Title of Invention

A FUEL FEED ADJUSTMENT SYSTEM AND METHOD THEREFORE

Abstract A system and method for providing continuous measurement and control of a combustion device by altering the fuel composition delivered thereto. The system includes devices for sensing related information, such as fuel characteristics, combustion characteristics, or other device characteristics, and controlling the performance of the combustion device based on the sensed information. Performance control occurs via addition of one or more additives to the fuel to adjust combustion characteristics. Via such sensing and performance control, consistent combustion device performance may be maintained, despite varying fuel characteristics. In one variation, sensing occurs for the fuel delivered to the combustion device, and one or more additives are added to the fuel, based on the composition and flow rate for the fuel. In another variation, characteristics of the combustion device in operation, such as flame characteristics, are sensed and used to adjust fuel characteristics via iterative addition of one or more additives.
Full Text FORM 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970) &
The Patents Rules, 2003
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
(See section 10, rule 13)
"SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FLAME STABILIZATION AND
CONTROL"
Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc., an American Company, of 8940 Old Annapolis Road, Suite L, Columbia, MD 21045 (US).
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.

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TITLE OF THE INVENTION
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FLAME STABILIZATION AND
CONTROL
The present invention claims priority to
Provisional Application Serial No.
5 60/535,716, filed January 12, 2004, entitled "System and Method for Flame Stabilization and Control," which is hereby incorporated by reference. The present invention also claims priority to Provisional Application Serial No. 60/634,286, filed December 9,2004, entitled "Dilution of Gaseous Fuels with Inert Gases to Maintain Constant Combustion Characteristics," which is also hereby incorporated by reference.
10 Field of the Invention
The invention relates generally to combustion-related devices, and specifically to combustion-related devices that monitor and control combustion via control of one or more additives to a fuel feed.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
15 FIGURE 1 contains a block diagram of various computer system components for use with an exemplary implementation of a control system for fuel feed for a combustion device, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 illustrates an example of a system that determines combustion performance directly, according to one embodiment of the invention.
20 FIGURE 3 illustrates an example of a method for determining combustion performance directly, according to one embodiment of the invention.
FIGURE 4 illustrates an example of a system
that determines combustion

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performance indirectly, according to one embodiment of the invention.
FIGURE 5 illustrates an example of a method for determining combustion performance indirectly, according to one embodiment of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
5 Description of Embodiments of the Method and System
Embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems for realtime or near real-time sensing or otherwise determining combustion related information, such as fuel characteristics, combustion characteristics, or other device characteristics, and controlling the performance of combustion devices (e.g., turbine
10 or other device containing a combustor), based on the sensed information, using an additive to the fuel to adjust one or more combustion characteristics. Via such sensing and performance control, for example, consistent combustion device performance may be maintained, despite varying inputs or other factors, such as varying fuel quality or type. Such variations in fuel may include, for example, variations in combustion
15 characteristics for natural gas, depending on the Source of the Natural Gas, or Variations in fuel type to be used for the combustion device.
In a first embodiment, combustion device performance is controlled (indirectly) via sensing of fuel characteristics and addition of one or more additives to the fuel feed, as necessary. For example, in one variation of this embodiment, fuel
20 characteristics (e.g., fuel feed rate and chemical or other aspects of the fuel relating to combustion performance of the fuel) for the fuel to be fed to the combustion device are monitored, such as via fuel composition and feed rate sensors. The monitored results are compared to an acceptable range of fuel characteristics (e.g., a range of fuel
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characteristics that produce acceptable combustor performance results are outside the acceptable range, an appropriate amount of an available fuel additive is determined, and the additive is added to the fuel feed, so as to produce combustor performance that would have resulted had the fuel been within the acceptable range.
For example, if the fuel without additive is determined by analysis of the fuel to produce top slow of a flame speed within the combustor, an appropriate calculated amount of combustion enhancer (based, for example, on calculated combustion enhancement with the additive, given the sensed rate of fuel feed) as an additive is added to the fuel feed, so as to increase the flame speed to an acceptable level. On the other hand, if the fuel without additive is determined by analysis of the fuel to produce too fast of a flame speed within the combustor, an appropriate calculated amount of combustion retardant as an additive is added to the fuel feed, so as to decrease the flame speed to an acceptable level. In this embodiment, once the proper additive characteristics for the fuel are determined, no continuous additional monitoring and control is necessary (although additional monitoring and control may optionally be used, either at the fuel or combustion end of the combustion device, so as, for example, to maintain combustion quality).
In a second embodiment, combustion device performance is controlled via sensing of combustor performance characteristics, with addition of one or more additives to the fuel feed being provided, as necessary, to place the combustor within ar. acceptable performance range. For example, in one variation of this embodiment, combustion performance characteristics (e.g., pressure produced in the combustor, combustion or emission products, temperature, or other combustion features) are



