Cao Shuwen and Min Yong (Low-calorie cake made of fruits and vegetables, CN1418567) wherein low-calorie fruit - vegetable cake was produced using oligosaccharides of oligoisomaltose and oligoglucose and fruit and vegetables as the main raw material. The drawback is the use of fruit and vegetables in the low-calorie cake fonnulation.
Reference may be made to Setser Carole S (Low calorie chemically leavened cakes and surfactant systems thereof, US5534285) wherein low calorie cakes were prepared reducing high calorie components such as shortening and sucrose producing organoleptically acceptable cakes. The drawback is the use of an artificial sweetening agent, which is, not be allowed for use in bakery product in India.
Reference may be made to Setser Carole S (Low calorie chemically leavened cakes and surfactant systems thereof, W09100016) wherein low calorie cakes were prepared using cake batters containing high potency sweetening agent with a minor amount of sucrose. The drawback is the batter contain up to about 70% (flour weight basis) high potency artificial sweetening agent, which might not be permitted for use in cake formulations in India and many other countries.
Reference may be made to Setser Carole S (Low calorie chemically leavened cakes and surfactant systems thereof, W09118514) wherein low calorie cakes were prepared using cake batters containing high potency artificial sweetening agent with a minor amount of sucrose. The drawback is the batter contain up to about 50% (flour weight basis) high potency sweetening agent, which might not be permitted for use in cake formulations in India and other parts of the world.
Reference may be made to Charles E. Rule; Cecilia Glimore; and Eugene J. Stefanski (Low calorie cake batter or mix, US4351852) wherein low calorie cake batter or mix was prepared using flour, sugar, mono-, di-, and triglyceride emulsifier. The drawback is the use of di- and triglyceride emulsifiers.
Reference may be made to Elizabeth Hegedus; Jerry E. Silverman; John R. Frost; and Martin Glicksman (High quality, reduced-calorie cake containing cellulose and process thereof, US4451490) wherein a dry cake mix was prepared using 0-45% sugar and 1 - 12% shortening, 5 - 40% cellulose flour along with other formula ingredients. The drawback is the use of cellulose flour.
Reference may be made to Elizabeth Hegedus; Jerry E. Silverman; John R. Frost; and Martin Glicksman (High quality, reduced-calorie cake, US4503083) wherein a dry cake mix was prepared using 0 - 45% sugar and 2 - 12% shortening and 0-20% egg white solids and other formula ingredients. The drawback is the use of egg white powder.
Reference may be made to Elizabeth Hegedus; Jerry E. Silverman; John R. Frost; and Martin Glicksman (Process for preparing a high quality, reduced-calorie cake, US4526799) wherein a dry cake mix was prepared using 0 - 45% sugar, 2 - 12% shortening, 0 - 20% egg white solids and other formula ingredients. The drawback is the use of egg white solids.
Reference may be made to Donald James Powell (Low fat muffin mix, GB2290450) wherein a low fat muffin mix was prepared using bleached flour and instant starch. The drawback is the use of instant starch.
The main object of the present invention is to provide a process for the preparation of low-fat reduced calorie cakes.
Another object of the present invention is to reduce the fat content in the cake formulation.Yet another object of the present invention is to reduce the sugar content in the cake formulation.
Yet another object of the present invention is to use a bulking agent such as maltodextrin to replace fat and sugar in the cake formulation.
Yet another object of the present invention is to use glycerol in the cake formulation.
Yet another object of the present invention is to use honey in the cake formulation.
Yet another object of the present invention is to use liquid sorbitol in the cake formulation.
Still another object of the present invention is to use an improver gel system in the cake formulation.
Accordingly the present invention relates a formulation for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cake comprising the ingredients: wheat flour 100kg, sugar powder (+160 u sieve) 55-65% by wt of flour, whole eggs(fresh) 74-90 % by wt of flour, bakery fat(melting point 400C) 11-19 % by wt of flour, Maltodextrin (food grade) 5-15% by wt of flour, improver gel 5-10% by wt of flour, glycerol (food grade) 2-6 % by wt of flour, honey 0.1-3 % by wt of flour, sorbitol (liquid ,food gradeO 2-6 % by wt of flour, baking powder 1-4% by wt of flour, sodium chloride (food grade) 0.1-1 % by wt of flour, flavoring agent (food grade) 1-4 % by wt of flour, and water 1-5 % by wt of flour.
In an embodiment of the process the preparation of low-fat reduced calorie cakes comprising;
(Table Removed)
and a process for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cakes using the ingredients comprising;
i) preparing a homogenous blend of refined wheat flour and baking powder,
ii) creaming by conventional method, bakery fat 11 - 19% by weight of flour, sugar powder 55 - 65% by weight of flour, glycerol 2 -6% by weight of flour, honey 1 -3% by weight of flour, liquid sorbitol 2 - 6% by weight of flour, flavouring agents 1 - 4% by weight of flour, improver gel mix 5 - 10% by weight of flour, maltodextrin 5 - 15% by weight of flour made into a paste using water 2 - 4% by weight of flour, salt 0.1 - 1.0% by weight of flour, and mixing for 6 - 15 minutes to get a fluffy light cream,
iii) whipping whole fresh egg 75 - 90% by weight of flour for a period of 4 - 9 minutes to obtain a light, aerated and fluffy mass,
iv) transferring the whipped egg in step (iii) to the cream in step (ii) and mixing for a period of 1-4 minutes to obtain a homogenous cream,
v) transferring the flour - baking powder blend in step (i) to the cream in step (v) and mixing for 1 - 4 minutes to get the cake batter,
vi) transferring the cake batter to aluminum cake pan,
vii) transferring the pan containing cake batter into the baking oven maintained at 190 - 220°C and baking for 25 - 40 minutes to get the low fat-reduced calorie cake.
In an embodiment of the process, commercially available refined wheat flour used comprising 11.48% moisture, 0.5% ash, 9.65% protein, and 453 s falling number.
In an another embodiment of the process the wheat flour is blended with baking powder. The flour and baking powder mix may be sieved three times by passing through 110 µ -140 µ sieve to form a homogenous blend.
In an another embodiment of the process the maltodextrin is made into a paste using 2 - 4% of water.
In yet an another embodiment of the process the bakery fat, powdered sugar, maltodextrin paste, honey, liquid sorbitol, glycerol, flavoring agent, salt, and improver gel mix are transferred into horizontal or vertical mixer with an rpm of 61 - 178 and mixed for 8 - 15 minutes to get a light cream.
In yet an another embodiment of the process the whipped egg is transferred to the fat - sugar cream and mixed for 1 - 4 minutes to get a uniform blend.
The following formulation in the range with alterations wherever required was used for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cake. The Wt % of the ingredients in Kg used is:

