Title of Invention

PIPERAZINYLPIPERIDINE DERIVATIVES AS CYTOKINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS

Abstract The present invention relates to compounds of Formula I: wherein variable substituents are defined herein, that modulate the activity of or bind to chemokine receptors such as CCR5. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention are selective for CCR5. The compounds can be used, for example, to treat diseases associated with chemokine receptor expression or activity such as inflammatory diseases, immune diseases and viral infections.
Full Text FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to compounds that modulate the activity of or bind to
chemokine receptors such as CCR5. In some embodiments, the compounds are selective for
CCR5. The compounds can be used, for example, to treat diseases associated with
chemokine receptor expression or activity such as inflammatory diseases, immune diseases
and viral infections.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The migration and transport of leukocytes from blood vessels into diseased tissues is
involved in the initiation of normal disease-fighting inflammatory responses. The process,
also known as leukocyte recruitment, is also related to the onset and progression of life-
threatening inflammatory, as well as debilitating autoimmune diseases. The resulting
pathology of these diseases derives from the attack of the body's immune system defenses on
normal tissues. Accordingly, preventing and blocking leukocyte recruitment to target tissues
in inflammatory and autoimmune disease would be a highly effective approach to therapeutic
intervention.
The different classes of leukocyte cells that are involved in cellular immune responses
include monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. In most cases,
lymphocytes are the leukocyte class that initiates, coordinates, and maintains chronic
inflammatory responses, and blockage of these cells from entering inflammatory sites is
desirable. Lymphocytes attract monocytes to the tissue sites, which, collectively with
lymphocytes, are responsible for most of the actual tissue damage that occurs in
inflammatory disease. Infiltration of the lymphocytes and/or monocytes is known to lead to a
wide range of chronic, autoimmune diseases, and also organ transplant rejection. These
diseases include, but are not limited to, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic contact dermatitis,
inflammatory bowel disease, lupus, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis,
atherosclerosis, psoriasis, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, dermatomyositis, skin
pemphigoid and related diseases, (e.g., Pemphigus vulgaris, P. foliacious, P. erythematosus),
glomerulonephritides, vasculitides, hepatitis, diabetes, allograft rejection, and graft-versus-
host disease.
The process by which leukocytes leave the bloodstream, accumulate at inflammatory
sites, and start disease is believed to have at least three steps which have been described as
(1) rolling, (2) activation/firm adhesion and (3) transendothelial migration [Springer, T. A.,
Nature 346:425-433 (1990); Lawrence and Springer, Cell 65:859-873 (1991); Butcher, E. C,
Cell 67:1033-1036 (1991)]. The second step is mediated at the molecular level by
chemoattractant receptors. Chemoattractant receptors on the surface of leukocytes then bind
chemoattractant cytokines which are secreted by cells at the site of damage or infection.
Receptor binding activates leukocytes increases the adhesiveness of the adhesion molecules
that mediate transendothelial migration and promotes directed migration of the cells toward
the source of the chemoattractant cytokine.
Chemotactic cytokines (leukocyte chemoattractant/activating factors) also known as
chemokines, also known as intercrines and SIS cytokines are a group of inflammatory/
immunomodulatory polypeptide factors of molecular weight 6-15 kDa that are released by a
wide variety of cells such as macrophages, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophiles, fibroblasts,
vascular endotherial cells, smooth muscle cells, and mast cells, at inflammatory sites
(reviewed in Luster, New Eng. J Med., 338,436-445 (1998) and Rollins, Blood, 90, 909-928
(1997)). Also, chemokines have been described in Oppenheim, J. J. et al., Annu. Rev.
Immunol., 9:617-648 (1991); Schall and Bacon, Curr. Opin. Immunol.,, 6:865-873 (1994);
Baggiolini, M., et al, and Adv. Immunol., 55:97-179 (1994). Chemokines have the ability to
stimulate directed cell migration, a process known as chemotaxis. Each chemokine contains
four cysteine residues (C) and two internal disulfide bonds. Chemokines can be grouped into
two subfamilies, based on whether the two amino terminal cysteine residues are immediately
adjacent (CC family) or separated by one amino acid (CXC family).. These differences
correlate with the organization of the two subfamilies into separate gene clusters. Within each
gene cluster, the chemokines typically show sequence similarities between 25 to 60%. The
CXC chemokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), neutrophil-activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and
melanoma growth stimulatory activity protein (MGSA) are chemotactic primarily for
neutrophils and T lymphocytes, whereas the CC chemokines, such as RANTES, MUM a,
MIP-ip, the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, and MCP-5)
and the eotaxins (-1 and -2) are chemotactic for, among other cell types, macrophages, T
lymphocytes, eosinophils, dendritic cells, and basophils. There also exist the chemokines
lymphotactin-1, lymphotactin-2 (both C chemokines), and fractalkine (a CXXXC chemokine)
that do not fall into either of the major chemokine subfamilies.
MCP-1 (also known as MCAF (abbreyiation, for macrophage chemotactic and
activating factor) or IE) is a CC chemokine produced by monocytes/macrophages, smooth
muscle cells, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells and causes cell migration and cell
adhesion of monocytes (see for example Valente, A. J., et al., Biochemistry, 1988, 27, 4162;
Matsushima, K., et al., J. Exp. Med., 1989, 169, 1485; Yoshimura, T., et al., J. Immunol.,
1989,142,1956; Rollins, B. J., et al„ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1988, 85, 3738; Rollins, B.
J., et al., Blood, 1991, 78, 1112; Jiang, Y., et al., J. Immunol, 1992,148, 2423; Vaddi, K., et
al., J. Immunol., 1994, 153, 4721), memory T lymphocytes (see for example Carr, M. W., et
al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1994, 91, 3652), T lymphocytes (see for example Loetscher,
P., et al., FASEB J., 1994, 8, 1055) and natural killer cells (see for example Loetscher, P., et
al., J. Immunol., 1996, 156, 322; Allavena, P., et al., Eur. J. Immunol., 1994, 24, 3233), as
well as mediating histamine release by basophils (see for example Alam, R., et al., J. Clin.
Invest, 1992, 89, 723; Bischoff, S. C, et al., J. Exp. Med., 1992, 175,1271; Kuna, P., et al.,
J. Exp. Med., 1992, 175, 489). In addition, high expression of MCP-1 has been reported in
diseases where accumulation of monocyte/macrophage and/or T cells is thought to be
important in the initiation or progression of diseases, such as atherosclerosis (see for example
Hayes, I. M., et al, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vase. Biol, 1998, 18, 397; Takeya, M.. et al.,
Hum. Pathol., 1993, 24, 534; Yla-Herttuala, S., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1991, 88,
5252; Nelken, N. A., J. Clin. Invest., 1991, 88, 1121), rheumatoid arthritis (see for example
Koch, A. E., et al., J. Clin. Invest., 1992, 90, 772; Akahoshi, T., et al., Arthritis Rheum.,
1993, 36, 762; Robinson, E., et al., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 101, 398), nephritis (see for
example Noris, M., et al., Lab. Invest., 1995, 73, 804; Wada, T., at al., Kidney Int., 1996, 49,
761; Gesualdo, L., et al., Kidney Int., 1997, 51, 155), nephropathy (see for example Saitoh,
A., et al., J. Clin. Lab. Anal., 1998, 12, 1; Yokoyama, H., et al., J. Leukoc. Biol., 1998, 63,
493), pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis (see for example Sugiyama, Y., et al.,
Internal Medicine, 1997, 36, 856), asthma (see for example Karina, M., et al., J. Invest.
Allergol. Clin. Immunol., 1997, 7, 254; Stephene, T. H., Am. J. Respiir. Crit. Care Med.,
1997,156,1377; Sousa, A. R., et al., Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 1994, 10,142), multiple
sclerosis (see for example McManus, C, et al., J. NeuroimmunoL, 1998, 86, 20), psoriasis
(see for example Gillitzer, R., et al., J. Invest. Dermatol., 1993, 101, 127), inflammatory
bowel disease (see for example Grimm, M. C, et al., J. Leukoc. Biol., 1996, 59, 804;
Reinecker, H. C, et al., Gastroenterology, 1995, 106, 40), myocarditis (see for example
Seino, Y., et al, Cytokine, 1995,7, 301), endometriosis (see for example Jolicoeur, C, et al.,
Am. J. Pathol., 1998,152,125), intraperitoneal adhesion (see for example Zeyneloglu, H. B.,
et al., Human Reproduction, 1998, 13, 1194), congestive heart failure (see for example
Aurust, P., et al., Circulation, 1998, 97, 1136), chronic liver disease (see for example Marra,
F., et al., Am. J. Pathol., 1998, 152, 423), viral meningitis (see for example Lahrtz, F., et al.,
Eur. J. Immunol., 1997, 27, 2484), Kawasaki disease (see for example Wong, M.; et al., J.
Rheumatol., 1997, 24,1179) and sepsis (see for example Salkowski, C. A.; et al, Infect.
Immun., 1998, 66, 3569). Furthermore, anti-MCP-1 antibody has been reported to show an
inhibitory effect or a therapeutic effect in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (see for
example Schimmer, R. C, et al., J. Immunol., 1998, 160, 1466; Schrier, D. J., J. Leukoc.
Biol, 1998, 63, 359; Ogata, H., et al., J. Pathol., 1997, 182, 106), multiple sclerosis (see for
example Karpus, W. J., et al, J. Leukoc. Biol., 1997, 62, 681), nephritis (see for example
Lloyd, C. M., et al., J. Exp. Med., 1997, 185, 1371; Wada, T., et al., FASEB J., 1996, 10,
1418), asthma (see for example Gonzalo, J.-A., et al., J. Exp. Med., 1998, 188, 157; Lukacs,
N. W., J. Immunol., 1997,158,4398), atherosclerosis (see for example Guzman, L. A., et al.,
Circulation, 1993, 88 (suppl.), 1-371), delayed type hypersensitivity (see for example Rand,
M. L., et al., Am. J. Pathol., 1996, 148, 855), pulmonary hypertension (see for example
Kimura, H., et al., Lab. Invest., 1998, 78, 571), and intraperitoneal adhesion (see for example
Zeyneloglu, H. B., et al, Am. J. Obstet Gynecol, 1998, 179, 438). A peptide antagonist of
MCP-1, MCP-1(9~76), has been also reported to inhibit arthritis in the mouse model (see
Gong, J.-H., J. Exp. ,4ed., 1997,186, 131), as well as studies in MCP-1-deficient mice have
shown that MCP-1 is essential for monocyte recruitment in vivo (see Lu, B., et al., J. Exp.
Med., 1998,187,601; Gu, L., et al, Moll. Cell, 1998,2,275).
The literature indicates that chemokines such as MCP-1 and MlP-la attract
monocytes and lymphocytes to disease sites and mediate their activation and thus are thought
to be intimately involved in the initiation, progression and maintenance of diseases deeply
involving monocytes and lymphocytes, such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, rheumatoid
arthritis, psoriasis, asthma, ulcerative colitis, nephritis (nephropathy), multiple sclerosis,
pulmonary fibrosis, myocarditis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease,
endometriosis, congestive heart failure, viral meningitis, cerebral infarction, neuropathy,
Kawasaki disease, and sepsis (see for example Rovin, B. H., et al., Am. J. Kidney. Dis., 1998,
31, 1065; Lloyd, C, et al., Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens., 1998, 7, 281; Conti, P., et al.,
Allergy and Asthma Proc, 1998, 19, 121; Ransohoff, R. M., et al, Trends Neurosci., 1998,
21,154; MacDermott, R. P., et al., Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 1998,4, 54).
The chemokines bind to specific cell-surface receptors belonging to the family of G-
protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-domain proteins (reviewed in Horuk, Trends Pharm.
Sci., 15, 159-165 (1994)) which are termed "chernokine receptors." On binding their cognate
ligands, chernokine receptors transduce an intracellular signal through the associated trimeric
G proteins, resulting in, among other responses, a rapid increase in intracellular calcium
concentration, changes in cell shape, increased expression of cellular adhesion molecules,
degranulation, and promotion of cell migration.
Genes encoding receptors of specific chemokines have been cloned, and it is known
that these receptors are G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors present on various
leukocyte populations. So far, at least five CXC chernokine receptors (CXCR1-CXCR5) and
eight CC chernokine receptors (CCR1-CCR8) have been identified. For example IL-8 is a
ligand for CXCR1 and CXCR2, MIP-lcc is that for CCR1 and CCR5, and MCP-1 is that for
CCR2A and CCR2B (for reference, see for example, Holmes, W, E., et al., Science 1991,
253, 1278-1280; Murphy P. M., et al., Science, 253, 1280-1283; Neote, K. et al, Cell, 1993,
72, 415-425; Charo, I. F, et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1994, 91, 2752-2756;
Yamagami, S., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1994, 202, 1156-1162; Combadier,
C., et al, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1995,270,16491-16494, Power, C. A., et al,
J. Biol. Chem., 1995, 270, 19495-19500; Samson, M., et al., Biochemistry, 1996, 35, 3362-
3367; Murphy, P. M., Annual Review of Immunology, 1994, 12, 592-633). It has been
reported that lung inflammation and granuroma formation are suppressed in CCR1-deficient
mice (see Gao, J.-L., et al., J. Exp. Med., 1997, 185, 1959; Gerard, C, et al, J. Clin. Invest,
1997, 100, 2022), and that recruitment of macrophages and formation of atherosclerotic
lesion decreased in CCR2-deficient mice (see Boring, L., et al., Nature, 1998, 394, 894;
Kuziel, W. A., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 1997, 94, 12053; Kurihara, T., et al., J.
Exp. Med., 1997,186,1757; Boring, L., et al, J. Clin. Invest, 1997, 100,2552).
Chernokine receptors are also known as coreceptors for viral entry leading to viral
infection such as, for example, HIV infection. Reverse transcription and protein processing
are the classic steps of the viral life cycle which antiretroviral therapeutic agents are designed
to block. Although many new drugs that are believed to block viral entry hold promise, there
is currently no agent to which HIV-1 has not been able to acquire resistance. Multiple rounds
of viral replication are required to generate the genetic diversity that forms the basis of
resistance. Combination therapy in which replication is maximally suppressed remains a
cornerstone of treatment with entry inhibitors, as with other agents. The targeting of multiple
steps within the viral entry process is believed to have the potential for synergy (Starr-Spires
et al., Clin. Lab. Med., 2002,22(3), 681.)
HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) cells requires the sequential interactions of the viral
envelope glycoproteins with CD4 and a coreceptor such as the chemokine receptors CCR5
and CXCR4. A plausible approach to blocking this process is to use small molecule
antagonists of coreceptor function. The TAK-779 molecule is one such antagonist of CCR5
that acts to prevent HIV-1 infection. TAK-779 inhibits HIV-1 replication at the membrane
fusion stage by blocking the interaction of the viral surface glycoprotein. gpl20 with CCR5.
The binding site for TAK-779 on CCR5 is located near the extracellular surface of the
receptor, within a cavity formed between transmembrane helices 1, 2, 3, and 7 (Dragic et al.,
Proc. Natl Acad. Set USA, 2000,97(10), 5639).
The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are believed to be used as co-receptors
by the T cell-tropic (X4) and macrophage-tropic (R5) HTV-1 strains, respectively, for
entering their host cells. Propagation of R5 strains of HIV-1 on CD4 lymphocytes and
macrophages requires expression of the CCR5 coreceptor on the cell surface. Individuals
lacking CCR5 (CCR5 Delta 32 homozygous genotype) are phenotypically normal and
resistant to infection with HTV-1. Viral entry can be inhibited by the natural ligands for
CXCR4 (the CXC chemokine SDF-1) and CCR5 (the CC chemokines RANTES, MTP-lalpha
and MlP-lbeta). The first non-peptidic compound that interacts with CCR5, and not with
CXCR4, is a quaternary ammonium derivative, called TAK-779, which also has potent but
variable anti-HIV activity (De Clercq et dl.,Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 2001,12 Suppl. 1, 19.
SCH-C (SCH 351125) is another small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the
CCR5 coreceptor. SCH-C, an oxime-piperidine compound, is a specific CCR5 antagonist as
determined in multiple receptor binding and signal transduction assays. This compound
specifically inhibits HIV-1 infection mediated by CCR5 in U-87 astroglioma cells but has no
effect on infection of CXCR4-expressing cells. (Strizki et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,
2001, 98(22), 12718 or Tremblay et al., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2002,
46(5), 1336).
AD101, chemically related to SCH-C, also inhibits the entry of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) via human CCR5. It has been found that AD101
inhibits HIV-1 entry via rhesus macaque CCR5 while SCH-C does not. Among the eight
residues that differ between the human and macaque versions of the coreceptor, only one,
methionine-198, accounts for the insensitivity of macaque CCR5 to inhibition by SCH-C.
Position 198 is in CCR5 transmembrane (TM) helix 5 and is not located within the previously
defined binding site for AD101 and SCH-C, which involves residues in TM helices 1, 2, 3,
and 7. Based on studies of amino acid substitutions in CCR5, it has been suggested that the
region of CCR5 near residue 198 can influence the conformational state of this receptor.
(Billick et al., 2004, J. Virol, 78(8), 4134).
Accordingly, drugs which inhibit the binding of chemokines to their respective
receptors can be useful as pharmaceutical agents which inhibit the action of chemokines on
target cells and/or block viral entry into cells expressing these receptors. The identification of
compounds that modulate the activity of chemokine receptors or block the binding of viral
proteins represents an excellent drag design approach to the development of pharmacological
agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, viral infection and other diseases
associated with chemokine receptor activation. The compounds of the present invention help
fulfill these and other needs.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides compounds of Formula I:
I
or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof, wherein constituent members are
defined herein.
The present invention further provides compositions comprising the compounds of
Formula I and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
The present invention further provides methods of modulating activity of a chemokine
receptor comprising contacting the chemokine receptor with a compound of Formula I.
The present invention further provides methods of treating a disease associated with
expression or activity of a chemokine receptor in a patient comprising administering to said
patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I.
The present invention further provides methods of treating a disease or condition
selected from an inflammatory disease, immune disorder, and viral infection in a patient
comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of
Formula I.
The present invention further provides methods of treating HIV infection in a patient
comprising administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of
Formula I.
The present invention further provides use of a compound of Formula I in therapy.
The present invention further provides use of a compound of Formula I for the
preparation of a medicament for use in therapy.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The present invention provides, inter alia, compounds of Formula I:
I
or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof, wherein:
R1 is heteroaryl optionally substituted by one or more R6;
R2 is H, halo, cyano, nitro, C1-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, CrCe alkenyl, C2-C6
alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, SOR7, S02E:7, COR8, OR9, SR9,
COOR9,NR10RU orNR10COR8;
R3 is F, CI, Br, I, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 haloalkoxy or heteroaryl;
R4 is H, Ci-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl or C]-C6 haloalkyl;
R5 is H, Ci-C6 alkyl, C2~C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl or Ci-C6 haloalkyl;
R6 is H, CrC6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, Ci-
C$ haloalkoxy, amino, (Ci~C6 alkyl)amino or di(Ci-C6 alkyl)amino;
R7 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-Cs alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl,
C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl, (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl,
heterocycloalkylalkyl,or NR12R13;
R8 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl,
C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl, (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl,
heterocycloalkylalkyl, or NRI2R13;
R9 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, C1-C6 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl,
haloalkoxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, heteroaryloxyalkyl, cycloalkyloxyalkyl,
heterocycloalkyloxyalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl,
heteroarylalkyl; (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl or heterocycloalkylalkyl;
R10andRn are each, independently, H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, Ci-
C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl;
(C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl or heterocycloalkylalkyl;
or R10 and Ru together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 3-, 4-, 5-,
6-, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl group;
R12 and R13 are each, independently, H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, Ci-
Cs haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl;
(C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl or heterocycloalkylalkyl;
or R12 and R13 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 3-, 4-, 5-,
6-, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl group; and
ris 1, 2 or 3.
In some embodiments, R1 is a 5-, 6-, 9- or 10-membered heteroaryl group containing
at least one ring-forming N atom, wherein said 5~, 6-, 9- or 10-membered heteroaryl group is
optionally substituted by 1,2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is a 9- or 10-membered heteroaryl group containing at least
one ring-forming N atom, wherein said 6-membered heteroaryl group is optionally
substituted by 1,2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, Rl is a 6- or 5-membered heteroaryl group containing at least
one ring-forming N atom, wherein said 5-membered heteroaryl group is optionally
substituted by 1,2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R is a 6-membered heteroaryl group containing at least one
ring-forming N atom, wherein said 6-membered heteroaryl group is optionally substituted by
1,2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is a 5-membered heteroaryl group containing at least one
ring-forming N atom, wherein said 5-membered heteroaryl group is optionally substituted by
1,2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, naphthyridinyl, indolyl,
indazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, N-oxopyridyl, N-oxopyrimindinyl, isoxazole, pyrazole,
pyrrolyl, imidazolyL oxazolyl or thiazolyl, each optionally substituted by 1,2, 3 or 4 R6
groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, napbthyridinyl, pyridyl,
pyrimidinyl, N-oxopyridyl, isoxazole or pyrazole, each optionally substituted by 1,2, 3 or 4
R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, N-oxopyridyl, N-oxopyrimindinyl,
isoxazole, pyrazole, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl or thiazolyl, each optionally substituted by
1,2,3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, N-oxopyridyl, isoxazole or
pyrazole, each optionally substituted by 1, 2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
In some embodiments, R1 is:
In some embodiments, R2 is H, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, OR9, SR9 or NR10R11.
In some embodiments, R2 is H or OR9.
In some embodiments, R3 is F, Br, CF3, or 6- or 5-membered heteroaryl.
In some embodiments, R3 is F, Br, CF3, OCF3, thiazolyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridyl.
In some embodiments, R3 is F, Br, or CF3.
In some embodiments, R is C1-C6 alkyl.
In some embodiments, R4 is methyl.
In some embodiments, R5 is C1-C6 alkyl.
In some embodiments, R5 is methyl.
In some embodiments, r is 1.
In some embodiments, r is 2,
In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention have Formula Ha or lib:
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R1 is;
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R1 is:
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, Rl is:
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R1 is

