Title of Invention

PROCESS TO PREPARE ALKYL PHENYL PHOSPHATES

Abstract The present invention relates to a process wherein dichloromonophenyl phosphate and monochlorodiphenyl phosphate is reacted with an aliphatic alcohol, in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst, in the absence of solvent, at a temperature of above 60 to 200° C, and at a pressure of 0.001 to 1.1 bara, provided that the reaction mixture is sparged with an inert carrier gas if the pressure is above 0.67 bars. The present invention further relates to mixtures of monoalkyl Biphenyl phosphates and dialkyl monophenyl phosphates obtainable from this process and the use of such mixtures as a plasticiser and/or a flame retardant.
Full Text

PROCESS TO PREPARE ALKYL PHENYL PHOSPHATES
The present invention relates to a process to prepare alkyl phenyl phosphates from a mixture comprising monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl mono-chlorophosphate.
A process to prepare alkyl phenyl phosphates is described in US 2,504,121. Monalkyl diaryl phosphate esters are prepared by reaction of an alkylchloro-phosphate and a phenolate compound. The alkylchlorophosphate Is formed in a preceding step by reaction of phosphorus oxychloride and an alcohol. The phenolate compound is formed by reaction of phenol compound and a base. US 2,504,121 teach that the reaction of a phenyl chlorophosphate compound with an aliphatic alcohol is objectionable, as the reaction is difficult to control and excessive quantities of triaryi phosphates are formed.
A process to prepare alkyl phenyl phosphates is also known from US 6,299,887. In this publication an alkyl phenyl phosphate, more specifically (2-heptylundecyl)diphenyl phosphate, is synthesised by reaction of diphenyl phosphoryl chloride with 2-heptylundecyI alcohol in the presence of a triethyl-amine catalyst and an acid amine scavenger. Similarly, US 6,136,997 relates to undesired processes starting from diphenyl phosphoryl chloride. It is not disclosed or suggested to start with a mixture of monoalkyl phenyl phosphate and dialkyl monophenyl phosphate.
The present invention aims to provide an alternative and simplified process for the preparation of mixtures of monoalkyl diaryl phosphate esters and dialkyl monoaryl phosphate esters wherein no HCI scavengers need to be used, while at the same time it results in a very pure product and a low level of triphenyl phosphate. Further, the process according to the invention is improved in that it can be carried out in the absence of solvent, and strong bases which is advantageous. Moreover, the invention aims to provide a process wherein only a slight molar excess or no excess at all (compared to stoichiometric) of alcohol

is required to substitute the chloro groups of the monophenyl dichlorophosphate and/or diphenyl monochlorophosphate compounds, while at the same time a good overall yield of alkyl phenyl phosphate is acquired. Also, it is a goal to make the HCL which is formed in the reaction available in a form which allows further use without extensive purification steps. Further, the invention aims to provide an economical process that gives a low amount of chlorinated by-products and a low acid value. Because of the low amount of by-products, less waste is formed, with the associated environmental benefits.
It was surprisingly found that most, if not all, of these goals can be reached by selecting the proper process conditions. Accordingly, the present invention relates to specific processes wherein a dichloromonophenyl phosphate and monochlorodiphenyl phosphate is reacted with an aliphatic alcohol, in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst, in the absence of solvent at a temperature of above 60 to 200° C, and a pressure of 0.001 to 1.1 bara (absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure being 1 bara), provided that the reaction mixture is sparged with an inert carrier gas, such as nitrogen gas, if the pressure is above 0.67 bara.
Further, the process Is performed at low H2O levels, preferably free of water, such that any HCL generated is efficiently (> 90 %, preferably > 95%, most preferably > 99%) removed as HCL gas by means of the vacuum and/or the sparging gas, with high yields at low catalyst concentrations. In a more preferred embodiment, the present process to prepare alkyl phenyl phosphates is running at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, preferably a pressure of at least 0.001 bara, preferably at least 0.25 bara, more preferably at least 0.3 bara and most preferably at least 0.35 bara and at most 0.99 bara, preferably at most 0.98 bara, more preferably at most 0.95 bar, and most preferably at most 0.9 bara, because it is economically more attractive. At all these pressures, the use of a sparging gas can be beneficial. At pressures above 0.67 bara it is necessary to use a carrier gas to efficiently remove the HCL that is formed. if the reaction mixture is sparged with a carrier, it is preferably done with a sparge