(Table Removed)

The different unit operations and conditions involved in the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cake using lowered fat and lowered sugar contents and using maltodextrin, glycerol, honey, liquid sorbitol and an improver gel system are given below in the following flow chart.

(Figure Removed)
The following examples are given by way of illustration of the present invention and therefore should not be construted to limit the scope of the present invention.
EXAMPLE -1
In the present example cakes were prepared varying the level of baking powder. Ingredients and the quantity used in the following example are given below. Cakes were prepared as in the flow chart.
(Table Removed)
In the first experiment cake was prepared adding baking powder at a level of 1.7%. The volume of the cake was 945 CC and the specific volume was 2.33. Objective measurement of texture showed that it had a compression force of 1.27 Kg. Subjective evaluation showed that the cake crumb had slightly compact cell sturuture and the texture of the crumb was less soft.
In the second experiment cake was prepared with 2.0% baking powder in the formulation. The volume of the cake was 990 CC and the specific volume was 2.41. Objective measurement of cake texture showed that it had a compression force of 1.01 Kg. Subjective evaluation showed that the cake had golden brown crust color. The crumb had uniform, round, open cell structure. The cake had soft texture, moist mouthfeel and had very good overall quality.
In the third experiment cake was prepared with 2.25% baking powder in the formulation. The volume of the cake was 1005 CC and the specific volume was 2.49. Objective measurement of cake texture showed that it had a compression force of 0.89 Kg. Subjective evaluation showed that the cake had golden brown crust color, softer texture, and moist mouthfeel. However, the cake had slightly alkaline after taste that was found to be not acceptable.
Further experiments were conducted using 2.0% baking powder in the formulation.
EXAMPLE - 2
In the present example cakes were prepared varying the level of maltodextrin in the formulation. Ingredients and the quantity used in the following example are given below. Cakes were prepared as in the flow chart.
MATERIAL QUANTITY (Kg)
Refined wheat flour (70 - 72% extraction) 100.0
Sugar powder (+ 160 µ sieve) 63.0
Whole eggs (fresh) 84.0
Bakery shortening (Melting point 40° C) 16.8
Maltodextrin (Food grade; DE 25 - 27)
Improver gel (patent support)
Glycerol (Food grade)
Honey
Sorbitol (liquid)
Baking powder
Sodium chloride (Food Grade)
Flavoring agents (Food grade)
Water