In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R'! is H, Ci-Ce alkyl,
Ci-C6 haloalkyl, OR9, SR9 orNRi0Rn.
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R' is H or OR9.
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R1 is F, Br, CF3, 5- or
6-membered heteroaryl.
In some embodiments of compounds having Formula Ila or lib, R1 is F, Br, or CF3.
It is appreciated that certain features of the invention, which are, for clarity, described
in the context of separate embodiments, can also be provided in combination in a single
embodiment. Conversely, various features of the invention which are, for brevity, described
in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable
subcombination.
As used herein, the term "alkyl" is meant to refer to a saturated hydrocarbon group
which is straight-chained or branched. Example alkyl groups include met byl (Me), ethyl (Et),
propyl (e.g., n-propyl and isopropyl), butyl (e.g., n-butyl, isobutyl, s-butyl, t-butyl), pentyl
(e.g., n-pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl) and the like. An alkyl group can contain from 1 to about
20, from 2 to about 20, from 1 to about 10, from 1 to about 8, from 1 to about 6, from 1 to
about 4, or from 1 to about 3 carbon atoms.
As used herein, "alkenyl" refers to an alkyl group having one or more double carbon-
carbon bonds. Example alkenyl groups include ethenyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl,
butadienyl, pentadienyl, hexadienyl, and the like.
As used herein, "alkynyl" refers to an alkyl group having one or more triple carbon-
carbon bonds. Example alkynyl groups include ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl, pentynyl, and the
like.
As used herein, "haloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group having one or more halogen
substituents. Example haloalkyl groups include CF3, C2F5, CHF2, CC13, CHC12, C2C15, and
the like. An alkyl group in which all of the hydrogen atoms are replaced with halogen atoms
can be referred to as "perhaloalkyl." Example perhaloalkyl groups include CF3 and C2F5.
As used herein, "aryl" refers to monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such
as, for example, phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, phenanthrenyl, indanyl, indenyl, and the like.
In some embodiments, aryl groups have from 6 to about 18 carbon atoms.
As used herein, "cycloalkyl" refers to non-aromatic cyclic hydrocarbons, including
cyclized alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups. Cycloalkyl groups can include bi- or poly-cyclic
ring systems and can optionally contain unsaturations. Example cycloalkyl groups include
cyclopropyl, cj'clobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexenyl,
cyclohexadienyl, cycloheptatrienyl, norbornyl, norpinyl, norcarnyl, adamantyl, and the like.
Also included in the definition of cycloalkyl are moieties that have one or more aromatic
rings fused (i.e., having a bond in common with) to the cycloalkyl ring, for example, benzo
derivatives of cyclopentane (indanyl), cyclohexane (tetrahydronaphthyl), and the like.
Cycloalkyl groups can have from about 3 to about 20, 3 to about 12, or 3 to about 7 carbon
atoms.
As used herein, "heteroaryl" groups are monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons that have at least one heteroatom ring member such as sulfur, oxygen, or
nitrogen. Heteroaryl groups include, without limitation, pyridyl, N-oxopyridyl, pyrimidinyl,
N-oxopyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, naphthyridinyl, furyl, quinolyl,
isoquinolyl, thienyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, indolyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, benzofuryl,
benzothienyl, benzthiazolyl, isoxazolyl, pjiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, indazolyl, 1,2,4-
thiadiazolyl, isothiazolyl, benzothienyl, purinyl, carbazolyl, benzimidazolyl,
2,3-dihydrobenzofuranyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl-S-oxide,
2,3-dihydrobenzothienyl-S-dioxide, and the like. In some embodiments, heteroaryl groups
can have from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, and in further embodiments from about 3 to about
20 carbon atoms. In some embodiments, heteroaryl groups have 1 to about 4, 1 to about 3, or
1 to 2 heteroatoms. In some embodiments, the heteroaryl group has 5 to 50, 5 to 20, 5 to 14
or 5 to 7 ring members. In some embodiments, the heteroaryl group is a 5-, 6-, 9-, or 10-
membered group. In some embodiments, the heteroaryl group contains at least one ring-
forming N atom.
As used herein, "heteroc)rcloalkyl" refers to a cyclized, non-aromatic hydrocarbon
including cyclized alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl groups where one or more of the ring-forming
carbon atoms is replaced by a heteroatom such as an O, N, or S atom. Example
heterocycloalkyl groups include piperidinyl, pyrolidinyl, morpholino, tetrahydrofuranyl, and
the like. Also included in the definition of heterocycloalkyl are moieties that have one or
more aromatic rings fused (i.e., having a bond in common with) to the non-aromatic
heterocyclic ring, for example phthalimidyl, naphthalimidyl pyromellitic diimidyl,
phthalanyl, and benzo derivatives of saturated heterocycles such as indolene and isoindolene
groups. In some embodiments, the heterocycloalkyl group has 3 to 20, 3 to 14 or 3 to 7 ring
members.
As used herein, "halo" or "halogen" includes fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo.
As used herein, "alkoxy" refers to an -O-alkyl group. Example alkoxy groups include
methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy (e.g., n-propoxy and isopropoxy), t-butoxy, and the like.
"Haloalkoxy" refers to an -O-haloalkyl group.
As used here, "arylalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least one aryl
group. An example arylalkyl group is benzyl.
As used herein, "cycloalkylalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least one
cycloalkyl group.
As used herein, "heteroarylalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substilruted by at least one
heteroaryl group.
As used herein, "heterocycloalkylalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least
one heterocycloalkyl group.
As used herein, "aryloxy" refers to -Q-aryl.
As used herein, "heteroaryloxy" refers to -O-heteroaryl.
As used herein, "cycloalkyloxy" refers to -O-cycloalkyl.
As used herein, "heterocycloalkyloxy" refers to -O-heterocycloalkyl.
As used herein, "alkoxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least one
alkoxy group. Example alkoxyalkyl groups include methoxyrnethyl, methoxyethyl,
methoxypropyl and the like.
As used herein, "haloalkoxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least one
haloalkoxy group.
As used herein, "arylalkoxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least one
aryloxy group.
As used herein, "cycloalkyloxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least
one cycloalkyloxy group.
As used herein, "heteroaryloxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at least
one heteroaryloxy group.
As used herein, "heterocycloalkloxyalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted by at
least one heterocycloalkyloxy group.
As used herein, the term "amino" refers to NH2. Similarly, the term "alkylamino"
refers to an amino group substituted by an alkyl group, and the term "dialikylamino" refers to
an amino group substituted by two alkyl groups.
As used herein, "substituted" indicates that at least one hydrogen atom of a chemical
group is replaced by a non-hydrogen moiety. When a chemical group herein is "substituted"
it may have up to the full valance of substitution, provided the resulting compound is a stable
compound or stable structure; for example, a methyl group may be substituted by 1, 2, or 3
substituents, a methylene group may be substituted by 1 or 2 substituents, a phenyl group
may be substituted by 1,2, 3, 4, or 5 substituents, and the like.
The compounds described herein can be asymmetric (e.g., having one or more
stereocenters). All stereoisomers, such as enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended unless
otherwise indicated. Compounds of the present invention that contain asymmetrically
substituted carbon atoms can be isolated in optically active or racemic forms. Methods on
how to prepare optically active forms from optically active starting materials are known in
the art, such as by resolution of racemic mixtures or by stereoselective synthesis. Many
geometric isomers of olefins, C=N double bonds, and the like can also be present in the
compounds described herein, and all such stable isomers are contemplated in the present
invention. Cis and trans geometric isomers of the compounds of the present invention are
described and may be isolated as a mixture of isomers or as separated isomeric forms.
Resolution of racemic mixtures of compounds can be carried out by any of numerous
methods known in the art. An example method includes fractional recrystallizaion using a
"crural resolving acid" which is an optically active, salt-forming organic acid. Suitable
resolving agents for fractional recrystallization methods are, for example, optically active
acids, such as the D and L forms of tartaric acid, diacetyltartaric acid, dibenzoyltartaric acid,
mandelic acid, malic acid, lactic acid or the various optically active camphorsulfonic acids
such as p-camphorsulfonic acid. Other resolving agents suitable for fractional crystallization
methods include stereoisomerically pure forms of a-methylbenzylamine (e.g., S and R forms,
or diastereomerically pure forms), 2-phenylglycinol, norephedrine, ephedrine, N-
methylephedrine, cyclohexylethylamine, 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, and (lie like.
Resolution of racemic mixtures can also be carried out by elution on a column packed
with an optically active resolving agent (e.g., dinitrobenzoylphenylglycine). Suitable elution
solvent composition can be determined by one skilled in the art.
Compounds of the invention can also include tautomeric forms, such as keto-enol
tautomers. Tautomeric forms can be in equilibrium or sterically locked into one form by
appropriate substitution.
Compounds of the invention also include hydrates and solvates.
Compounds of the invention can also include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the
intermediates or final compounds. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic
number but different mass numbers. For example, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and
deuterium.
The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those
compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of
sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and
animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or
complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.
The present invention also includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the
compounds described herein. As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to
derivatives of the disclosed compounds wherein the parent compound is modified by
converting an existing acid or base moiety to its salt form. Examples of pharmaceutically
acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues
such as amines; alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids; and the
like. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present invention include the conventional
non-toxic salts or the quaternary ammonium salts of the parent compound formed, for
example, from non-toxic inorganic or organic acids. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of
the present invention can be synthesized from the parent compound which contains a basic or
acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts can be prepared by
reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the
appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two;
generally, nonaqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or acetonitrile are
preferred. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed.,
Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 1418 and Journal of Pharmaceutical
Science, 66,2 (1977), each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The present invention also includes prodrugs of the compounds described herein. As
used herein, "prodrugs" refer to any covalently bonded carriers which release the active
parent drug when administered to a mammalian subject. Prodrugs can. be prepared by
modifying functional groups present in the compounds in such a way that the modifications
are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo,, to the parent compounds. Prodrugs
include compounds wherein hydroxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, or carboxyl groups are bonded to
any group that, when administered to a mammalian subject, cleaves to form a free hydroxyl,
amino, sulfhydryl, or carboxyl group respectively. Examples of prodrugs include, but are not
limited to, acetate, formate and benzoate derivatives of alcohol and amine functional groups
in the compounds of the invention. Preparation and use of prodrugs is discussed in T. Higuchi
and V. Stella, "Pro-drugs as Novel Delivery Systems," Vol. 14 of the A.C.S. Symposium
Series, and in Bioreversible Carriers in Drug Design, ed. Edward B. Roche, American
Pharmaceutical Association and Pergamon Press, 1987, both of which are hereby
incorporated by reference in their entirety.
Synthesis
Compounds of the invention, including salts, hydrates, and solvates thereof, can be
prepared using known organic synthesis techniques and can be synthesized according to any
of numerous possible synthetic routes.
The reactions for preparing compounds of the invention can be carried out in suitable
solvents which can be readily selected by one of skill in the art of organic synthesis. Suitable
solvents can be substantially nonreactive with the starting materials (reactants), the
intermediates, or products at the temperatures at which the reactions are carried out, e.g.,
temperatures which can range from the solvent's freezing temperature to the solvent's boiling
temperature. A given reaction can be carried out in one solvent or a mixture of more than one
solvent. Depending on the particular reaction step, suitable solvents for a particular reaction
step can be selected.
Preparation of compounds of the invention can involve the protection and
) deprotection of various chemical groups. The need for protection and deprotection, and the
selection of appropriate protecting groups can be readily determined by one skilled in the art.
The chemistry of protecting groups can be found, for example, in T.W, Green and P.G.M.
Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3rd. Ed., Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York
(1999), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
Reactions can be monitored according to any suitable method known in the art. For
example, product formation can be monitored by spectroscopic means, such as nuclear
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (e.g., H or C) infrared spectroscopy, spectrophotometry
(e.g., UV-visible), or mass spectrometry, or by chromatography such as high performance
liquid chromatopaphy (HPLC) or thin layer chromatography.
Example synthetic routes to compounds of the invention are provided in Schemes 1-5
below, where constituent members of the depicted formulae are defined herein.