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monitored, and the monitored results are compared to an acceptable range of
combustion performance characteristics (e.g., a range of combustion characteristics
that produce acceptable combustor performance). If me monitored results are outside
the acceptable range, an appropriate amount of an available fuel additive is added to
5 the fuel feed, and combustor characteristics are remonitored to determine if fee results are within the acceptable range. This process is repeated, as a continuous feedback loop, until the combustion characteristics fall within an acceptable range, and additive feed is then maintained.
For example, if the fuel without additive is
determined by combustor
10 performance characteristics to produce too low of a flame temperature within the combustor, a feed of a combustion enhancer as an additive is added to the fuel feed, so as to produce an increase in the flame temperature, if an acceptable flame temperature is reached, the feed of additive is maintained; otherwise, more additive is iteratively added until an acceptable flame temperature is reached. Similarly, if the
IS fuel without additive is determined by combustor performance characteristics to Produce too high of aflame temperature within the combustor; a feed of a combustion retardant as an additive is added to the fuel feed, so as to produce a decrease in the flame temperature. If an acceptable flame temperature is reached, the feed of additive is maintained, otherwise, more additive is iteratively added until an acceptable flame
20 temperature is reached.
In an exemplary second variation of the second embodiment, other (non-combustion) characteristics of the combustion device are monitored to determine performance, and additive is added, as necessary, so as to place or maintain the combustion device within an acceptable performance range. For example, vibration




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in the combustion device may result if pressure fluctuations within me combustor are too high. Similarly to the first variation for this embodiment, an additive to produce an increase in pressure in the combustor is iteratively added to the fuel feed until acceptable performance (e.g., acceptable vibration level) is produced for the
5 combustion device.
In each variation of the second embodiment; sensed fuel feed rates and fuel characteristics or other information may be used in conjunction with the sensed combustion device characteristics so as, for example, to more precisely determine and control additive feed.
10 In order to carry out these functions with a combustion device, each of the embodiments of the present invention generally utilize one or more sensors, one or more sources of additives, one or more additive flow control devices (e.g., valves) having one or more corresponding control mechanisms, and one or more processors or processing devices to receive the sensor input, to optionally determine appropriate
15 amounts of additive to add to the fuel flow (depending
on the embodiment), and to direct the operation of the additive flow control devices via the control mechanisms.
Combustion Device. The combustion device usable with the present invention may comprise any a number of known or developed combustor or burner devices used to combust fuel and that maybe used for any number of purposes that
20 such devices are typically used. For example, the combustion device may comprise a turbine or reciprocating engine designed to use natural gas or other fuel (or, for example, capable of running on, or being adjusted to run on, a variety of fuels) for power generation






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Sensors. A wide number of sensors are usable with the present invention. For example, such sensors usable with the present invention can directly or indirectly measure fuel composition, or combustion properties, or both. When directly measuring fuel composition, a number of techniques can be utilized within the sensors
5 (or, for example within the processors or processing devices coupled to the sensors, as described further below) to measure the amounts of the various chemical species that make up the fuel. These techniques include, but are not limited to: infrared absorption spectroscopy; Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTTR) spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; nuclear magnetic resonance;
10 electron spin resonance; or ion mobility spectroscopy; or any combination thereof.
When indirectly measuring fuel composition, the procedures mat can be utilized include, but are not limited to, the following: use of flame ionization detectors (FID); thermal conductivity measurement; heat capacity measurement; speed of sound measurement; or density measurement; or any combination thereof.
15 Particularly when used with embodiments involving indirect measurement, the sensors can also measure or be used to determine indices of combustion performance, as necessary, including a Wobbe Index, as described in detail below, and the sensors can include known types and methods designed to measure flow rate for the fuel.
With regard to flame sensing (direct measurement), sensors can be used to
20 measure combustion stability by, for example, measuring flame location or oscillation or both utilizing (but not limited to) one or more of the following: a cherniluminescence detector, a flame scanner; a flame imager; or a flame detector. The sensors can also be selected or configured to measure combustion stability by measuring, for example, combustion chamber pressure and pressure fluctuations, or