flow of 0.1 to 100 m3/h, preferably of 0.2 to 75 m3/h, more preferably of 0.4 to 50 m3/h per m3 of reaction volume. Any dry and inert (to the reaction mixture) gas can be used such as air, nitrogen, argon, helium, and the like, or mixtures thereof. The dew point of the sparging gas is preferably below 0° C, more preferably below -20° C and most preferably below -70° C.
In another preferred embodiment, a pressure of at least 0.001, preferably at least 0.002, more preferably at least 0.003 bara and at most 0.065, more preferably below 0.06, and most preferably below 0.05 bara is applied in the process. At such low pressures the use of a sparging/carrier gas is not require to achieve the desired process performance.
It is noted that EP-A-0 775 147 describes a process to prepare a mixture of a monoalkyl diphenyl phosphate and a diaJkyl monophenyl phosphate. More specifically, the synthesis of a mixture of isododecyl diphenyl phosphate and diisododecyl monophenyl phosphate by transesterification of triphenyl phosphate with isqdodecyl alcohol and the synthesis of a mixture of 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate and di-2-ethyIhexyl monophenyl phosphate by transesterification of triphenyl phosphate with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol are described. However, this process results in a mixture having a high residual amount of triphenyl phosphate, which for various reasons (e.g. from a product performance or ecological point of view) is disadvantageous. Further, this process is hard to control and not economical. Moreover, in this process (contaminated) phenol is formed as a by-product, which is disadvantageous.
Further, it should be noted that in US 6,242,631 a mixture of monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl monochlorophosphate is used as a starting mixture to prepare a mixture of substituted phenyl-phenyl phosphates. For example, a mixture of monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl monochlorophosphate reacts with phenyl alcohol in the presence of magnesium chloride and in the absence of solvent at a temperature of 145° C and atmospheric pressure. It is also noted that in US 5,457,221 a mixture of

monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl monochlorophosphate is used as a starting mixture to prepare polyhydrocarbylene aryl phosphate compositions. For example, a mixture of monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl monochlorophosphate reacts with an aromatic diol in the presence of magnesium chloride and in the absence of solvent at a temperature of 150° C and atmospheric pressure. However, these two patents do not read on the type of phosphate derivatives of the present invention and the benefits that the products of the invention have over the products mentioned therein, and the patents do not disclose or suggest to react a mixture of monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl monochlorophosphate with a non-phenolic alcohol.
It is noted that also US 4,034,023 discloses a process to make a mixture of alkyl phenyl phosphates. However, in this process the HCL is being complexed to the alcohol which is undesired. Also, the resulting mixture has a too low content of alkyl diphenyl phosphate, making the mixture unsuitable for many applications.
In this description "in the absence of solvent" or "solvent-free" means that less than 5 wt% solvent is used, preferably less than 3 wt%, more preferably less than 2 wt%, even more preferably less than 1 wt%, based on the weight of the total reaction mixture.
It is further noted that in this description the term bar is used for the absolute pressure in bar (bara).
By the term phenyl phosphate is meant a phosphate esterified with a phenyl group and/or a substituted phenyl group such as a phenyl group substituted with a C1-C6 alkyl group and/or a C1-C6 alkoxy group. Preferably, the phenyl group is an unsubstituted phenyl group.
The present invention further relates to a two-step process wherein in a first step a mixture of monophenyl dichlorophosphate and diphenyl monochloro-

phosphate is prepared. In this first step phosphorus oxychloride is reacted with phenol and the pressure being atmospheric pressure or higher, and the temperature preferably being between 60 and 200° C. More preferably, the pressure is between 1 and 1.5 bar and the temperature between 95 and 160° C. This first reaction step can be carried out in the desired way without the addition of any catalyst at all. In some cases, however, it may be advantageous to carry the reaction out in the presence of a suited catalyst, such as e.g. a Lewis acid catalyst.
In the second step the dichloromonophenyl phosphate and monochlorodiphenyl phosphate mixture of the first step is reacted with an aliphatic alcohol in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst and in the absence of solvent at a temperature of above 60 to 200° C and a pressure of 0.001 to 1.1 bara (absolute pressure, atmospheric pressure being 1 bara), provided that the reaction mixture is sparged with an inert carrier gas, such as nitrogen gas, if the pressure is above 0.67 bara.
In an especially preferred embodiment of the two-step process, (ail) Lewis acid catalyst is added in the first step of the process and in the second step of the process no additional Lewis acid catalyst (or any other additional type of catalyst) is added. In another embodiment of the invention at least part of the monophenyl dichlorophosphate is removed from the reaction mixture from the first reaction step by a distillation or rectification step.
The mass ratio of phosphorus oxychloride to phenol in the first step preferably is 1 to 2, more preferably 1 to 1.5, even more preferably 1.05 to 1.4, most preferably 1.1 to 1.3.
In a preferred embodiment of the two-step process, monophenyl dichlorophosphate resulting from the first step is (partly) recycled in the process and again reacted (in the first step) with phenol, such that the ratio of diphenyl monochlorophosphate to monophenyl dichlorophosphate in the mixture, that subsequently reacts in step 2 with the aliphatic alcohol, increases. In this way

the ratio of diphenyl monoalkyl phosphate to monophenyl dialkyl phosphate and the content of triphenyl phosphate in the resulting mixture can be tailored to the actual requirements.
In another preferred embodiment, the two-step process, optionally including the recycling of monophenyl dichlorophosphate, is performed continuously.
In a further preferred embodiment, an additional distillation or rectification step is performed with this reaction mixture of monophenyl dichlorophosphate, diphenyi monochlorophosphate and (if present) triphenylphosphate to further reduce the content of monophenyl dichlorophosphate as desired in the resulting mixture.
The Lewis acid that can be used in the processes according to the invention includes any Lewis acid capable of promoting the reaction as known to the person skilled in the art and includes the halides of Group II and Group III metals. As examples may serve AICIa, TiCI4, ZnCI2, CaCL2, MgCI2 (or their respective bromides or iodides), and MgO. Preferred Lewis acids are aluminium chloride (AICI3) and magnesium chloride (MgCI2). Most preferred is the Lewis acid magnesium chloride. The amount of Lewis acid that is used is generally above 10 ppm, based on the total amount of phenyl chlorophosphate starting materials, preferably the amount of Lewis acid catalyst is above 100 ppm, more preferably above 150 ppm, even more preferably above 200 ppm, most preferably above 800 ppm. The amount of Lewis acid generally is below 3,000 ppm, based on the total amount of phenyl chlorophosphate starting materials, preferably the amount of Lewis acid catalyst is below 2,000 ppm, more preferably below 1,750 ppm, even more preferably below 1,500 ppm, most preferably below 1,000 ppm. In the embodiment relating to a two-step process wherein the Lewis acid is added completely at the first step, the amount of Lewis acid is in the same ranges as given above, based on phenyl chlorophosphate products resulting from the first step.

The aliphatic alcohol used in the processes of the invention can be any alcohol known to the person skilled in the art wherein a hydroxy) group is linked to a Cr C16 hydrocarbon group. Preferably the hydrocarbon is an alkyl group. The hydrocarbon group can be branched or linear, cyclic or non-cyclic, can be a completely saturated or partly unsaturated hydrocarbon group, and can comprise substituents such as aryl groups and substituents that contain heteroatoms such as halogens; oxygen, sulphur, and nitrogen, which substituents may themselves be substituted with further substituents. More preferred aliphatic alcohols for use in the processes of the invention include saturated C1-C16, more preferably C1-C12. alcohols. Examples of most preferred aliphatic alcohols are n-butanol, i-butanoi, 2-ethyIhexanol, n-octanol, i-ctanol, n-decanol, i-decanol, n-dodecanol, i-dodecanol, and cyclohexanol.
The molar ratio between the hydroxyl groups in the aliphatic alcohol and the chloro groups in the monochlorodiphenyl phosphate and/or dichloromonophenyl phosphate in any of the processes of the invention preferably is 1:1 to 1.5:1, more preferably 1:1 to 1.3:1, even more preferably 1:1 to 1.2:1, and most preferably 1:1 to 1.1:1. It is to be noted that at the reaction temperature of aliphatic alcohol and phenyl chlorophosphates the alcohol is typically refluxing. In order to prevent the formation of by-products in the process, it is preferred to dose the aliphatic alcohol into the reaction mixture with a low HCL level. When operated under such conditions, there will be hardly any reaction/scavenging of HCL by the alcohol. This has the added benefit that all HCL that is formed can be easily retrieved from the process and may even be sold.
The processes according to the invention may optionally comprise an additional purification step. Such purification step may include washing the product, vacuum distillation or wiped film evaporation. Preferably, the product is purified by washing. More preferably, washing is done in a number of steps using water and/or aqueous solutions with up to 10 wt% of a base or acid, even more preferably 0.2 to 5 wt%, most preferably 0.5 to 2 wt% of a base or acid. The base or acid can be any base or acid known by the person skilled in the art to

be soluble in water and suitable for washing a product. Suitable acids include HCL, H2S04, H3PO4, CH3COOH, HOOCCOOH. Particular preference is given to HOOCCOOH, in particular in a concentration range from 0.5 to 10% in water. Suitable bases for the alkaline wash include conventional basic salts such as NaOH, Na2CO3, NaHC03, sodium acetate, and corresponding potassium salts. Among these the sodium salts are more preferred, in particular NaOH in a concentration range from 0.5 to 10% in water.
The processes according to the invention may be a continuous, semi-continuous or batch process. Preferably it is not a batch process. Most preferably it is a continuous process.
A separate embodiment of the present invention relates to the alkyl phenyl phosphates and alkyl phenyl phosphate mixtures obtainable by the processes according to the current invention. These alkyl phenyl phosphates and alkyl phenyl phosphate mixtures have good characteristics as plasticisers and are further suitable for use as flame retardants and lubricants.
The alkyl phenyl phosphate products formed from any of the processes according to the invention were found to have good characteristics as plasticizers, lubricants and/or flame retardants, particularly as plasticizers, and/or flame retardants. More preferably they are used as a plasticizer, most preferably as a plasticizer for PVC. Accordingly the invention further relates to alkyl phenyl phosphate mixtures obtainable by processes according to the invention and the use thereof, preferably as a plasticizer. It is noted that substitutes-phenyl phenyl phosphates and the reaction products of aromatic alcohol-derived phenyl phosphates are not suitable for this purpose.
In a preferred process a mixture containing a larger amount of diphenyl monoalkyl phosphate and a smaller amount of monophenyl dialkyl phosphate is produced. More specifically, a preferred mixture contains 25 to 99.9 weight%, preferably 35 to 99 weight%, more preferably 40 to 98 weight%, even more

preferably 45 to 95 weight% dipheny! monoalkyl phosphate, based on the total amount of phenyl alkyl phosphates. The alkyl phenyl phosphate mixtures in general have a desired ratio of diphenyl monoalkyl phosphate to monophenyl dialkyl phosphate of 1:1 to 100:1, preferably 2:1 to 90:1, more preferably 5:1 to 80:1, even more preferably 10:1 to 70:1, most preferably 15:1 to 50:1.Preferably, the mixture contains less than 10 wt% of triphenyl phosphate is present, based on the total amount of phenyl phosphate compounds, more preferably less than 5 wt%, even more preferably less than 4 wt%, most preferably less than 3 wt%. Accordingly, the processes according to the invention are preferably those wherein such mixtures are produced.
The present invention is further illustrated by the following Examples
Examples
Laboratory scale experiments were done in a 2-litre jacketed glass reactor equipped with a 4-blade propeller agitator, a condenser, and a sub-surface liquid addition capability. A Vacuubrand diaphragm vacuum pump was used to control the vacuum in the reactor. A caustic scrubber was used to scrub hydrogen chloride formed in the reaction.
Scale-up experiments were done in 400- and 7,500-litre glass-lined jacketed reactors equipped with an agitator, a condenser, and a sub-surface liquid addition capability. Effluent gas from the reactor was scrubbed with water. Vacuum in the reactors was controlled by using either a liquid-ring vacuum pump or steam jet ejectors.
Purification of the crude reaction mixture was done using sequential washing in the same reactor vessel. Aqueous solutions were added to the product at 60°C and agitated for about 30 minutes. The mixture was then allowed to phase separate for about 30 min. After the final washing step, the product was dehydrated under vacuum to remove water carried over from the washing

process. The dehydrated product was filtered using standard filtration equipment. In commercial application steam and/or N2 sparging could be used to further purify the dehydrated product and/or fractional distillation stripping could be used to further reduce the residual alcohol and chloride contents.
The reaction feeds, crude reaction product, and finished product were analysed for their composition by gas chromatography using a FID detector- In addition, wet analysis and potentiometric titration were used to measure acid phosphate composition, dissolved HCL, and acid numbers in the crude reaction product and finished product samples.
Examples 1 to 6
To the phosphochloridate mixture (6.4 wt% phenyl dichloridophosphate (MPCP), 89.7 wt% diphenyl chloridophosphate (DPCP), 3.9% triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and about 0.1wt% MgCI2) 2-ethylhexanoI was added via sub surface addition at reaction conditions. Table 1 summarises the reaction conditions and the crude product compositions for both the laboratory scale and pilot scale experiments. Acceptable product quality is achieved under all reaction conditions summarised in Table 1. Efficient HCL removal is required for minimising the by-product formation. In these examples vacuum is the key method for HCL removal.






Examples 9 through 12
To the phosphochloridate mixture (6.3 wt% phenyl dichloridophosphate (MPCP), 91-2 wt% diphenyl chloridophosphate (DPCP), 2.3% triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and 0.1 wt% MgCL2) isodecyl alcohol (EXXAL-10) was added via sub-surface addition at reaction conditions. The isodecyl alcohol used in these examples is comprised of mixed isomers. Table 3 summarises the reaction conditions and the crude product compositions for both the laboratory scale and pilot scale experiments. Acceptable product quality is achieved under all reaction conditions summarised in Table 3. Efficient HCL removal is required for minimising the by-product formation. In these examples vacuum is the key method for HCL removal.
Examples 13 and 14
In these examples the reaction between the phosphochloridate mixture and isodecyl alcohol was conducted in a batch fashion instead of the semi-batch operation. To the phosphochloridate mixture (401 gms) with the composition summarised in Examples 9 through 11 isodecylalcohol (253 gms) was added at room temperature. The mixture was brought to 100°C and 100 mm Hg. The reaction was carried out for 4 hours and the crude was analysed. The crude composition is summarised in Table 4.
Examples 15 and 16
The crude product obtained from Example 10 and Example 12 was further
purified by washing using the following sequence:
- 1 % oxalic acid solution wash.
- 1% NaOH solution wash.
- Water wash.
- Water wash.
The composition of the purified product is summarised in Table 4.








CLAIMS
1. A process wherein a dichloromonophenyl phosphate and monochiorodi-phenyl phosphate is reacted with an aliphatic alcohol, in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst, in the absence of solvent, at a temperature of above 60 to 200° C, and at a pressure of 0.001 to 1.1 bar absolute pressure (bara), provided that the reaction mixture is sparged with an inert carrier gas if the pressure is above 0.67 bara.
2. The process according to claim 1 wherein the catalyst is magnesium chloride.
3. The process according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the removal of the by-product HCI is enhanced by sparging with a dry inert carrier gas.
4. The process according to any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein the Lewis acid catalyst is used in an amount of 100 to 1,750 ppm, based on the total amount of phenyl chlorophosphate starting materials.
5. A two-step process to prepare a mixture of monoalkyl diphenyl phosphates and dialkyl monophenyl phosphates wherein in a first step phosphorus oxychloride is reacted with phenol and in a second step in accordance with the process according to any one of claims 1 to 4 the mixture of diphenyl monochlorophosphates and monophenyl dichlorophosphates resulting from the first step is reacted with an aliphatic alcohol.
6. The two-step process according to claim 5 wherein the Lewis acid catalyst is completely added in the first step of the process and in the second step of the process no additional Lewis acid catalyst is added.

7. The two-step process according to claim 5 or 6 wherein at least part of the
monophenyl dichlorophosphate from the first step is recycled, so that the
aikyl diphenyl phosphate to dialkyl phenyl phosphate ratio of the product
mixture of the second step is greater than the diphenyl chlorophosphate to
monophenyl dichlorophosphate ratio resulting from the first reaction step
without a recycle stream.
8. The two-step process according to any one of claims 5-7 wherein at least
part of the monophenyl dichlorophosphate is removed from the reaction
mixture from the first reaction step by a distillation or rectification step.
9. The process according to any one of claims 1-8 comprising an additional
purification step.
10. The process according to any one of claims 1-9 that is a continuous, semi-
continuous or batch process.
11. A mixture comprising monoalkyl diphenyl phosphates and dialkyl mono
phenyl phosphates obtainable from the process according to any one of
preceding claims, containing at least 20% by weight of alkyl diphenyl
phosphate, based on the weight of all alkyl phenyl phosphates in the
mixture.
12. A mixture comprising mono-2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate and di-2-ethyl
hexyl phenyl phosphates, of i-decyidiphenyl phosphate and di-i-decyl phenyl
phosphates or of i-dodecyl diphenyl phosphates and di-i-dodecyl phenyl
phosphate.
13. Use of the mixture of claim 11 or 12 as a plasticizer, lubricant, and/or flame
retardant.


Documents:

1817-CHENP-2006 AMENDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION 14-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 AMENDED CLAIMS 14-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 21-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 FORM-3 14-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 FORM-3 21-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 POWER OF ATTORNEY 14-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 10-11-2010.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 20-03-2012.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 CORRESPONDENCE PO.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECEIVED 14-09-2011.pdf

1817-CHENP-2006 FORM-18.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-abstract.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-claims.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-correspondnece-others.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-description(complete).pdf

1817-chenp-2006-form 1.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-form 26.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-form 3.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-form 5.pdf

1817-chenp-2006-pct.pdf


Patent Number 249289
Indian Patent Application Number 1817/CHENP/2006
PG Journal Number 42/2011
Publication Date 21-Oct-2011
Grant Date 14-Nov-2011
Date of Filing 24-May-2006
Name of Patentee AKZO NOBEL N.V.
Applicant Address Velperweg 76, NL-6824 BM Arnhem
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 DE KLEINE, Lambertus, A. Harzstraat 10, NL-7559 LM Hengelo
2 SEIFERT, Juergen, Klaus An den Lauchstuecken 20, 06849 Dessau
PCT International Classification Number c07f9/09
PCT International Application Number PCT/EP2004/052615
PCT International Filing date 2004-10-21
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 03078364.1 2003-10-24 EUROPEAN UNION