(Table Removed)
In the first experiment cake was prepared without using maltodextrin In the formulation. The volume of the cake was 935 CC and the specific volume was 2.28. The objective measurement of the texture showed that it had a compression force of 1.44 Kg. The subjective evaluation showed that the cake had relatively dry texture. The crumb grain was uniform but compressed. The cake also lacked lubricant mouthfeel.
In the second experiment 5% maltodextrin was included in the formulation. The volume of the cake was 950 CC and the specific volume was 2.33. Objective measurement showed that the cake had a compression force of 1.24 Kg. The subjective evaluation showed that the crumb was slightly moist and the cake had relatively better lubricant and moist mouthfeel.
In the third experiment cake was prepared using 10% maltodextrin in the formulation. The volume of the cake was 990 CC and the specific volume 2.41. The cake had a compression force of 1.01 Kg. The subjective evaluation showed that the cake had a good volume. Cake crust had golden brown color and moist appearance. The crumb had good structure and moist texture. The cake had good eating characteristics with moist mouthfeel and soft texture.
In the fourth experiment cake was prepared using 15% maltodextrin in the formulation. The volume of the cake was 975 CC and the specific volume was 2.39. The cake had a compression force of 1.13 Kg. The subjective evaluation of the cake showed that the cake had relatively good appearance. Eating quality of the cake showed that it had moist but slightly sticky mouthfeel that was not acceptable.
Further experiments were conducted using 10% maltodextrin in the formulation.
EXAMPLE - 3
In the present example cake was prepared without the improver gel (patent support) in the formulation. Ingredients and the quantity used in the following example are given below. Cakes were prepared as in the flow chart.

(Table Removed)
Physical characteristics of caiie

(Table Removed)
Objective evaluation of the cake showed that the volume of the cake was 825 CC and the specific volume was 2.05. The objective measurement of the texture showed that it had a compression force of 1.56 Kg.
Subjective evaluation showed that the cake had light brown crust colour and flat surface. The crumb had compact, non-uniform cell structure. The cake was less spongy and had relatively firm texture.
EXAMPLE - 4
In the present example cake was prepared without the addition of glycerol in the cake formulation. Ingredients and the quantity used in the following example are given below. Cakes were prepared as in the flow chart.

(Table Removed)
Physical characteristics of cakes

(Table Removed)
Objective evaluation showed that cake had a volume of 965 CC and specific volume of 2.39. Objective measurement of the cake texture showed that it had a compression force of 1.28 Kg.
Subjective evaluation showed that cake had relatively dry mouthfeel. The cake was also relatively less sweet.
EXAMPLE - 5
In the present example cake was prepared without honey in the formulation. Ingredients and the quantity used in the following example are given below. Cakes were prepared as in the flow chart.
MATERIAL
Refined wheat flour (70 - 72% extraction)
Sugar powder (+ 160 |j sieve)
Whole eggs (fresh)
Bakery shortening (Melting point 40° C)
Maltodextrin (Food grade; DE 25 - 27)
Improver gel (patent support)
Glycerol (Food grade)
Sorbitol (liquid)
Baking powder
Sodium chloride (Food Grade)
Flavoring agents (Food grade)
Water
QUANTITY (Kg)
100.0
63.0
84.0
16.8
10.0
7.6
4.0
4.0
2.0
0.5 1.25
3.5
Physical characteristics of calces

(Table Removed)
Objective evaluation of the cake showed that it had a volume of 950 CC and specific volume of 2.35. Compression force of the cake was 1.21 Kg.
Subjective evaluation showed that the cake crumb was less moist and the cake had relatively dry mouthfeel. The cake also lacked the mild honey aftertaste, which was highly acceptable. The cake was also relatively less sweet.
EXAMPLE - 6
In the present example cake was prepared without liquid sorbitol in the formulation. Ingredients and the quantity used in the following example are given below. Cakes were prepared as the flow chart.

(Table Removed)
Physical characteristics of cakes

(Table Removed)
Objective evaluation of cake showed that it had a volume of 945 CC and specific volume of 2.33. Compression force of the cake was 1.33 Kg. Subjective evaluation showed that the crumb had relatively dry mouthfeel.
Following are the novelties of the low fat-reduced calorie cake thus prepared using lowered fat and lowered sugar levels along with maltodextnn, improver gel system, and humectants:
1. Formulation of low fat-reduced calorie cake contains 80% reduction in the fat level than the normal control cake. Therefore can also be considered as low -fat health snack food.
2. The low fat-reduced calorie cake had a weight of 410.2 g and a volume of 990 CC. The specific volume of the cake was 2.41. The objective measurement of the texture of the low fat-reduced calorie cake was 1.01 kg.
3. The total fat content of the control cake was 24.8% while the total fat content of the low fat-reduced calorie cake was 8.8%. The saturated fat content of control cake was 11.88% and that of low fat-reduced calorie cake was 4.07% respectively.
4. Formulation of low fat-reduced calorie cake formulation contains 25% less sugar than the formulation of control cake.
5. The low fat-reduced calorie cake formulation contains a well balanced combination of glycerol, honey and liquid sorbitol. Presence of a
combination of these three humectants had an improving effect on the texture, moistness of the crumb, mouthfeel, taste, flavour and overall quality of the cake.
6. Presence of the improver gel system showed a tremendous improvement
on the volume, texture, and crumb grain quality of the cake.
7. The control cake has a calorific value of 458 calories per 100g while the
calorific value of low fat-reduced calorie cake is 359 calories per 100g.