Indanone intermediates of Formula 1-8 can be synthesized using procedures outlined
in Scheme 1. For example, the benzaldehyde 1-3 can be generated by deprotonation of the
bromobenzene (1-1) with a strong base such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine/n-
butyllithium followed by quenching, such as with DM!7. Alternatiavely, the
benzaldehyde 1-3 can be generated by reduction of the benzonitrile (1-2) using an
appropriate reducing agent such as diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL). Following
reduction of the aldehyde to alcohol using a further reducing agent such as sodium
borohydride, the resulting alcohol 1-4 can be converted to a chloride by treatment with a
suitable chlorinating agent such as thionyl chloride. Displacement of the chloride 1-5 with
diethyl malonate using a suitable base (e.g., sodium hydride) produces the diester 1-6.
Saponification of the diester using a base such as sodium hydroxide followed by
decarboxylation yields the monocarboxylic acid 1-7. Treatment of 1-7 with an appropriate
cyclizing agent such as «-butyl lithium affords the cyclized product indan-1-one 1-8.
Scheme 2
Intermediates of Formula 2-6 can be synthesized using the methods depicted in
Scheme 2. A ketone derivative of Formula 2-1 can be subjected to a reduction using a
suitable reducing agent such as sodium borohydride to give the alcohol 2-2. After conversion
of the alcohol to chloride using an appropriate chlorinating reagent such as SOCI2, the
chloride 2-3 is reacted with a piperazine derivative of Formula 2-4 to afford 2-5. Removal of
Boc protecting group using an acid such as 4 N HC1 in dioxane results: in intermediates of
Formula 2-6.
Scheme 3
Intermediates of Formula 3-4 can be prepared using a sequence outlined in Scheme 3.
The alcohol intermediate 2-2 is subjected to a dehydration under suitable conditions (e.g., p-
TsOH, reflux in toluene) to give the indene 3-1. Epoxidation using an appropriate oxidant
such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide yields the epoxide 3-2. Ring opening of the epoxide with a
piperazine derivative of Formula 2-4 provides 3-3. Alkylation of the alcohol in 3-3 with an
alkylating reagent such as alkyl iodide (RI) followed by removal of Boc using an acid affords
intermediates of Formula 3-4 (wherein R is an alkyl group).
Scheme 4

Compounds of Formula 4-4 can be prepared using the procedures described in
Scheme 4. Reaction of the piperazine derivative of Formula 4-1 with the protected piperidine
of Formula 4-2 (Pr is an amino protecting group such as Boc) provides derivative 4-3. Upon
removal of the amino protecting group (Pr) using a suitable reagent (e.g., acid such as 4 N
HC1 in dioxane), the resulting free amine can be coupled with a carboxylic acid using a
suitable coupling agent such as BOP to generate compounds of Formula 4-4.
)
Scheme 5

Compounds of Formula 5-4 can be prepared using the procedures described in
Scheme 5. Reaction of the piperazine derivative of Formula 5-1 with tert-hutyl 4-oxo-l-
piperidinecarboxylate followed by treatment with diethylaluminum cyanide gives rise to the
cyano derivative 5-2. Displacement of the cyano residue with methyhnagnesium bromide
yields 5-3. Upon removal of the Boc group using an acid such as 4 N HCl in dioxane, the
resulting amine can be coupled with a carboxylic acid using a coupling agent such as BOP to
generate compounds of Formula 5-4.
4,6-Dimethylpyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids (6-5) can be prepared using the
procedures outlined in Scheme 6. Reaction of ethyl acetoacetate with ketene diethylacetal in
the presence of a base such as sodium ethoxide gives rise to the intermediate 6-3. Cyclization
of 6-3 with formamidine acetate provides the ethyl ester 6-4 which is saponified to give the
carboxylic acid 6-5.
7-4 7-5
Alternatively, compounds of formula I can be synthesized using the procedures
depicted in Schemes 7-9. Lithiation of a benzaldehyde derivative 7-1 with n-butyl lithium in
the presence of N,N,N'-trimethyiethane-l,2-diamine followed by quenching with allyl
bromide provides the allyl derivative 7-2. Following conversion of the aldehyde to olefin by
treatment with Ph3PCH3Br/n-BuLi, 7-3 is cyclized using Grubbs catalyst to give the indene
derivative 7-4. Asymmetric epoxidation using Jacobsen's catalyst affords the epoxide 7-5.
Scheme 8
Alkylation of 4-Boc-2-methylpiperazine 8-1 with benzyl bromide followed by
removing the Boc using an acid such HC1 provides 8-3. Intermediate 8-3 can be converted to
8-4 using the method described, in Scheme 5. Removal of the benzyl group in 8-4 by
hydrogenation using ?d(OH)i as catalyst generates the intermediate 8-5.