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an accelerometer may be used to measure vibrations in the combustion device resulting from combustion induced pressure oscillations. Combustion performance can be measured by measuring such characteristics as combustion flame temperature; exhaust temperature; or emissions; or any combination thereof
5 Processor. The processor (also interchangeably referred to herein as a "processing device" or "controller") can perform calculations to assess combustion performance or stability based on inputs from the sensors or other information, and is capable of generating control signals, mechanical or hydraulic operations, or other control functions for the additive system (e.g., to control valves or other mechanisms
10 to control additive feed), such that constant combustion performance and/or stability is produced and maintained. The controller can control the properties of the input fuel to the combustor (e.g., by controlling feed of one or more additives), such that, for example, both constant heat rate and fuel jet characteristics can be maintained. The controller can also maintain constant combustion properties by such methods as
15 maintaining a constant index of combustion. The index, as described below, can be a Wobbe Index, or a Weaver Index, or both (or some other index devised to characterize combustion properties of a fuel).
The controller can also maintain stable combustion by, for example, adjusting flame speed or some other primary combustion property (e.g., through control of the
20 amount of additive added to the fuel). The controller can be an analog device, such as a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller generating the control output from the input signal through the use of tuned control coefficients. The controller can also be a digital device, such as a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or computer.

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A computer can mimic an analog device in software, or it can use the information from the sensing system to calculate a combustion index or other fuel property and then calculate the required additive level to maintain a predetermined value of the index or property. The controller maybe a stand-alone device, or may comprise more
5 than one coupled device, including devices forming or coupled to a network, such as the Internet. Such a device or devices may have a "learning" capability, which allows the invention to self-optimize the controlling algorithms based on operational experience, as applicable for some embodiments.
Output of the controller may also be correlated
with combustion device
10 stability and used as a stability indicator. The stability indicator may be used to shut down the combustion device before a severe loss of stability occurs, hi addition, the stability indicator may be used as part of or in conjunction with other features for a combustion device, such as to develop an operating record to aid in determining the cause of upsets.
15 As shown in FIGURE I, the controller of the present invention may be implemented using hardware, software or a combination thereof and may be implemented in one or more computer systems or other processing systems. In one embodiment, the invention is directed toward one or more computer systems capable of carrying out the functionality described herein.
20 Computer system 1 includes one or more processors, such as processor 4. The processor 4 is connected to a communication infrastructure 6 (e.g., a communications bus, cross-over bar, or network). Various software embodiments are described in terms of this exemplary computer system. After reading this description, it will


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become apparent to a person skilled in the relevant art(s) how to implement the invention using other computer systems and/or architectures.
Computer system 1 can include a display interface 2 that forwards graphics, text, and other data from the communication infrastructure 6 (or from a frame buffer
5 not shown) for display on the display unit 30, Computer system 1 also includes a main memory 8, preferably random access memory (RAM), and may also include a secondary memory 10. The secondary memory 10 may include, for example, a hard disk drive 12 and/or a removable storage drive 14, representing a floppy disk drive, a magnetic tape drive, an optical disk drive, etc. The removable storage drive 14reads
10 from and/or writes to a removable storage unit 18 in a well known manner. Removable storage unit 18, represents a floppy disk, magnetic tape, optical disk, etc., which is read by and written to removable storage drive 14. As will be appreciated, the removable storage unit 18 includes a computer usable storage medium having stored therein computer software and/or data.
15 In alternative embodiments, secondary memory 10 may include other similar devices for allowing computer programs or other instructions to be loaded into computer system 1. Such devices may include, for example, a removable storage unit 22 and an interface 20. Examples of such may include a program cartridge and cartridge interface (such as that found in video game devices), a removable memory
20 chip (such as an erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), or programmable read only memory (PROM)) and associated socket, and other removable storage units 22 and interfaces 20, which allow software and data to be transferred from the removable storage unit 22 to computer system 1.
Computer system 1 may also include a communications interface 24.




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Communications interface 24 allows software and data to be transferred between computer system 1 and external devices. Examples of communications interface 24 may include a modem, a network interface (such as an Ethernet card), a communications port, a. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
5 (PCMCIA) slot and card, etc. Software and data transferred via communications interface 24 are in the form of signals 28, which maybe electronic, electromagnetic, optical or other signals capable of being received by communications interface 24. These signals 28 are provided to communications interface 24 via a communications path (e.g., channel) 26, This path 26 carries signals 28 and may be implemented using
10 wire or cable, fiber optics, a telephone line, a cellular Ink, a radio fluency(RF) link and/or other communications channels, hi this document, the terms "computer program medium" and "computer usable medium'1 are used to refer generally to media such as a removable storage drive 14, a hard disk installed in hard disk drive 12, and signals 28. These computer program products provide software to the computer
15 system 1. The invention is directed to such computer program products.
Computer programs (also referred to as computer control logic) are stored in main memory 8 and/or secondary memory 10, Computer programs may also be received via communications interface 24. Such computer programs, when executed, enable the computer
system 1 to perform the features of the present invention, as
20 discussed herein, hi particular, the computer programs, when executed, enable the processor 4 to perform the features of the present invention. Accordingly, such computer programs represent controllers of the computer system 1.
In an embodiment where the invention is implemented using software, the software may be stored in a computer program product and loaded into computer