We claim:
1. A formulation for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cake comprising the ingredients: wheat flour 100kg, sugar powder (+160 u sieve) 55-65% by wt of flour, whole eggs(fresh) 74-90 % by wt of flour, bakery fat(melting point 400C) 11-19 % by wt of flour, Maltodextrin (food grade) 5-15% by wt of flour, improver gel 5-10% by wt of flour, glycerol (food grade) 2-6 % by wt of flour, honey 0.1-3 % by wt of flour, sorbitol (liquid ,food gradeO 2-6 % by wt of flour, baking powder 1-4% by wt of flour, sodium chloride (food grade) 0.1-1 % by wt of flour, flavoring agent (food grade) 1-4 % by wt of flour, and water 1-5 % by wt of flour.
2. A process for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cake using the formulation as claimed in claim 1, comprising;
i) preparing a homogenous blend of refined wheat flour and baking powder,
ii) creaming by conventional method, bakery fat 11 - 19% by weight of flour, sugar powder 55 - 65% by weight of flour, glycerol 2 - 6% by weight of flour, honey 1 -3% by weight of flour, liquid sorbitol 2 - 6% by weight of flour, flavouring agents 1 - 4% by weight of flour, improver gel mix 5 - 10% by weight of flour, maltodextrin 5 - 15% by weight of flour made into a paste using water 2 - 4% by weight of flour, salt 0.1 - 1.0% by weight of flour, and mixing for 6 - 15 minutes to get a fluffy light cream,
iii) whipping whole fresh egg 75 - 90% by weight of flour for a period of 4-9 minutes to obtain a light, aerated and fluffy mass,
iv) transferring the whipped egg in step (iii) to the cream in step (ii) and mixing for a period of 1-4 minutes to obtain a homogenous cream,
v) transferring the flour - baking powder blend in step (i) to the cream in step (v) and mixing for 1 - 4 minutes to get the cake batter,
vi) transferring the cake batter to aluminum cake pan,

vii) transferring the pan containing cake batter into the baking oven maintained at 190 - 220°C and baking for 25 - 40 minutes to get the low fat-reduced calorie cake.
3. A process as claimed in claims (1) and (2) wherein commercially available refined wheat flour used comprising 11.48% moisture, 0.5% ash, 9.65% protein, and 453 s falling number.
4. A process as claimed in claims (1) to (3) wherein the flour and baking powder mix is sieved three times by passing through 110 µ - 140 µ sieve to form a homogenous blend.
5. A process as claimed in claims (1) to (4) wherein bakery fat, powdered sugar, maltodextrin paste, honey, liquid sorbitol, glycerol, flavoring agent, salt, and improver gel mix are transferred into horizontal or vertical mixer with an rpm of 61 - 178 to get a light cream.
6. A formulation for the preparation of low fat-reduced calorie cake substantially as herein described with reference to the examples accompanying this specification.

Documents:

554-DEL-2004-Abstract-(19-02-2010).pdf

554-del-2004-abstract.pdf

554-DEL-2004-Claims-(19-02-2010).pdf

554-DEL-2004-Claims-(27-08-2010).pdf

554-del-2004-claims.pdf

554-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(07-09-2010).pdf

554-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(19-02-2010).pdf

554-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(27-08-2010).pdf

554-del-2004-correspondence-others.pdf

554-del-2004-correspondence-po.pdf

554-DEL-2004-Description (Complete)-(19-02-2010).pdf

554-DEL-2004-Description (Complete)-(27-08-2010).pdf

554-del-2004-description (complete).pdf

554-del-2004-form-1.pdf

554-DEL-2004-Form-13-(27-08-2010).pdf

554-del-2004-form-18.pdf

554-del-2004-form-2.pdf

554-DEL-2004-Form-3-(19-02-2010).pdf

554-del-2004-form-3.pdf

554-del-2004-form-5.pdf


Patent Number 249475
Indian Patent Application Number 554/DEL/2004
PG Journal Number 43/2011
Publication Date 28-Oct-2011
Grant Date 21-Oct-2011
Date of Filing 22-Mar-2004
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Applicant Address RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001, INDIA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 MADHUGIRI LAKSHMINARAYAN SUDHA CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, MYSORE, INDIA
2 RATHINAM VETRIMANI CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, MYSORE, INDIA
3 KRISHNA RAU LEELAVATHI CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, MYSORE, INDIA
PCT International Classification Number A 23 L 1/48
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA