|Title of Invention||
CLAY-BASED CATALYSTS FOR TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON
|Abstract||A catalyst composition in granular form comprising an intimate mixture of smectite clay in the range of 75 – 95% of the total composition and at least one additive selected from attampulgite and amorphous metakaolin in the range of 25 – 5% of the total composition, said composition having a particle size of 0.25 mm to 2 mm, a total acidity greater than 22 mg KOH/g and a surface area of 300 – 350 m²/g.|
|Full Text||FORM - 2 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
THE PATENTS RULES, 2003
(See section 10 and rule 13)
CLAY-BASED CATALYSTS FOR TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON
SHAH CHETAN NAVNITHLAL
an Indian National
of Wyoming Co-op Hsg. Society, IV Floor, Flat No.4,
12 A, Little Gibbs Road, Malabar Hill, Mumbai 400 006,
THE FOLLOWING SPECIFICATION DESCRIBES THE INVENTION.
Field of the invention
The present invention relates to highly efficient catalyst composition suitable for use in hydrocarbon treatment. In particular, the present invention relates to an improved catalyst composition comprising modified bentonite clay suitable for use in processing of cracking products of crude oil.
Description of the Prior Art
Naturally occurring clays such as bentonite, smectite, kieselghur and the like are widely used as adsorbents in several industrial processes during purification and decolorization, stabilization of vegetable oils or catalytic reactions including alkylation, polymerization, isomerization and the like. Clay-based catalysts have also been used in refining of petroleum and other crude oil products.
Often, the reactive properties of naturally occurring clays can be altered or enhanced by acid treatment/ activation or through organic modification. Such treatments or modifications are accompanied by change in key physical properties such as surface area, pore volume, and surface acidity.
Typically, the organic modification of clay involves substitution of exchangeable cation in the interlayer structure of the clay. The nature and
technique used in the modification of clay largely depends on the desired properties.
Several types of clay-based, catalysts have been reported in the prior art for treatment of hydrocarbons. US Patent No. 5,330,946 discloses catalytic material comprising Ca-bentonite for treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons. The clay composition consists of a major amount of Ca-bentonite and relatively minor amount of sodium bentonite (non-acid activated). US Patent No. 5,908,500 is directed towards a clay-based.bleaching material suitable for use as an adsorbent in bleaching of soybean and corn oil. The clay-based materials described in the '500 patent is Attapulgite (palygorskite)-smectite mixture treated with the ethanolic sulfuric acid. Japanese Patent No. 1,099,645 discloses clay-based material for treatment of edible oil, which is preferably composed of Bentonite (3-15%), Attapulgite (40-60%), Perlite (3-20%) and activated alumina (35-70%). Another Japanese Patent No. 1,151,937 is directed towards a clay j composition with superior adsorption characteristics and comprising Bentonite (1-5%), Attapulgite (15-55%),
Kieselghur (15-55%) and active alumina (15-55%). However, the catalysts
i described in the prior art have limitations in terms of catalytic activity or
catalyst life when used in treatment of hydrocarbons. The present invention
discloses a novel clay-based catalyst composition suitable for use in the
treatment of hydrocarbons that have!superior catalytic activity, higher life
times and cheaper.
Objects of the invention
It is an object of the present invention to provide an efficient catalyst composition suitable for use in hydrocarbon treatment.
It is another object invention to provide an improved catalyst composition based on modified bentonite clay suitable for use in processing of cracking products of crude oil.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide an economic and reusable catalyst composition for processing of cracking products of crude oil.
Description of the invention
Accordingly, the present invention provides a novel catalyst composition comprising of modified Bentonite clay suitable for use in processing of cracking products of crude oil and a method for preparation thereof.
The novel clay-based catalyst composition -according to this invention comprises Bentonite clay and at least one additive selected from a group consisting of Attapulgite and /or Kaolin (also known as china clay). The additives may also be treated if desired.
The Attapulgite or kaolin is activated or acid treated before using as additive in the catalyst composition.
In one embodiment according to the present invention, the novel clay-based catalyst composition comprises a relatively major amount of Bentonite clay and relatively minor amount of at least one additive selected from the group i comprising Attapulgite and/or Kaolin. It is preferred that the additive is present in the range of about 3-25% based on total mass of the catalyst.
According to another aspect of the invention, the Bentonite clay used in the preparation of the novel catalyst of the present invention is Ca-Montmorillonite clay having following characteristics and specifications: Si02: 46 to 54 %; A1203: 10 to 18 %; Fe203: 6.0 to 16 %; Ti02: 1.0 to 3.5 %;. CaO: 1.2 to 3.0 %; MgO: 1.5 to 3.0 %; P205: 0.01 to 0.2 %; Na20: 1.0 to 2.5 %; K20: 0.1 to 0.5 %; S03: 0.1 to 0.3 %; LOI 9.5 to 13.5 %. The bentonite clay has 30 to 45 meq (milliequivalents) Na7 lOOgms, 15 to 45 meq Mg"^/ lOOgm and 75 to 120 meq/100 gm of clay.
The novel composition of the present invention is prepared starting with Bentonite clay of desired "specification. At first, the Bentonite clay is treated with acid using suitable technique. T,b this activated or acid treated clay, a desired amount of additive or additives are added and the uniform mixing is
achieved by techniques such as slurring or dry mixing. The additive clay i.e. Attapulgite and/or Kaolin may be activated or acid treated before adding to the Bentonite. The catalyst composition thus obtained may be further treated, if desired, such as by granulation. Alternately, all the clays i.e. Bentonite, Attapulgite and Kaolin are premixed in a desired ratio and then co-activated or co-treated with acid and granulated subsequently.
The novel catalyst composition of the present invention can be used for several industrially important reactions and in particular for treatment of hydrocarbons obtained during cracking of crude oil. The cracking of crude oil gives several petroleum fractions containing products such as liquid, petroleum gas (LPG), petrol, diesel, kerosene, naphtha stream, butadiene etc. The naphtha (petroleum) stream is further treated with cracker catalysts to get high boiler aromatic hydrocarbon products such as benzene, toluene and
xylene etc. The novel catalyst composition according to this invention can be effectively used in the treatment of this high boiler aromatic hydrocarbon stream (containing benzene, toluene and xylene) to remove any olefins contaminants so that the stream can be further subjected to xylene isomerization.
In a typical procedure, the novel catalyst composition is placed in a fixed bed reactor and the reactor is heated to about 155-195°C. The heating can be accomplished by any known methods including but not limited to electric heaters or oil heaters. The pressure in the reactor is maintained at about 9-15 bar to keep the contents in a liquid state, which helps in removal of reaction products from the clay surface. If the products are not removed from the clay surface continually, the catalyst activity may drop due to masking of active sites. The aromatic hydrocarbon stream containing about 15-35% C9 hydrocarbons is passed through the clay bed. The Liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) is maintained at 10 hr"1 and varied in the range of about 5-50 hr"1. Samples are taken after fixed time interval and analyzed by Gas chromatography for toluene content.
The novel catalyst compositions of the present invention have excellent catalytic activity for the treatment of hydrocarbons. Further, addition of Attapulgite and Kaolin also increases the catalyst life substantially.
While considerable emphasis has been placed herein on the specific5 composition of the preferred embodiment, it will be appreciated that many alterations can be made and that many modifications can be made in the preferred embodiment without departing from the principles, of the
invention. These and other changes in the preferred embodiment as well as other embodiments of-the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the disclosure herein, whereby it is to be distinctly understood that the foregoing descriptive matter is to be interpreted merely as illustrative of the invention and not as a limitation.
Dated this 13th day of November 2006
of R.K.Dewan & Co.
Applicant's Patent Attorney
|Indian Patent Application Number||1877/MUM/2006|
|PG Journal Number||40/2011|
|Date of Filing||13-Nov-2006|
|Name of Patentee||SHAH CHETAN NAVNITHLAL|
|Applicant Address||WYOMING CO-OP. HSG. SOCIETY, IV FLOOR, FLAT NO. 4, 12A, LITTLE GIBBS ROAD, MALABAR HILL, MUMBAI-400006,|
|PCT International Classification Number||B01J21/16,C10G45/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|