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system 1 using removable storage drive I4» hard drive 12, or communications interface 24. The control logic (software), when executed by the processor 4, causes the processor 4 to perform the functions of the invention as described herein. In another embodiment, the invention is implemented primarily in hardware using, for
5 example, hardware components, such as application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Implementation of the hardware state machine so as to perform the functions described herein will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art(s).
In yet another embodiment, the invention is implemented using a combination of bom hardware and software.
10 Additive Feed. The additive feed portion of the present invention provides capability to add the additives to the fuel, as appropriate, per the controller calculations or other controller function. The additive feed portion of the present invention can include, but does not require, a reservoir for holding additives. The additive portion of the present invention can also add additives "on the fly" by using
15 readily available material, such as steam, air, readily available exhaust gases, or other generated or generatable material. Such additives can be generated, for example, by taking a component (e.g., air or water) and separating it into one or more components to be used with the present invention, or by generating a reaction to a particular component.
20 Such additives can derived, for example, from exhaust gases or via use of air separation methods, and can also include or use of steam or water. In addition, the additives in the additive system can comprise reactive chemical species, which act, for example, as combustion enhancers, including, but not limited to: hydrogen (H2);





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acetylene (C2H2); nitrous oxide (N2Q); or any combination thereof. To function as combustion retardants, the additives can comprise inert diluents, including, but not limited to: nitrogen (N2); air; oxygen depleted air; carbon dioxide (C02); recirculated exhaust gas; water; or steam; or any combination thereof! Combustion retardant
5 additives can also similarly comprise flame retarding species, including, but not limited to halogen containing species.
The additive feed portion of the present invention can comprise metering valves or other valves or control mechanisms to control how much additive is mixed with the fuel, as well as electronic, mechanical, hydraulic, or other operating
10 mechanisms to control operation of the control mechanisms. The metering valves, either directly or through such control mechanism or mechanisms, can be controlled, for example, via coupling to the controller.
Properties of Fuel and Combustion Devices
The following fuel and combustion device information and properties are
15 generally applicable to systems and methods for implementing embodiments of the present invention.
Fuel Characteristics. Certain fuel characteristics help determine whether different fuels will behave similarly in the same combustion device. If a parameter known as the Wobbe Index is the same for both fuels, they will often behave similarly
20 in a given combustion system. A Wobbe Index (W1) is defined as the ratio of the volumetric calorific value of the fuel to the square-root of the fuel density. When the WI is the same for two fuels, heat input to the device for the two fuels will be




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approximately equal, with, same pressure drop across the fuel inlet nozzles. Fuel jet penetration and thus fuel-air mixing will also be approximately the same. Thus, maintaining a constant fuel WI is important to maintaining constant performance of a combustion device.
5 The WI was originally developed to determine the interchangeability of fuels burned in diffusion flame combustors and simple premixed burners that operate in a stable combustion regime, for which constant heat rate is a suitable constraint on gas interchangeability. Lean, premixed Dry Low Emissions (DLE) combustors (such as those used in modem gas turbines used for power generation), however, operate in a
10 less stable combustion regime, so heat rate alone is typically not a sufficient constraint to guarantee consistent operation. Thus, application of the WI for computing interchangeability in lean-premixed combustors may not always be sufficient, without consideration of further constraints. other indices have been developed mat monitor for interchangeability of other flame properties. For example, the Weaver Index
15 compares the heat release, flame lift, flashback, and yellow tipping of a proposed substitute gas, relative to a reference gas, for a combustion application. In addition, fundamental combustion properties, such as flame speed, may also be monitored for use as part of a method to predict combustion stability.
Combustion stability control may thus be achieved by adjusting the chemical
20 composition of the fuel mixture entering the combustor, so that fuel characteristics, like those described above, are controlled. This maybe accomplished by changing the fuel stream composition through the addition of additives to the fuel mixture. Additives can increase or decrease flame speed, flame temperature, or volumetric heat release rate, for example. Additives include, but are not limited to: reactive chemical



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species (e.g. hydrogen, acetylene, or N20); diluents (e,g., nitrogen, C02i steam, or recirculated exhaust gases); or flame-radical scavenging chemical species (e.g., halogen containing species); or any combination thereof.
Premixed Combustion Devices and Burners. Premixed combustion devices
5 usable with the present invention can include, but are not limited to, those used in low-emissions gas turbines, for which operation may suffer in the face of variable natural gas or other feed gas (such as process gas or (such as process gas or syngas) composition. Premixed combustion systems that are tuned for very low pollutant emissions operate in a narrow stability region between flashback and blow-off. Flashback occurs when the
10 flame speed is faster than the flow velocity through the combustor, allowing flame propagation upstream. Blow-off occurs when the flame speed is slower than the flow velocity through the combustor, allowing the flame to be blown downstream and extinguished. Flame speed must generally equal flow velocity for stable combustion. Numerous techniques are used to stabilize the flame so that flame speed does not have
15 to exactly match flow velocity.
These constraints result in a small window of stability; however, too great a mismatch between flame speed and flow velocity can still result in flashback or blow-off. Since flame speed is a function of fuel composition, stability problems can arise due to the variable composition of natural gas or other feed gases (see, e.g., "Influence
20 of Variations in the Natural Gas Properties on the Combustion Process in Terms of Emissions and Pulsations for a Heavy Duty Gas Turbine" by L. Nord and H. Andersen, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Premixed combustors are particularly sensitive to variability of fuel properties, as the





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premixing depends critically on control of the fluid mechanics, and flame stability is dependent on fluid mechanics and chemical kinetics. The loss of flame stability leads to pressure fluctuations and pulsations, and resonant acoustics, which can cause damage to and degradation of hot section components. (These characteristics,
5 however, also may be sensed or otherwise utilized to assist with operation of the combustion device, in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention.)
Example Embodiments
Combustor performance may be measured and/or sensed in numerous ways. For example, combustor performance may be measured and/or sensed directly by
10 determining performance characteristics of the combustion device, or performance
may be measured and/or sensed indirectly by deters hi both of these examples, the addition of additives (e.g., reactive species, reaction inhibiting species, or inert diluents) to the fuel can be used to cause a change in the fuel composition. The direct measurement may be used as the input in a feedback type
15 control loop, while the indirect measurement may be used as the input in a feed-forward type control loop.
Combustion performance may be determined directly by determining performance characteristics of a combustion device. For example, stability can be determined by measuring an indicator of flame position in the combustor, such as
20 flame chemiluminescence, or by sensing flame intermittency by detecting, for example, the acoustic or optical (chemiluminescence) emissions generated by the flame. FIGURE 2 illustrates an example of a system that determines combustion performance directly, according to one embodiment of the invention. As illustrated

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in FIGURE 2, the system comprises: a fuel line 105; a sensing system 110; a controller 115 to access the information from the sensing system 110 (e.g., to control me fuel composition or provide a stability risk assessment, data records, and emissions predictions); an additive system 120 to control the fuel additive(s) using the
5 information provided by the controller 115; and a combustor 125 to burn the fuel.
FIGURE 3 illustrates an example of a method that determines combustion performance directly, according to one embodiment of the invention. In step 205, at least one combustion characteristic is determined using the sensing system. For example, a flame or combustor characteristic such as dynamic pressure oscillations could be measured. These dynamic pressure oscillations
10 could be measured using a pressure transducer that indicates changes in combustor pressure as a function of time. In step 210, the controller analyzes the combustion characteristic(s). Thus, for example, the dynamic pressure oscillations could be analyzed to determine a running average or be compared to prescribed limit values. If the analysis indicates that the
15 combustor performance is deteriorating, some change to fuel composition maybe needed. Instep 215, the output from the controller determines if the fuel composition should be changed to correct a combustion dynamics problem. If no problem is indicated (e.g., fuel composition is within predetermined acceptable range for combustion device operation), in step 220, the data can be archived, and the system
20 can continue to be monitored. If there is a problem (e.g., fuel composition is outside of predetermined acceptable range for combustion device operation), in step 225, use proper change to the fuel composition (e.g., addition of appropriate additive to fuel feed) is determined. The change to the fuel composition can be determined from, for example, prior experience with a particular combustion system, from computation of
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a ability index or fundamental flame property, or by other information JOT method. 3n step 230, a signal is sent to the additive system indicating that a certain! amount of additive should be mixed into the fuel stream, hi step 235, the fuel entering the combustor is modified accordingly (e.g., by causing the opening or adjusting of a
5 valve). Thus, in the example, the fuel entering the combustor is modified by the addition of the additive to have combustion characteristics mat produce a more stable flame. These steps comprise a feedback control loop that may require iteration or other techniques to optimize the additive process.
Combustion performance may also be determined indirectly by measuring fuel
10 characteristics (e.g., chemical composition, density and heating value) and inferring combustion behavior. FIGURE 4 illustrates an example of a system that determines combustion performance indirectly, according to one embodiment of the invention.
As illustrated in FIGURE 4. the system comprises: a fuel line 305; a combustor 325 to burn the fuel; a sensing system 310; a controller 315 to access the
15 information from the sensing system and determine how much fuel additive(s) to add or otherwise select to vary the additive(s) delivered to the fuel; and an additive system 320 to store and control the flow of the additive(s) into the fuel line.
FIGURE 5 illustrates an example of a method that determines combustion performance indirectly, according to one embodiment of the invention. In step 405, the sensing system determines the fuel characteristics. Thus, for example,
20 the sensing system can utilize an FTIR spectrometer to measure the individual chemical species that make up the fuel. In step 410, the controller analyzes the fuel characteristics. Thus, for example, the controller utilizes the fuel composition to compute a regulating quantity, such as the flame speed, and/or Wobbe Index or another stability index, in
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step 415, the output from the controller is analyzed to determine if the fuel composition should be changed to meet this goal (e.g., to fall within a predetermined range). Thus, for example, if the composition of the fuel is changing, such that the regulating quantity indicates a flame stability problem, the composition can be altered
5 before combustion problems arise. If the value of the regulating quantity does not need to be changed, in step 420 the data can be archived, and the regulating quantity can continue to be monitored. If value of the regulating quantity does need to be changed, in step 425, a determination is made mat changes need to be made. The changes to fuel composition required to alter the value of the regulating quantity may
10 require addition of a diluent or reactive species to obtain the necessary alteration of combustion characteristics In step 430, the proper change to the fuel composition is determined. Thus, for example, the adjustment required to the fuel composition to maintain flam stability and /or pollutant emissions is determined. In step 435, a signal is sent to the additive system 320 controlling the amount of either diluent or reactive
15 species to be mixed into the fuel stream to obtain the required composition and hence value of regulating quantity. In step 440, the fuel entering the combustor is modified accordingly thus improving me flame stability characteristics in order to minimize pressure oscillations in the combustor.
Example Applications and Other Uses of Information Generated. As
20 explained above, embodiments of the present invention can be used to stabilize a combustion system (in both premixed and non-premixed combustors), to thereby compensate for effects of time-varying fuel composition and combustion properties. In addition, the measurement of input fuel composition may also be useful. For






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example, emissions predictions (e.g., predicting the emissions level based on the measured chemical composition of the fuel), stability risk assessments (e.g., blow-off or flashback due to a measured chemical composition), and archival records, from which the cause of combustor upsets may be determined, can be utilized. Another
5 application is to use the composition and/or flame speed information to perform a continuous assessment of the risk of loss of combustor stability. Furthermore, fuel composition information can be used to augment calculation of combustion device NOx emissions based on combustion device operating parameters. One embodiment could also be used with a surrogate combustor or burner for the purpose of adjusting
10 the composition of the fuel supply to a number of combustion devices that obtain fuel from the source without the need to monitor the other combustion devices. Another embodiment could be used to control individual combustion devices by customizing the fad sent to each combustion device, Those experienced in the art will realize that the above uses are merely examples, and that multiple other uses are possible.
15 The present invention is described in terms of the above embodiments. This is for convenience only and is not intended to limit the application of the present invention. In fact, after reading the description of the present invention, it will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant arts how to implement the present invention in alternative embodiments.
20 In addition, it should be understood that the Figures described above, which highlight the functionality and advantages of the present invention, are presented for example purposes only. The architecture of the present invention is sufficiently flexible and configurable, such that it may be utilized in ways other than that shown

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in file Figures.
Further, the purpose of the Abstract of the Disclosure is to enable the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and the public generally* and especially the scientists, engineers and practitioners in the art who are not familiar with patent or legal terms
5 or phraseology, to determined quickly from a cursory inspection the nature and essence of the technical disclosure of the application. The Abstract of the Disclosure is not intended to be limiting as to the scope of the present invention in any way.


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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A fuel feed adjustment system for use with a combustion device having a
fuel feed, the system comprising:
a sensor for sensing a combustion related characteristic for the combustion
5 device;
a processor for comparing the sensed combustion related characteristic to an acceptable range and for outputting an output upon the sensed combustion characteristic being outside the acceptable range; and
an additive feed for feeding an additive to the fuel feed, the additive feed being
10 triggered by the processor output
2. The system of Claim 1, wherein the sensed combustion related
characteristic is a sensed fuel characteristic for the fuel feed.
3. The system of Claim 2, wherein the sensor senses the fuel characteristic
using a method selected from a group consisting of infrared absorption spectroscopy,
15 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTTR), Raman spectroscopy, gas
chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, mass spectrometry, and ion mobility spectroscopy.
4. The system of Claim 2, wherein the sensor senses the fuel characteristic
using a device selected from a group consisting of a flame ionization detector (FED),
20 a thermal conductivity measurement device, a heat capacity measurement device, a
sound measurement device; and a density measurement device.
5. The system of Claim 2, wherein the fuel characteristic comprises at least
one selected from a group consisting of fuel composition, a fuel combustion property,
and fuel flow rate.

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6. The system of Claim 2, wherein the sensed fuel characteristic is a sensed
fuel combustion property, Wherein the sensor further senses a fuel flow rate, Wherein
the acceptable range is a predetermined combined range for a fuel combustion
property and a fuel flow rate, and wherein, if the sensed fuel combustion property and
5 sensed fuel flow rate are below the predetermined combined range, the additive includes a combustion enhancer, and wherein if the sensed fuel combustion property and sensed fuel flow rate are above the predetermined combined range, the additive includes a combustion retardant.
7. The system of Claim 1, wherein the additive is selected from a group
10 consisting of a combustion enhancer and a combustion retardant.
8. The system of Claim 7, wherein the fuel enhancer comprises a reactive
chemical species selected from a group insisting of hydrogen, acetylene, oxygen,
oxygen enhanced air, and nitrous oxide.
9. The system of Claim 7, wherein the fuel retardant is an inert diluent
15 selected from a group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen depleted air, carbon dioxide,
recirculated exhaust gas, water, and steam.
10. The system of Claim 1, wherein the sensor senses indices of fuel
performance.
11. The system of Claim 10,wherein the indicates of fuel performance comprise
20 one selected from a group consisting of a Wobbe Index and a Weaver index.
12. The system of Claim 1, wherein the combustion related characteristic is a combustion characteristic for the combustion device.
13. The system of Claim 12, wherein the combustion characteristic for the combustion device comprises a flame characteristic.



23.

WO 2005/071316 PCT/tJS2005/000886
14. The system of Claim 13, wherein the flame characteristic is selected from
a group consisting of flame flicker, flame color, flame products composition, flame
location, and flame oscillation.
15. The system of Claim 13, wherein the sensor is selected from a group
5 consisting of a chemiluminescence detector, a flame scanner, an accelerometer, a flame imager, a pressure transducer, a sound sensor, a motion sensor, and a flame detector.
16. The system of Claim 13, wherein the sensor determines one selected from
a group consisting of combustion stability and combustion performance.
10 17. The system of Claim 16, wherein combustion stability is determined by measuring one selected from a group consisting of chamber pressure and chamber pressure fluctuation.
18. The system of Claim 16, wherein combusting performance is determined
by measuring one selected from a group consisting of flame temperature, exhaust
15 temperature, and emissions content
19. The system of Claim 1, wherein the sensor comprises one selected from a group consisting of a pressure transducer, a sound sensor, a vibration sensor, and a motion sensor.
20. The system of Claim 1, wherein the combustion device is a turbine.
20 21. The system of Claim 1, wherein the combustion device is a reciprocating engine.
22. The system of Claim 1, wherein the fuel feed is a natural gas feed.
23. The system of Claim 1, wherein the additive feed is provided from an additive feed source.

WO 2005/071316 PCT/US20Q5/000886
24. The system Claim 22, w^ control mechanism.
25. The system of Claim 23, wherein the feed control mechanism comprises a metering valve.
5 26. The system of Claim 1, wherein the processing device comprises one selected from a group consisting of an analog controller and a digital computer.
27. The system of Claim 1, wherein the sensed combustion related characteristic is used to control feeding of a second additive feed to the fuel feed for a second combustion device.
10 28. The system of Claim 1, wherein the fuel feed with the fed additive is connected to a second combustion device.
29. A fuel feed adjustment system for use with a combustion device having a fuel feed, the system comprising:
a sensor for sensing fuel composition and a fuel feed rate;
15 a processing device for comparing the sensed fuel composition and fuel feed rate to an acceptable range for fuel composition and fuel rate, and for outputting an output upon the sensed fuel composition and fuel rate being outside the acceptable range; and
an additive feed for feeding a selected additive to the fuel feed, the selected
20 additive feed being triggered by the processing device output, wherein the selected additive is selected from a group consisting of a combustion enhancer and a combustion retardant, and wherein the additive feed has an additive feed rate, the additive feed rate being selected so as to produce a combined fuel and additive producing a combustion characteristic within a preselected range.

WO 2005/071316 PCT/US2005/000886
30. A feel feed adjustment system for use with a combustion device having
a fuel feed, the system comprising
a sensor for sensing a combustion characteristic for the combustion device;
a processor for comparing the sensed combustion characteristic for the
5 combustion device to an acceptable range and for producing a first output upon the sensed combustion characteristic being outside the acceptable range and a second output upon the sensed combustion characteristic being within the acceptable range; and
an additive feed for feeding an additive to the feel feed, the additive feed being
10 triggered by the first output, and termination of the additive feed being triggered by the second output.
31. A method for adjusting feel feed for a combustion device, the method
comprising:
sensing a combustion Mated characteristic for {foe combustion device-
15 comparing the sensed combustion related characteristic an acceptable range
to
produce a comparison result; and variably feeding an additive to the feel feed depending on the comparison result
32. A fuel feed adjustment system for use with a combustion device and a method for adjusting fuel feed for a combustion device substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Dated this the 3l8tday of July, 2006.
S.AFSAR
OF K & S PARTNERS
AGENT OF THE APPLICANTS

ABSTRACT
" SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FLAME STABILIZATION AND CONTROL"
A system and method for providing continuous measurement and control of a combustion device by altering the fuel composition delivered thereto. The system includes devices for sensing related information, such as fuel characteristics, combustion characteristics, or other device characteristics, and controlling the performance of the combustion device based on the sensed information. Performance control occurs via addition of one or more additives to the fuel to adjust combustion characteristics. Via such sensing and performance control, consistent combustion device performance may be maintained, despite varying fuel characteristics. In one variation, sensing occurs for the fuel delivered to the combustion device, and one or more additives are added to the fuel, based on the composition and flow rate for the fuel. In another variation, characteristics of the combustion device in operation, such as flame characteristics, are sensed and used to adjust fuel characteristics via iterative addition of one or more additives.

Documents:

916-MUMNP-2006-ABSTRACT(27-12-2010).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-abstract.doc

916-mumnp-2006-abstract.pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-CLAIMS(AMENDED)-(27-12-2010).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-CLAIMS(AMENDED)-(5-10-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-CLAIMS(MARKED COPY)-(5-10-2011).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-claims.doc

916-mumnp-2006-claims.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-correspondance-received.pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-CORRESPONDENCE(17-10-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-CORRESPONDENCE(19-5-2011).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-correspondence(20-12-2007).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-correspondence(ipo)-(30-12-2009).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-description (complete).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-DRAWING(27-12-2010).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-drawings.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form 13(5-10-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-FORM 1(27-12-2010).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form 13(21-9-206).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form 18(20-12-2007).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-FORM 2(TITLE PAGE)-(27-12-2010).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form 26(2-11-2006).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-FORM 26(5-10-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-FORM 3(17-10-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-FORM 3(19-5-2011).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form 3(19-9-2006).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-FORM 3(27-12-2010).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form 3(4-1-2007).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-1.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-2.doc

916-mumnp-2006-form-2.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-3.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-5.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-pct-ib-304.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-pct-isa-220.pdf

916-mumnp-2006-form-pct-isa-237.pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-OTHER DOCUMENT(19-5-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-OTHER DOCUMENT(27-12-2010).pdf

916-mumnp-2006-pct-search report.pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-PETITION UNDER RULE 137(27-12-2010).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT(27-12-2010).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT(5-10-2011).pdf

916-MUMNP-2006-SPECIFICATION(AMENDED)-(27-12-2010).pdf

abstract1.jpg


Patent Number 249444
Indian Patent Application Number 916/MUMNP/2006
PG Journal Number 43/2011
Publication Date 28-Oct-2011
Grant Date 20-Oct-2011
Date of Filing 01-Aug-2006
Name of Patentee COMBUSTION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, INC.
Applicant Address 8940 OLD ANNAPOLIS ROAD,SUITE L, COLUMBIA,MD 21045
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 JOKLIK RICHARD G. 7074 BEMBE BEACH ROAD, ANNAPOLIS, MD 21403
2 ROBY RICHARD JOSEPH 8112 SEA LIGHT LANE, COLOMBIA, MD 21045
3 KLASSEN MICHAEL STEPHEN 5261 PINE BARK COURT, COLOMBIA,MD 21045
4 BATTAGLIOLI JOHN LUIGI 4 KNOLLWOOD DRIVE, GLENVILLE, NY 12302.
5 VASHISHAT DIWAKAR 5448 Tilted stone, Colombia,MD 21045
6 HAMER ANDREW JOHN 6408 GRATEFUL HEART GATE, COLOMBIA,MD 21044
PCT International Classification Number F23J7/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/US2005/000886
PCT International Filing date 2005-01-12
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/535,716 2004-01-12 U.S.A.
2 60/634,286 2004-12-09 U.S.A.