Intermediates 7-5 and 8-5 can be assembled at an elevated temperature in a solvent
such as ethanol to give intermediate 9-1 as shown in Scheme 9, Alkylation of the resulting
alcohol with R9I can be accomplished using a base such as sodium hydride. After removal of
the Boc group in 9-2, coupling of the resulting amine with R^CC^H using a coupling agent
such as EDCI provides compounds of formula 9-3.
Alternatively, compounds of formula I can be prepared as shown in Scheme 10. A
benzaldehyde derivative 7-1 can be alkylated by treatment with n-butyllitbium in the
presence of N,N,N'-trimethylethane-l,2-diaminene followed by quenching with acrolein. The
resulting semiacetal 10-1 can be converted to an olefin by treating with PhaPCHsBr/n-
butyllithium. Cyclization using Grabbs catalyst gives rise to 3-hydroxyindene derivative 10-3
which can be subjected to an oxidation using an oxidant such as pyridinium chlorochromate
(PCC). Michael addition of intermediate 8-5 to the resulting ketone 10-4 affords intermediate
10-5. Following reduction of the ketone to alcohol, alkylation with R9I can be accomplished
using a base such as sodium hydride. Removal of Boc followed by coupling with R^C^H
using a coupling agent such as EDCI/HOBt affords compounds of formula 10-7.
Methods
In some embodiments, compounds of the invention can modulate activity of one or
more chemokine receptors. The term "modulate" is meant to refer to an ability to increase or
decrease activity of a receptor. Accordingly, compounds of the invention can be used in
methods of modulating a chemokine receptor by contacting the receptor with any one or more
of the compounds or compositions described herein. In some embodiments, compounds of
the present invention can act as inhibitors of chemokine receptors. In further embodiments,
the compounds of the invention can be used to modulate activity of a chemokine receptor in
an individual in need of modulation of the receptor by administering a modulating amount of
a compound of Formula I.
In some embodiments, compounds of the invention can bind to a chemokine receptor
in such a way to block or inhibit binding of endogenous and other chemokine receptor
ligands. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention can block or inhibit binding
of exogenous ligands including viral proteins involved in viral entry into cells expressing the
chemokine receptor. Accordingly, compounds of the invention can block viral entry and
inhibit viral infection. In some embodiments, compounds of the invention can inhibit human
immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection by, for example, blocking interaction of a
chemokine receptor (e.g., CCR5) with HIV glycoproteinl20 (gpl20).
Chemokine receptors to which the present compounds bind and/or modulate include
any chemokine receptor. In some embodiments, the chemokine receptor belongs to the CC
family of chemokine receptors including, for example, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5,
CCR6, CCR7, and CCR8. In some embodiments, the chemokine receptor is CCR2. In some
embodiments, the chemokine receptor is CCR5.
The compounds of the invention can be selective. By "selective" is meant that the
compound binds to or inhibits a chemokine receptor with greater affinity or potency,
respectively, compared to at least one other chemokine receptor.
Compounds of the invention can be selective binders of CCR5, meaning that the
compounds of the invention can. bind to CCR5 with greater affinity than for another
chemokine receptor such as at least one of CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR7 and
CCR8. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention have binding selectivity for
CCR5 over CCR2. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention have binding
selectivity for CCR5 over CCR1. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention
have binding selectivity for CCR.5 over any other CCR. Selectivity can be at least about 10-
fold, at least about 20-fold, at least about 50-fold, at least about 100-fold, at least about 200-
fold, at least about 500-fold or at least about 1000-fold. In some embodiments, the
compounds of the invention have binding affinity for CCR5 that is at least about 10-fold, at
least about 20-fold, at least about 50-fold, at least about 100-fold, at least about 200-fold, at
least about 500-fold or at least about 1000-fold greater than binding affinity for CCR1, CCR2
or any other chemokine receptor. Binding affinity can be measured according to routine
methods in the art, such as according to the assays provided herein.
In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention can be selective inhibitors of
CCR5, meaning that the compounds of the invention can inhibit activity of CCR5 more
potently than for at least one other chemokine receptors such as, for example, CCR1, CCR2,
CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR7 and CCR8. In some embodiments, the compounds of the
invention have inhibition selectivity for CCR5 over CCR2. In some embodiments, the
compounds of the invention have inhibition selectivity for CCR5 over CCR1. In some
embodiments, the compounds of the invention have inhibition selectivity for CCR5 over any
other CCR. Selectivity can be at least about 10-fold, at least about 20-fold, at least about 50-
fold, at least about 100-fold, at least about 200-fold, at least about 500-fold or at least about
1000-fold. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention have inhibition affinity for
CCR5 that is at least about 10-fold, at least about 20-fold, at least about 50-fold, at least about
100-fold, at least about 200-fold, at least about 500-fold or at least about 1000-fold greater
than binding affinity for CCR1, CCR2 or any other chemokine receptor. Inhibitor potency
can be measured according to routine methods in the art, such as according to the assays
provided herein.
Another aspect of the present invention pertains to methods of treating a chemokine
receptor-associated disease or disorder in an individual (e.g., patient) by administering to the
individual in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount or dose of a
compound of the present invention or a pharmaceutical composition thereof. A chemokine
receptor-associated disease can include any disease, disorder or condition that is directly or
indirectly linked to expression or activity of the chemokine receptor, A chemokine receptor-
associated disease can also include any disease, disorder or condition that can be prevented,
ameliorated, or cured by modulating chemokine receptor activity. A chemokine receptor-
associated disease can further include any disease, disorder or condition that is characterized
by binding of an infectious agent such as a virus or vital protein with a chemokine receptor.
In some embodiments, the chemokine receptor-associated disease is a CCR5-associated
disease such as HIV infection.
Example chemokine receptor-associated diseases, disorders and conditions include
inflammation and inflammatory diseases, immune disorders and viral infections. Example
inflammatory diseases include diseases having an inflammatory component such as asthma,
allergic rhinitis, restenosis, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative
colitis, hypersensitivity lung diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, eosinophilic
pneumonias, delayed-type hypersensitivity, asthma, interstitial lung disease (ILD) (e.g.,
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or ILD associated with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus
erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, polymyositis
or dermatomyositis) and the like. Example immune disorders include rheumatoid arthritis,
psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, myastenia gravis, juvenile onset diabetes;
glomerulonephritis, autoimmune throiditis, organ transplant rejection including allograft
rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Example viral infections include HIV infection.
As used herein, the term "contacting" refers to the bringing together of indicated
moieties in an in vitro system or an in vivo system. For example, "contacting" the chemokine
receptor with a compound of the invention includes the administration of a compound of the
present invention to an individual or patient, such as a human, having a chemokine receptor,
as well as, for example, introducing a compound of the invention into a sample containing a
cellular or purified preparation containing the chemokine receptor.
As used herein, the term "individual" or "patient," used interchangeably, refers to any
animal, including mammals, preferably mice, rats, other rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, swine,
cattle, sheep, horses, or primates, and most preferably humans.
As used herein, the phrase "therapeutically effective amount" refers to the amount of
active compound or pharmaceutical agent that elicits the biological or medicinal response in a
tissue, system, animal, individual or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian,
medical doctor or other clinician, which includes one or more of the following:
(1) preventing the disease; for example, preventing a disease, condition or disorder in
an individual that may be predisposed to the disease, condition or disorder but does not yet
experience or display the pathology or symptomatology of the disease;
(2) inhibiting the disease; for example, inhibiting a disease, condition or disorder in an
individual that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disease,
condition or disorder (i.e., arresting further development of the pathology and/or
symptomatology) such as stabilizing viral load in the case of a viral infection; and
(3) ameliorating the disease; for example, ameliorating a disease, condition or
disorder in an individual that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology
of the disease, condition or disorder (i.e., reversing the pathology and/or symptomatology)
such as lowering viral load in the case of a viral infection.
One or more additional pharmaceutical agents such as, for example, anti-viral agents,
antibodies, anti-infiammatory agents, and/or immunosuppressants can be used in combination
with the compounds of the present invention for treatment of chemokine receptor-associated
diseases, disorders or conditions. The agents can be combined with the present compounds in
a single dosage form, or the agents can be administered simultaneously or sequentially as
separate dosage forms.
Suitable antiviral agents contemplated for use in combination with the compounds of
the present invention can comprise nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
(NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors and
other antiviral drugs.
Example suitable NRTIs include zidovudine (AZT); didanosine (ddl); zalcitabine
(ddC); stavudine (d4T); lamivudine (3TC); abacavir (1592U89); adefovir dipivoxil
[bis(POM)-PMEA]; lobucavir (BMS-180194); BCH-10652; emitricitabine [(-)-FTC]; beta-L-
FD4 (also called beta-L-D4C and named beta-L-2', 3'-dicleoxy-5-fluoro-cytidene); DAPD, ((-
)-beta-D-2,6,-diamino-purine dioxolane); and lodenosine (FddA).
Typical suitable NNRTIs include nevirapine (BI-RG-587); delaviradine (BHAP, U-
90152); efavirenz (DMP-266); PNU-142721; AG-1549; MKC-442 (l-(ethoxy-methyl)-S-(l-
methylethyl)-6-(phenylmethyl)-(2,4(lH,3H)~pyrimidi nedione); and (+)-calanolide A (NSC-
675451)andB.
Typical suitable protease inhibitors include saquinavir (Ro 31-8959); ritonavir (ABT-
538); indinavir (MK-639); nelfbavir (AG-1343); amprenavir (141W94); lasinavir (BMS-
234475); DMP-450; BMS-2322623; ABT-378; and AG-1 549.
Other antiviral agents include hydroxyurea, ribavirin, IL-2, IL-12, pentafuside and
Yissum Project No. 11607.
In some embodiments, anti-inflammatory or analgesic agents contemplated for use in
combination with the compounds of the present invention can comprise, for example, an
opiate agonist, a lipoxygenase inhibitor such as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, a
cyclooxygenase inhibitor such as a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, an interleukin inhibitor such
as an interleukin-I inhibitor, anNNMA antagonist, an inhibitor of nitric oxide or an inhibitor
of the synthesis of nitric oxide, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, or a cytokine-
suppressing antiinflammatory agent, for example, such as acetaminophen, asprin, codiene,
fentanyl, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketorolac, morphine, naproxen, phenacetin, piroxicam, a
steroidal analgesic, sufentanyl, sunlindac, tenidap, and the like. Similarly, the instant
compounds can be administered with, a pain reliever; a potentiator such as caffeine, an H2-
antagonist, simethicone, aluminum or magnesium hydroxide; a decongestant such as
phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pseudophedrine, oxymetazoline, ephinephrine,
naphazoline, xylometazoline, propylhexedfine, or levo-desoxyephedrine; an antfitussive such
as codeine, hydrocodone, caramiphen, carbetapentane, or dextramethorpban; a diuretic; and a
sedating or non-sedating antihistamine.
In some embodiments, pharmaceutical agents contemplated for use in combination
with the compounds of the present invention can comprise (a) VLA-4 antagonists such as
those described in US 5,510,332, W095/15973, W096/01644, W096/06108, W096/20216,
W096/229661, W096/31206, W096/4078, W097/030941, W097/022897 WO 98/426567
W098/53814, W098/53817, W098/538185, W098/54207, and W098/58902; (b) steroids such
as beclornethasone, methylpi-ednisolone, betamethasone, prednisone; dexamethasone, and
hydrocortisone; (c) immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin , tacrolimus, raparnycin and
other FK506 type immunosuppressants; (d) antihistamines (Hl-histamine antagonists) such as
bromopheniramine, chlorpheniramine, dexchlorpheniramine, triprolidine, clemastine,
diphenhydramine, diphenylpyraline, tripelennamine, hydroxyzine, methdilazine,
promethazine, trimeprazine, azatadine, cyproheptadine, antazoline, pheniramine pyrilarnine,
asternizole, terfenadine, loratadine, cetirizine, fexofenadine, desearboethoxyloratadine, and
the like; (e) non-steroidal anti-asthmatics such as terbutaline, metaproterenol, fenoterol,
isoethaiine, albuterol, bitolterol, pirbuterol, theophylline, cromolyn sodium, atropine,
ipratropium bromide, leukotriene antagonists (e.g., zafirlukast, montelukast, pranlukast,
iralukast, pobilukast, SKB-106,203), leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors (e.g., zileuton, BAY-
1005); (f) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs) such as propionic acid derivatives
(e.g., alminoprofen, benoxaprofen, bucloxic acid, carprofen, fenbufen, fenoprofen, fluprofen,
flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, indoprofen, ketoprofen, miroprofen, naproxen, oxaprozin, pirprofen,
pranoprofen, suprofen, tiaprofenic acid, and tioxaprofen), acetic acid derivatives (e.g.,
indomethacin, acernetacin, alclofenac, clidanac, diclofenac, fenclofenac, fenclozic acid,
fentiazac, furofenac, ibufenac, isoxepac, oxpinac, sulindac, tiopinac, tolmetin, zidometacin,
and zomepirac), fenarnic acid derivatives (flufenarnic acid, meclofenamic acid, rnefenamic
acid, niflumic acid and tolfenamic acid), biphenylearboxylic acid derivatives (diflunisal and
flufenisal), oxicarns (isoxicarn, piroxicam, sudoxicatn and tenoxican), salicylates (acetyl
salicylic acid, sulfasalazine) and the pyrazolones (apazone, bezpiperylon, feprazone,
mofebutazone, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone); (g) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)
inhibitors; (h) inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE-IV); (i) other antagonists of the
chernokine receptors, especially CXCR-4, CCRI, CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 ; (j) cholesterol
lowering agents such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (lovastatin, sirrivastatin and
pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, and other statins), sequestrants (cholestyramine and
colestipol), nicotinic acid, fenofibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil, clofibrat, fenofibrate and
benzafibrate), and probucol; (k) anti-diabetic agents such as insulin, sulfonylureas,
biguanides (metformin), U.-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose) and orlitazones (troglitazone
and pioglitazone); (1) preparations of interferon beta (interferon beta- lo., interferon beta-1
P); (m) other compounds such as aminosalicylic acids, antimetabolites such as azathioprine
and 6-mercaptopurine, and cytotoxic cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The weight ratio of the
compound of the compound of the present invention to the second active ingredient may be
varied and will depend upon the effective dose of each ingredient.
Pharmaceutical Formulations and Dosage Forms
When employed as pharmaceuticals, the compounds of Formula I can be administered
in the form of pharmaceutical compositions. These compositions can be prepared in a manner
well known in the pharmaceutical art, and can be administered by a variety of routes,
depending upon whether local or systemic treatment is desired and upon the area to be
treated. Administration may be topical (including ophthalmic and to mucous membranes
including intranasal, vaginal and rectal delivery), pulmonary (e.g., by inhalation or
insufflation of powders or aerosols, including by nebulizer; intratracheal, intranasal,
epidermal and transdermal), ocular, oral or parenteral. Methods for ocular delivery can
include topical administration (eye drops), subconjunctival, periocular or intravitreal injection
or introduction by balloon catheter or ophthalmic inserts surgically placed in the conjunctival
sac. Parenteral administration includes intravenous, intraarterial, subcutaneous,
intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection or infusion; or intracranial, e.g., intrathecal or
intraventricular, administration. Parenteral administration can be in the form of a single bolus
dose, or may be, for example, by a continuous perfusion pump. Pharmaceutical compositions
and formulations for topical administration may include transdermal patches, ointments,
lotions, creams, gels, drops, suppositories, sprays, liquids and powders. Conventional
pharmaceutical carriers, aqueous, powder or oily bases, thickeners and the like may be
necessary or desirable.
This invention also includes pharmaceutical compositions which contain, as the active
ingredient, one or more of the compounds of Formula I above in combination with one or
more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. In making the compositions of the invention, the
active ingredient is typically mixed with an excipient, diluted by an excipient or enclosed
within such a carrier in the form of, for example, a capsule, sachet, paper, or other container.
When the excipient serves as a diluent, it can be a solid, semi-solid, or liquid material, which
acts as a vehicle, carrier or medium for the active ingredient. Thus, the compositions can be
in the form of tablets, pills, powders, lozenges, sachets, cachets, elixirs, suspensions,
emulsions, solutions, syrups, aerosols (as a solid or in a liquid medium), ointments
containing, for example, up to 10% by weight of the active compound, soft and hard gelatin
capsules, suppositories, sterile injectable solutions, and sterile packaged powders.
In preparing a formulation, the active compound can be milled to provide the
appropriate particle size prior to combining with the other ingredients. If the active compound
is substantially insoluble, it can be milled to a particle size of less than 200 mesh. If the active
compound is substantially water soluble, the particle size can be adjusted by milling to
provide a substantially uniform distribution in the formulation, e.g. about 40 mesh.
Some examples of suitable excipients include lactose, dextrose, sucrose, sorbitol,
marmitol, starches, gum acacia, calcium phosphate, alginates, tragacanfh, gelatin, calcium
silicate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, cellulose, water, syrup, and methyl
cellulose. The formulations can additionally include: lubricating agents such as talc,
magnesium stearate, and mineral oil; wetting agents; emulsifying and suspending agents;
preserving agents such as methyl- and propylhydroxy-benzoates; sweetening agents; and
flavoring agents. The compositions of the invention can be formulated so as to provide quick,
sustained or delayed release of the active ingredient after administration to the patient by
employing procedures known in the art.
The compositions can be formulated in a unit dosage form, each dosage containing
from about 5 to about 100 mg, more usually about 10 to about 30 mg, of the active
ingredient. The term "unit dosage forms" refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary
dosages for human subjects and other mammals, each unit containing a predetermined
quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect, in association
with a suitable pharmaceutical excipient.
The active compound can be effective over a wide dosage range and is generally
administered in a pharmaceutically effective amount. It will be understood, however, that the
amount of the compound actually administered will usually be determined by a physician,
according to the relevant circumstances, including the condition to be treated, the chosen
route of administration, the actual compound administered, the age, weight, and response of
the individual patient, the severity of the patient's symptoms, and the like.
For preparing solid compositions such as tablets, the principal active ingredient is
mixed with a pharmaceutical excipient to form a solid preformulation composition containing
a homogeneous mixture of a compound of the present invention. When referring to these
preformulation compositions as homogeneous, the active ingredient is typically dispersed
evenly throughout the composition so that the composition can be readily subdivided into
equally effective unit dosage forms such as tablets, pills and capsules. This solid
preformulation is then subdivided into unit dosage forms of the type described above
containing from, for example, 0.1 to about 500 mg of the active ingredient of the present
invention.
The tablets or pills of the present invention can be coated or otherwise compounded to
provide a dosage form affording the advantage of prolonged action. For example, the tablet or
pill can comprise an inner dosage and an outer dosage component, the latter being in the form
of an envelope over the former. The two components can be separated by an enteric layer
which serves to resist disintegration in the stomach and permit the inner component to pass
intact into the duodenum or to be delayed in release. A variety of materials can be used for
such enteric layers or coatings, such materials including a number of polymeric acids and
mixtures of polymeric acids with such materials as shellac, cetyl alcohol, and cellulose
acetate.
The liquid forms in which the compounds and compositions of the present invention
can be incorporated for administration orally or by injection include aqueous solutions,
suitably flavored syrups, aqueous or oil suspensions, and flavored emulsions with edible oils
such as cottonseed oil, sesame oil, coconut oil, or peanut oil, as well as elixirs and similar
pharmaceutical vehicles.
Compositions for inhalation or insufflation include solutions ;and suspensions in
pharmaceuticaUy acceptable, aqueous or organic solvents, or mixtures thereof, and powders.
The liquid or solid compositions may contain suitable pharmaceuticaUy acceptable excipients
as described supra. In some embodiments, the compositions are administered by the oral or
nasal respiratory route for local or systemic effect. Compositions in can be nebulized by use
of inert gases. Nebulized solutions may be breathed directly from the nebulizing device or the
nebulizing device can be attached to a face masks tent, or intermittent positive pressure
breathing machine. Solution, suspension, or powder compositions can be administered orally
or nasally from devices which deliver the formulation in an appropriate manner.
The amount of compound or composition administered to a patient will vary
depending upon what is being administered, the purpose of the administration, such as
prophylaxis or therapy, the state of the patient, the maimer of administration, and the like. In
therapeutic applications, compositions can be administered to a patient already suffering from
a disease in an amount sufficient to cure or at. least partially arrest the symptoms of the
disease and its complications. Effective doses will depend on the disease condition being
treated as well as by the judgment of the attending clinician depending upon factors such as
the severity of the disease, the age, weight and general condition of the patient, and the like.
The compositions administered to a patient can be in the form of pharmaceutical
compositions described above. These compositions can be sterilized by conventional
sterilization techniques, or may be sterile filtered. Aqueous solutions can be packaged for use
as is, or lyophilized, the lyophilized preparation being combined with a sterile aqueous carrier
prior to administration. The pH of the compound preparations typically will be between 3 and
11, more preferably from 5 to 9 and most preferably from 7 to 8. It will be understood that
use of certain of the foregoing excipients, carriers, or stabilizers will result in the formation of
pharmaceutical salts.
The therapeutic dosage of the compounds of the present invention can vary according
to, for example, the particular use for which the treatment is made, the manner of
administration of the compound, the health and condition of the patient, and the judgment of
the prescribing physician. The proportion or concentration of a compound of the invention in
a pharmaceutical composition can vary depending upon a number of factors including
dosage, chemical characteristics (e.g., hydrophobicity), and the route of administration. For
example, the compounds of the invention can be provided in an aqueous physiological buffer
solution containing about 0.1 to about 10% w/v of the compound for parenteral
adminstration. Some typical dose ranges are from about 1 ug/kg to about 1 g/kg of body
weight per day. In some embodiments, the dose range is from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 100
mg/kg of body weight per day. The dosage is likely to depend on such variables as the type
and extent of progression of the disease or disorder, the overall health status of the particular
patient, the relative biological efficacy of the compound selected, formulation of the
excipient, and its route of administration. Effective doses can be extrapolated from dose-
response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems.
The compounds of the invention can also be formulated in combination with one or
more additional active ingredients which can include any pharmaceutical agent such as anti-
viral agents, antibodies, immune suppressants, anti-inflammatory agents and the like. In
some embodiments, the compounds of the invention are formulated in combination with one
or more anti-viral agents including protease inhibitors and other agents used for anti-HIY
therapy.
Labeled Compounds and Assay Methods
Another aspect of the present invention relates to radio-labeled compounds of
Formula I that would be useful not only in radio-imaging but also in assays, both in vitro and
in vivo, for localizing and quantitating the chemokine receptor in tissue samples, including
human, and for identifying chemokine receptor ligands by inhibition binding of a radio-
labeled compound. Accordingly, the present invention includes chemokine receptor assays
that contain such radio-labeled compounds.
The present invention further includes isotopically-labeled compounds of Formula I.
An "isotopically" or "radio-labeled" compound is a compound of the invention where one or
more atoms are replaced or substituted by an atom having an atomic mass or mass number
different from the atomic mass or mass number typically found in nature (i.e., naturally
occurring). Suitable radionuclides that may be incorporated in compounds of the present
invention include but are not limited to 2H (also written as D for deuterium), 3H (also written
as T for tritium), llC, 13C, UC, 13N, l5N, l50, 170, 180, 18F, 35S, 3SC1,82Br, 75Br, 76Br, 77Br,
123I, mI, 325I and m\. The radionuclide that is incorporated in the instant radio-labeled
compounds will depend on the specific application of that radio-labeled compound. For
example, for in vitro chemokine receptor labeling and competition assays, compounds that
incorporate 3H, I4C, 82Br, 1251,131I5 35S or will generally be most useful. For radio-imaging
applications UC, 18F, 125I,1231,1241,131L75Br, 76Br or 77Br will generally be most useful.
It is understood that a "radio-labeled " or "labeled compound" is a compound that has
incorporated at least one radionuclide. In some embodiments the radionuclide is selected
from the group consisting of 3H, 14C,1251,35S and 82Br.
Synthetic methods for incorporating radio-isotopes into organic compounds are
applicable to compounds of the invention and are well known in the art.
A radio-labeled compound of the invention can be used in a screening assay to
identify/evaluate compounds. In general terms, a newly synthesized or identified compound
(i.e., test compound) can be evaluated for its ability to reduce binding of the radio-labeled
compound of the invention to the chemokine receptor. Accordingly, the ability of a test
compound to compete with the radio-labeled compound for binding to the chemokine
receptor directly correlates to its binding affinity.
Kits
The present invention also includes pharmaceutical kits useful, for example, in the
treatment or prevention of chemokine-associated diseases or disorders, such as HIV infection,
which include one or more containers containing a pharmaceutical composition comprising a
therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I. Such kits can further include, if
desired, one or more of various conventional pharmaceutical kit components, such as, for
example, containers with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, additional
containers, etc., as will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art. Instructions, either as
inserts or as labels, indicating quantities of the components to be administered, guidelines for
administration, and/or guidelines for mixing the components, can also be included in the kit.
The invention will be described in greater detail by way of specific examples. The
following examples are offered for illustrative purposes, and are not intended to limit the
invention in any manner. Those of skill in the art will readily recognize a variety of
noncritical parameters which can be changed or modified to yield essentially the same results.
EXAMPLES
Example 1
5-({4-[(35)-4-(5-Bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
Step A
5-Bromo-l-indanol
To a solution of 5-bromo-l-indanone (2.0 g, 9.5 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added
NaBH4 (0.5 g, 12.8 mmol). After stirring at room temperature overnight, the solution was
quenched by addition of water. The resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc twice. The
combined EtOAc layers were dried over Na2S04 and concentrated under vacuum to give 2.0
g of the title compound as a solid. MS calculated for C9H9BrO: (M+H)+ 212.9; found 194.9
(M+H-H20)+, 197.0 (M+H-H20)+.

StepB
tert-Butyl (3S)-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate
To a solution of (2tS)-2-methylpiperazine (20.0 g, 0.200 mol) in methylene chloride
(300 mL) and triethylamine (20.4 g, 0.202 mol) was added dropwise a solution of di-tert-
butyl dicarbonate (44.0 g, 0.202 mol) in CH2C12 (100 mL) over 5 hrs. The mixture was
washed with water, brine, and then dried over MgS04 and concentrated. Column
chromatography on silica (10-20% MeOH in EtOAc) afforded 32.0 g (80%) of the title
compound as an oil.

StepC
tert-Butyl (3S)-4-(5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate
5-Bromo-l-indanol (1.0 g, 4.7 mmol) of Step A was dissolved in thionyl chloride (10
mL). After stirring at room temperature for 2 hrs, the solution was concentrated under
vacuum. The residue was taken up in DMF (10 mL). To the mixture were added tert-butyl
(3iS)-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate (0.94 g, 4.7 mmol), Nal (2 g, 13 mmol) and
triethylamine (1.5 mL, 10 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred at 70 CC overnight. After
cooling to room temperature, water was added. The solution was extracted with EtOAc twice.
The combined EtOAc layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSCU and concentrated.
Column chromatography on silica (50% EtOAc in hexane) provided two isomers. Isomer 1
(fast moving isomer): 0.36 g; MS calculated for CuftyBrNaC^ (M+H)+ 395; found 395.1,
397.0. Isomer 2 (slow moving isomer): 0.33 g; MS found 395.1, 397.0.
StepD
tert-Bntyl 4~[(3S)-4-(5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
cyanopiperidine-1-carboxylate
Isomer 1 from Step C (0.33 g, 0.83 mmol) was dissolved in 4 N HC1 in dioxane (4
mL). After stirring at room temperature for 2 h, the solution was concentrated. The residue
was taken up in CH2CI2 (5 mL). To it were added ferf-butyl 4-oxo-l-piperidinecarboxylate
(0.17 g, 0.85 mmol), Ti(Oi-Pr)4 (0.87 mL) and triethylamine (0.6 mL). The mixture was
stirred at room temperature overnight and the volatiles were removed under vacuum. The
residue was dissolved in THF (5 mL). To the mixture was added a 1.0 M solution of
diethylaluminum cyanide (1 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 30 °C for 5 h and
concentrated to provide the crude title compound (0.32 g) that was used for the next reaction
without purification. MS calculated for C25H35BrN402: (M+H)+ 503; found 503.1, 505.1.
StepE
tert~Butyl4-[(3S)~4-(5-bromo~2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate
To a solution of terf-butyl 4-[(35)-4-(5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-cyanopiperidine-l-carboxylate (0.32 g, 0.64 mmol) in THF (2 mL)
was added a 3 M solution of methyhnagnesium bromide (1.1 mL, 3.3 mmol). After stirring at
room temperature overnight, the solution was concentrated. Purification on silica (2:1
hexane/EtOAc) afforded the title compound (0.25 g). MS calculated for C25H37BrN302:
(M+H)+ 491; found 491.2,494.2.
StepF
(2S)-l-(5-Bromo-2,3-dihydro^H4nden-l-yl)-2-methy}-4-(4-methy
The intermediate obtained from step E (0.23 g) was dissolved in a solution of 4 N HC1
in dioxane (3 mL). After being stirred at room temperature for 2 h, the solution was
concentrated to provide the title compound as a trihydrochloride salt (0.23 g). MS calculated
for C20H3oBrN3: (M+H)+ 392; found 392.2,394.2.

StepG
4,6-Dimethylpyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid
Ethyl 2-Acetyl-3-ethoxybmt-2-enoate. A 5 L 4-neck flask equipped with a
mechanical stirrer, condenser, thermowell, addition funnel and N2 inlet was charged with
ethyl acetoacetate (493.1 g, 483 mL, 3.7931 mol, 1.0 equiv) and sodium ethoxide (3.1 g,
0.046 mol, 1.2 mol %). Ketene diethylacetal (880.0 g, 1000 mL, 7.5862 mol, 2.0 equiv) was
added over 1 hr maintaining the reaction temperature at addition was complete, the reaction mixture was heated at 85 °C + 5 °C for 7.5 hr. The
yellow brown reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and stirred overnight. Much
of the lower boiling components [EtOH, EtOAc, Me(OEt)3] were stripped on a roto-
evaporator (bath temperature ~65°C). The residual yellow-orange oil was distilled, collecting
the fraction with bp 100-107 °C (1.8-2.1 Torr) to give 675.2 g (89%) of product as a yellow
liquid.
Ethyl 4, 6-Dimethylpyrimidine-S-carboxylatc. Ethyl 2-acetyl-3--ethoxybut-2-enoate
(10.7 g, 0.0537 mol), formamidine acetate (5.6 g, 0.054 mol) and sodium ethoxide (2.7 M in
ethanol, 20.0 mL) were mixed in ethanol (30 mL) and the mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 4
h. The reaction mixture was cooled, quenched with water and concentrated. The crude
material was purified by flash chromatography on silical gel, eluting with 10%, 50% ethyl
acetate/hexane to afford the desired product (7.4 g, 76%) as a yellow oil. MS (EI) 181.1
(M+l). lE NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) 5 (ppm) 8.97 (s, 1H), 4.44 (q, 2H), 2.56 (s, 6H), 1.42 (t,
3H).
4,6-DimethyI-pyrimidine-5-carboxyHc acidl. Ethyl 4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-5-
carboxylate (10.9 g, 0.0605 mol) was mixed with a solution of sodium hydroxide (4.0 g, 0.10
mol) in water (70 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The aqueous
reaction was acidified using concentrated hydrochloric acid, and then concentrated to
dryness. To this residue, acetone (100 mL) was added. The insoluble sodium chloride was
filtered out and washed with methanol (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to dryness.
The residue was washed with ACN to give 8.5 g (92%) of product as a solid. MS (EI) 153.1
(M+l). *H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) 5 (ppm) 8.89 (s, 1H), 2.56 (s, 6H).
StepH
5-({4-[(3S)-4-(5-Bromo~2s3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6~dimethylpyrimidine
To a solution of (2.S)-l-(5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-2-methyl-4-(4-
methylpiperidin-4-yl)piperazine trihydrochloride (30 mg, 0.06 mmol) and 4,6-dimethyl-
pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (9 mg, 0.06 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) was added benzotriazol-1-
yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (30 mg, 0.06 mmol) followed
by triethylamine (30 mg, 0.3 mmol). After being stirred at room temperature for 5 h, the
mixture was diluted with EtOAc and a solution of Na2CC>3 in water. The organic layer was
separated, washed with water several times, dried over Na2S04 and. concentrated. Purification
on reverse phase HPLC and lyophilization gave the final product as a TFA salt (20 mg), MS
calculated for C^HseBrNsO: (M+H)+ 526; found 526.1, 528.1.

Example 2
5-({4-[(3S)-4-(5-Fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazitt-l-yl]-4-
methyIpiperidin-l-yI}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in. Example 1 using
appropriate starting materials. MS calculated for C27H36FN5O; (M+H)+ 466; found 466.2.
Example 3
5-({4-[(35)-4-(6-Bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methyIpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methyIpiperidin-l-yI}carbonyl)-4,6-dimetIiylpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 1 using
appropriate starting materials, MS calculated for C27H36BrN50: (M+Hf 526; found 526.1,
528.1.
Example 4
5-({4-[(3S)-4-(6-Fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethyIpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 1 using
appropriate starting materials. MS calculated for C27H36FN5O: (M+H)+ 466; found 466.2.
Example 5
5-({4-[(35)-4-(6-Bromo-l,2,3»4-tetrahydronaphthalen-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazm-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yI}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethyIpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 1 using
appropriate starting materials. MS calculated for C28H38BrN50: (M+H)+ 540; found 540.2,
542.1.
Example 6
5-({4-[(3iS)-4-(7-Bromo-l,2,3»4-tetrahydronaphthalen-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyI)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in. Example 1 using
appropriate starting materials. MS calculated for C28H38BrN50: (M+H)+ 540; found 540.2,
542.1.
Example 7
4,6-DimethyI-5-[(4-methyI-4-{(35)-3-methyI-4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden-l-yl]piperazin~l-yl}piperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]pyrimidme

Step A
Diethyl [2-bromo-4~ (trifluoromethyl) benzyljmalonate
Into a suspension of sodium hydride (1.4 g, 58 mmol) in DMF (37 mL) at 10 °C was
dropwise added ethyl malonate (14 g, 88 mmol). After addition the mixture was stirred for 1
hr at room temperature. To it was slowly added a solution of 2-bromo-l-(chloromethyl)-4-
(trifluororaethyl)benzene (10.0 g, 36.6 mmol) in DMF (20 mL). After being stirred at room
temperature overnight, the mixture was poured into ice water (300 mL). The resulting
solution was extracted twice with ether. The combined extracts were washed with water and
brine, dried over MgS04 and concentrated. Column chromatography on silica (5-10% EtOAc
in hexane) afforded the title compound as an oil (13.5g, 93%). MS calculated for
Ci5Hi6BrF304-. (M+H)+ 397; found 397.0,399.0.
StepB
2-Bromo-4- (trifluoromethyl) b enzyjjmalonic acid
To a solution of diethyl [2-bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]malonate (13.5 g, 34
mmol) in ethanol (60 mL) and water (28 mL) was added a 5 M solution of sodium hydroxide
in water (20 mL). After being stirred at room temperature overnight, ethanol was removed in
vacuo. The water solution was diluted by addition of more water and extracted with ether
twice. The resulting water layer was acidified to pH=3 with concentrated HC1 and extracted
with ether 3 times. The combined ether layers were washed with water aaid brine, dried over
MgS04 and concentrated to give the title compound as a white solid (9.8 g, 84%). MS
calculated for CnH8BrF304: (M+FT/ 341; found 363 (M+Na)+.

Step C
3-[2-Bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
[2-Bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]malonic acid (9.80 g, 28.7 mmol) in a round-
bottom flask was heated to 180 °C and heating was continued at 180 °C for 1.5 hrs. After
cooling to room temperature, the solid was dissolved in ether. The resulting solution was
dried over MgS04 and concentrated. The solid was washed with hexane to give the title
compound (7.20 g, 85%). MS calculated for Ci0H8BrF3O2: (M+H)+297; found 297.0, 299.0.
StepD
6-(Trifluoromethyl)indan~l-one
To a solution of 3-[2-bromo-4-(trifiuoromethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid (6.40 g, 21.5
mmol) in THF (300 mL) and hexane (80 mL) at -78 °C was added a 2.5 M solution of n-
butyllithium in hexane (19 mL). After being stirred for 15 min, the mixture was poured into a
2 N HC1 solution (150 mL). The two layers were separated and the water layer was extracted
by ether. The combined organic layers were washed with NaHC03 solution, water, brine,
dried over MgS04 and concentrated. Column chromatography on silica (10-20% EtOAC in
hexane) provided the title compound (2.2 g, 51%) as an oil. MS calculated for C10H7F3O:
(M+H)+201; found 201.0.
StepE
6-(Trifluoromethyl) indan-1-ol
To a solution of 6-(trifluoromethyl)indan-l-one (2.20 g, 11 mmol) in THF (30 mL)
was added sodium borohydride (0.50 g, 13 mmol). After being stirred for 30 min, methanol
(10 mL) was added slowly. Stirring was continued for 2 hrs. The reaction was quenched by
addition of an aqueous ammonium chloride solution. The two layers were separated and the
water layer was extracted by ether. The combined organic layers were washed with water,
brine, dried over MgSCU and concentrated. Column chromatography on silica (10-15%
EtOAC in hexane) gave the title compound (1.52 g, 68%) as an oil. MS calculated for
C10H9F3O: (M+H)+ 203; found 185.0 (M-H20+1)+.

StepF
l-Chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)indane
6-(Trifluoromethyl)indan-l-ol (1.52 g, 7.5 mmol) was dissolved in thionyl chloride
(15 mL). After being stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs, the solution was concentrated in
vacuo to provide the title compound (1.5 g, 90%).
Step G
tert-Butyl(3S)-3-Methyl~4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-ind^
carboxylate
A solution of l-chloro-6-(trifiuoromethyl)indane (1.52 g, 6.89 mmol), tert-butyl (36)-
3-methylpiperazine-l -carboxylate (2.1 g, 10 mmol), sodium iodide (3 g, 20 mmol) and
triethylamine (3 g, 30 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 60 °C overnight. After cooling to
room temperature, water was added. The resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc twice.
The combined extracts were washed with water and brine, dried over MgSO* and
concentrated. Column chromatography on silica (10%-30% EtOAc in hexane) afforded two
isomers. Isomer 1: 0.52 g (brown, oil). MS calculated for C20H27F3N2O2: (M+H)+ 385; found
385.2. Isomer 2: 0.41 g (brownoil). MS: (M+H)+ 385.2

StepH
(2S)-2-Methyl-l-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]piperazim
tert-Butyl (3S)-3-methyl-4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-
piperazine-1-carboxylate (isomer 1 from step G, 0.52 g, 1.4 mmol) was dissolved in a 4 M
solution of HC1 in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL). After being stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs, the
solution was concentrated in vacuo to provide the title compound as a dihydrochloride salt
(0.48 g, 100%). MS calculated for C15H19F3N2: (M+H)+ 285; found 285.1.
Step I
tert-Butyl4~Cyano-4-{(3S)-3-methyl-4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH~inden-l-
yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidine-l-carboxylate
(2iS)-2-Methyl-l-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]piperazine
dihydrochloride (0.38 g, 1.3 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane. The solution was
washed with saturated NaHC03 solution, dried over MgS04 and concentrated. The residue
was taken up in dichloromethane (20 mL). To it were added terf-butyl 4-oxo-l-
piperidinecarboxylate (0.32 g, 1.6 mmol) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (0.8 g, 3 mmol). The
mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and concentrated in vacuo. The residue
was taken up in THF (20 mL). Diethylaluminum cyanide (0.18 g3 1.6 mmol) was added.
After being stirred at room temperature for 5 hrs, the solution was quenched by addition of
water (3 mL). The resulting solution was filtered through Celite and the Celite was washed
with dichloromethane several times. The filtrate was dried over MgS04 and concentrated to
give the title compound (0.72 g, 98%) as a brown viscous oil. MS calculated for
C26H35F3N4O2: (M+H)+ 493; found 493.2.

Step J
tert-Butyl4-Methyl-4-{(3S)-3-methyl~4-[6-(Mfliioromethyl)-213-dihydro-lH~inden~l-
yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidine-l-carboxylate
To a solution of tert-butyl 4-cyano-4-{(35)-3-methyl-4-[6-(1xifluoromethyl)-233-
dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidine-l-carboxylate (0.72 g, 1.3 mmol) in THF
(20 mL) was added a 3 M solution of methylmagnesium bromide in ether (4.0 mL). After
being stirred at room temperature overnight, the reaction was quenched by addition of water.
The resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc twice. The combined EtOAc layers were
dried and concentrated. Column chromatography on silica (20-30% EtOAc in hexane)
provided the title compound (0.32 g, 50%) as a viscous oil. MS calculated for C26H38F3N3O2:
(M+H)+482; found 482.3.
StepK
(2S)-2-Methyl-4-(4-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-l-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2
yl]piperazine.
tert-Butyl 4-methyl-4-{(3^-3-methyl-4-[6-(1rifluoromethyl)-253-dihydro-lH-inden-
l-yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidine-l-carboxylate (0.32 g, 0.6 mmol) was dissolved in a 4 M
solution of HC1 in dioxane (8.0 mL). After being stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs, the
solution was concentrated to give the title compound (0.35 g) as a trihydrochloride salt. MS
calculated for C^EbFaNs: (M+H)+ 382; found 382.2.
StepL
4,6-Dimethyl-5-[(4-methyl-4-{(3S)-3-methyl-4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)~2J'dih^
yl]piperc&in-l~yl}piperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]pyrimidim
To a solution of (2.S)-2-methyl-4-(4-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-l-[6-(1xifluoromethyl)-2,3-
dmydro-lH-inden-1-yrjpiperazine trihydrochloride (100 mg, 0.183 mmol), 4,6-dimethyl-
pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (67 mg, 0.22 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was aided benzotriazol-1-
yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (97 mg, 0.22 mmol) followed
by triethylamine (90 mg, 0.9 mmol). After being stirred at room temperature overnight, a
solution of NaHC03 in water was added. The resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc
twice. The combined EtOAc layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSC"4 and
concentrated. Column chromatography on silica (10-20% MeOH in EtOAc) afforded the title
compound (60 mg) as an oil. MS calculated for C28H36F3N5O: (M+H)+ 516; found 516.2.
Example 8
4,6-Dimethyl-5-[(4-methyl-4-{(35)-3-methyl-4-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden-l-yl]piperazin-l-yI}piperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]pyrimidine
Step A
[2-Bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyI]methanol
To a solution of 2-bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile (10.0 g, 40 mmol) in
dichloromethane (100 mL) was dropwise added a 1.0 M solution of diisobutylaluminum
hydride in hexane (48 mL). The resulting solution was stirred under nitrogen at ambient
temperature for 1 h and was then diluted by addition of ether (100 mL). After cooling in an
ice bath, a 3 N solution of HC1 was carefully added, and the mixture was vigorously stirred at
ambient temperature for 15 min. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSCU)
and evaporated. The resulting oil was purified by flash chromatography (5% EtOAc/hexane)
affording 5 g of 2-bromo-5-trifluoromethylbenzaldehyde. ^NMR (CDC13) 5 10.39 (s, 1H),
8.18 (d, J=2 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (d, js=8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (dd, J=8.5 Hz, 2 Hz, 1H).
To a mixture of 2-bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde (5 g, 20 mmol) in THF (20
mL) at 0 °C was added sodium borohyclride (0.8 g, 20 mmol). The resulting mixture was
stirred at 0 °C to ambient temperature for 1 h. The reaction was quenched by addition of an
aqueous solution of NaHC03. The resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc twice. The
combined extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated to give
the desired alcohol as a white solid (4.4 g). !H NMR (CDCI3) 8 7.81 (s, 1H), 7.66 (d, J=8.3
Hz, 1H), 7.42 (dd, .7=8.3 Hz, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.03 (m, 1H).
StepB
l-Bromo-2-(chloromethyl)~4-(ti"ifhioromethyl)benzene
To [2-bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methanol (4.4 g, 17 mmol) was added thionyl
chloride (5 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h.
Evaporation in vacuo gave the crude product as an oil. *H NMR (CDCI3) 5 7.77 (d, J=8.3 Hz,
1H), 7.73 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (dd5 J=8.5, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (d, J=12.7 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (d,
J=12.2Hz).

StepC
Diethyl [2-Bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]malonate
To a solution of ethyl malonate (23 g, 140 mmol) in DMF (70 ml,) at 0 °C was added
sodium hydride (3.9 g, 60% in mineral oil, 97 mmol), and the resulting mixture was stirred at
ambient temperature for 30 min. To the mixture was added a solution of l-bromo-2-
(chloromethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (16 g, 60 rnmol) in DMF (20 mL). The reaction
mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h and quenched with ice water. The resulting
solution was extracted with EtOAc twice. The extracts were washed with brine, dried
(MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by flash
chromatography on silica eluting with 3% then 5% EtOAc/hexane to afford the desired
product (15.2 g, 64% ) as an oil LC/MS calculated for Ci5Hi6BrF304: (M+H)+397; found
397.1/399.1.
StepD
3-[2-Bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanoicacid
To a solution of diethyl [2-bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]malonate (22.9 g, 57.6
mmol) in ethanol (100 mL) and water (50 mL) was added a 5 M solution of sodium
hydroxide in water (30 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 h. Ethanol was removed
by evaporation. The aqueous layer was extracted with ether and then acidified with
concentrated HC1 to pH 5 at which time a lot of white solid precipitated out. The solid was
collected by filtration. The filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate twice, and the extracts
were washed with brine, dried (MgSCU) and concentrated to give a white solid.
The combined solid was decarboxylated by heating in an oil bath to 180 °C for about
1 h. The resulting yellow oil was cooled and pumped in vacuo to afford the desired mono-
acid (11.5 g, 67%). LC/MS calculated for C10H8BrF3O2: (M+H)+ 297; found 297.1/299.1.

Step E .
5-(Trifluoromethyl)indan-l-one
To a solution of 3-[2-bromo-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid (2.8 g, 9.4
mmol) in THF (100 mL) and hexane (20 mL) at -78 °C was dropwise added a 2.5 M solution
of n-butyllithium in hexane (8.3 mL). After the addition had been completed, the reaction
was quenched with saturated NH4CI. The resulting solution was extracted with ethyl acetate
twice. The extracts were washed with saturated NaHCC>3, brine, dried over MgSC>4 and
concentrated. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography on silica eluting with
10- 20% EtOAc/hexane to afford, the desired product as a white solid (0.7 g, 37%). LC/MS
calculated for Ci0H7F3O: (M+H)+ 201; found 201.1.

StepF
5-(Trifluoromethyl)indan~l~ol
To a solution of 5-(trifluoromethyl)indan-l-one (0.7 g, 3 mmol) in THF (5 mL)
cooled in an ice bath was added sodium borohydride (0.1 g, 3 mmol) followed by MeOH (1
mL). After being stirred for 30 min, the reaction was quenched with aqueous NaHC03. The
resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc twice. The extracts were washed with brine,
dried (MgSCU), filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by flash
chromatography on silica eluting with 20% EtOAc/hexane to afford the desired product (0.65
g, 92%) as an oil. LC/MS calculated for C10H9F3O: (M+H)+ 203; found 185.1 (M+H-H20)+.
StepG
4,6-Dimethyl-5-[(4-meihyl-4-{(3S)-3-methyl-4-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2
yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]pyrimidine
Starting from 5-(trifluoromethyl)indan-l-ol, the title compound was prepared
following the procedures described for Example 7. MS calculated for C28H36F3N5O: (M+H)+
516; found 516.2.
Example 9
l-((25)-4-{l-[(4,6-DimethyIpyrimidin-5-yl)carbonyI]-4-methyIpiperidin-4-yI}-2-
methylpiperazin-l-yl)-S-(trifluoromethyl)indan-2-ol
Step A
6-(Trifluoromethyl)-lH-indene
A mixture of 5-(trifluoromethyl)indan-l-ol (1.6 g, 7.9 mmol) and p-toluenesulfonic
acid (0.02 g, 0.1 mmol) in toluene (20 mL) was refiuxed through a Dean-Stark trap for about
3 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was purified by flash
chromatography on silica eluting with 5% EtOAc/hexane to afford the desired product as an
oil (1.4 g, 96%).

StepB
4~(Trifluoromethyl)-6,6a-dihydro-laH-indeno[l,2-b]oxirene
To a solution of 6-(trifluoromethyl)-lH-indene (1.1 g, 6 mmol) in anhydrous
dichloromethane (80 mL) at -78 °C was added a 5.5 M solution of tart-butyl hydroperoxide
in «-decane (1.3 mL) followed by titanium tetrachloride (0.79 mL, 7.2 mmol). After being
stirred at -78 °C for 1 h, the resulting brown solution was quenched with a mixture of
Et20/saturated Na2S03 solution. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h to
give a colorless solution, The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over
MgS04 and concentrated to give the crude product (1.2 g) as a solid. LC/MS calculated for
C10H7F3O: (M+H)+ 201; found 201.0.

StepC
tert-Butyl (3S)-4-[2-Hydroxy-5-(tnifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
A mixture of 4-(trifluoromethyl)"6J6a-diliydro-laH-mdeno[l,2-b]oxirene (1.2 g, 6.0
mmol) and fert-butyl (3S)-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxyIate (1.4 g, 7.2 mol) in ethanol (20
mL) was refluxed overnight. Another gram of terf-butyl (35)-3-methylpiperazine-l-
carboxylate was added. The mixture was transferred into a sealed flask and heated to 95 °C
for 2 days. The solvent was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash
chromatography eluting with 25% EtQAc/hexane, followed by 5% MeOH/EtOAc + 0.5%
concentrated NH4OH. Two isomers were isolated. Isomer 1 (fast moving isomer): 0.45 g; MS
calculated for the C20H27F3N2O3 (M+H)+ 401; found 401.1. Isomer 2 (slow moving isomer):
0.38 g; MS found 401.1.
StepD
l-((2S)-4-{l-[(4,6-Dimethylpyrimidin-5-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperidin-4~yI}-2-
methylpiperazin~l -yl) -5- (trifluoromethyl) indan-2-ol
Starting from tert-bvXyl (35)-4-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifiuoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-
l-yl]-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate (isomer 1 from step C), the title compound was
prepared using procedures similar to those described in Example 7. MS calculated for
C28H36F3N5O2: (M+H)+ 532; found 532.
Example 10
5-[(4-{(35)-4-[2-Methoxy-5-(trffluoromethyI)-2,3-diIiydro-lH-inden-l.yl]-3-
methylpiperazm-l-yI}-4-methylpiperidm-l~yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
Step A
tert-Butyl (3S)-4-[2-Methoxy~5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH4nden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate
To a solution of tert-butyl (35)-4-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate (isomer 1 from step C in Example 9) (50 mg,
0.1 mmol) in THF (2 mL) at 0 °C was added NaH (8 mg, 60% in oil, 0.2 mmol). After being
stirred for 10 min, Mel (28 mg, 0.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at ambient
temperature for 1 h and quenched with aqueous NH4CI. The resulting solution was extracted
with EtOAc twice. The extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and
concentrated to give the crude product. LC/MS calculated for C21H29F3N2O3: (M+H)+ 415;
found 415.2.
StepB
(2S)-l-[2-Methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)~2,3-dihydro-lH^nden-l-yl]-2-meihylpiperazine
To tert-butyl (35)-4-[2-methoxy-5-(tri.fluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-1 -yl]-3-
methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (51.8 mg, 0.125 mmol) was added a 4.0 M solution of
hydrogen chloride in dioxane (2 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h
and concentrated in. vacuo to give the title compound as a dihydrochloride salt. LC/MS
calculated for C^BbClFsNaO: (M+H)+ 351; found 351.1.
StepC
tert-Butyl4-{(3S)-4-[2-Methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-indim-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate
To a mixture of (25)4-[2-methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-2-
methylpiperazine hydrochloride (44 mg, 0.12 mmol) and teTt-butyl 4-oxo-l-
piperidinecarboxylate (25 mg, 0.12 mmol) in methylene chloride (2 mL) was added
triethylamine (0.07 mL, 0.5 mmol), followed by titanium tetraisopropojdde (0.037 mL, 0.12
mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and concentrated to
provide the crude enamine.
The crude enamine was dissolved in THF and treated with 1.0 M of diethylaluminum
cyanide in toluene (0.15 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and
quenched by addition of aqueous NaHC03 and EtOAc. The resulting solution was filtered
through Celite. The filtrate was separated and the organic layer was washed with brine, dried
(MgS04), filtered and concentrated to give the crude cyano compound. LC/MS: 523.2
(M+H)+.
The crude cyano compound was dissolved in THF and treated with a 3.0 M solution
of methylmagnesium bromide in ether (0.2 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at room
temperature for 4 h. Another 0.2 mL of methylmagnesium bromide solution was added and
the mixture was stirred at room temperature for two days. The reaction was quenched with
aqueous NaHC03 and extracted with EtOAc twice. The extracts were washed with brine,
dried (MgSCH), filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by flash
chromatography on silica eluting with 25% then 50% EtOAc/hexane to give the title
compound (25 mg). MS calculated for C27H40F3N3O3: (M+H)+ 512; found 512.2.
StepD
5-[(4-{(3S)-4~[2-Methoxy-5-(Mfliwromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-
l-yl}-4-methylpiperidinA-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
To tert-butyl 4-{(3,S)-4-[2-methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-m-inden-l-yl]-
3-methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate (0.02 g, 0.04 mmol) was added a
4.0 M solution of HC1 in 1,4-dioxane (2.0 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at room
temperature for 1 h, concentrated, and pumped in vacuo to dryness.
To the above amine hydrochloride was added DMF (2.0 mL), 4,6-dimethyl-
pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (0.01 g, 0.08 mmol), benzotriazol-1-
yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (0.026 g, 0.059 mmol) and
triethylamine (0.02 mL, 0.1 mmol). After being stirred at room temperature overnight, the
reaction was quenched with aqueous NaHCCb and extracted with EtOAc twice. The extracts
were washed with brine, dried (MgSCH), filtered and concentrated. The crude material was
purified by reverse phase HPLC (10- 80% acetonitrile-water with 0.05% TFA, 30 min, 10
ml/min) to give the title compound (25 mg) as a bis-TFA salt. LC/MS calculated for
C29H38F3N5O2: (M+H)+ 546; found 546.2.
Example 11
5-[(4-(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyI)-2,3-dihydro-lH-iitiden-l-yl]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yI-4-methyIpiperidiii-l-yI)carbonyI]-4,6-dimethyl][)yrimidine
dihydrochloride.
Step A
2-Allyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)henzaldehyde.
To a oven dried 5 L 4-neck round bottom flask fitted with overhead stirring, nitrogen
needle, 500 mL addition funnel, 250 mL addition funnel and thermometer, tetrahydrofuran
(1400 mL) and N,N,N'-trimethylethane-l,2-diamine (105 mL, 0.788 mol) were added. The
solution was cooled to -40 °C (dry ice/ MeCN bath). rc-Butyllithium (1.6 M in hexane, 510
mL) was added to the 500 mL addition funnel and then added to the above solution over 40
minutes (-40 to -35 °C). The colorless solution became light yellow in color. The cold bath
was then removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes while being warmed to
a temperature of -10 °C. The reaction was cooled to -40 to -45 °C and p-
trifluoromethylbenzaldehyde (77 mL, 0.56 mol) was added via a syringe to the 250 mL
addition funnel. The aldehyde was added drop wise over 15 minutes while reaction
temperature was maintained at -40 to -35 °C. The reaction became brown in color over the
course of the addition. The reaction was stirred at -50 to -40 °C for 30 minutes. The second
addition of 1.6 M of n-butyllithium in hexane (400 mL) was carried out over 50 minutes via
addition funnel. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to -25 °C and was maintained at
-20 to -30 °C for 3 hours before copper(I) bromide (108 g, 0.738 mol) was added directly via
a powder funnel. The cold bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to warm and
stirred for additional 90 minutes. The reaction was cooled to -30 to -25 °C and a solution of
allyl bromide (78 mL, 0.90 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (240 mL) was added dropwise over 40
minutes through the 250 mL addition funnel in portions. After being stirred for 2 h, the
reaction was quenched by the addition of methanol (100.0 mL). The cold bath was removed
and the mixture was stirred for 5 minutes before 6.00 M of hydrochloric acid solution (300.0
mL) was added ( pH=~7). After the mixture was stirred for additional 15 minutes, it was
passed through a celite pad, and the celite pad was rinsed with ether. Saturated ammonium
chloride (400 mL) was added and the organic phase was collected. Aqueous phase was
further extracted with 300 mL ether. The combined organic phase was washed with 400 ml
saturated ammonium chloride (400mL), 1 M sodium bicarbonate (3x400 mL) and brine (400
mL), and dried over magnesium sulfate. After the removal of the drying agent by filtration,
the filtrate was concentrated on rotovap to give a brown liquid. Further purification was
carried out by distillation to givel05.4 g (85%) of product.!H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8
(ppm) 10.22 (s, 1H), 8.02 (d, 1H), 7.80 (d, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 6.02 (m, 1H), 5.06(m, 1H),
4.96 (m, 1H), 3.89 (d, 2H).
StepB
2-Allyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l-vinylbenzene.
Triphenylmethylphosphonium bromide (182 g, 0.508 mol) was suspended in diethyl
ether (900 mL, 8 mol) and cooled to 0 °C. n-Butyllitliium (1.60 M in hexane, 289 mL) was
added rapidly through a syringe and the resulting mixture warmed to room temperature and
stirred overnight (18 h). The stirring was stopped to allow the solids to settle and the top clear
solution was transferred via a cannula to a solution of 2-allyl-4-
(trifiuoromethyl)benzaldehyde (99.0 g, 0.462 mol) in methylene chloride (900 mL), which
was being stirred at 0 °C. Following the addition, the ice bath was removed and the mixture
was heated to reflux for approx. 30 h. After cooling to room temperature., the orange solution
was concentrated until a small amount of solvent was present. Silica gel was added to the
stirred solution until a thick slurry was obtained, Pentane (500 mL) was added and more solid
crashed out. The mixture was plugged through silica gel in a glass fritted vacuum funnel
using pentane (1.5 L). The pentane solution was collected into a 3 L round bottom flask. The
nearly colorless liquid was then concentrated to give pure diene (78 g, 79.3 %); H NMR (400
MHz, CDC13) 5 (pprn) 7.58 (d, 1H), 7.45 (d, 1H), 7.41 (s, 1H), 6.95 (dd, 1H), 5.95(m, 1H),
5.72 (d, 1H), 5.41 (d, 1H), 5.11 (d, 1H), 5,00 (d, 1H), 3.48 (d, 2H).
StepC
6-(Trifluoromethyl)-lH-indene.
Methylene chloride (0.6 L) was added to a 1 L flask containing 2-allyl-4-
(trifluoromethyl)-l-vinylbenzene (80.0 g, 0.377 mol).
Bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)benz;7lidine ruthenium(IV) dichloride (Grubbs catalyst, 1st
generation) (3.1 g, 0.0038 mol) was added to the solution and the resulting solution was
refluxed overnight (18 h). The solvent was evaporated to give a dark oil, which was passed
through a silica gel plug using pentane. After pentane was carefully removed, 57 g (82.8%) of
pure product was collected as slight brown oil. H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 8 (ppm) 7.72 (s,
1H), 7.55 (d, 1H), 7.48 (d, 1H), 6.93 (m, 1H), 6.74 (m, 1H), 3.46 (brs, 1H).

StepD
4-(Trifluoromethyl)-6,6a-dihydro-laH-indeno[l,2-b]oxirene.
To a solution of 2 M sodium, hypochlorite in water (200 mL) at 0 °C was added
aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 M, 40 mL), 4-(3-phenylpropyl)pyridine N-oxide (6.0g, 0.03
mol) and a solution of (S,S)-(+)-N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-l,2-
cyclohexanediamino-manganese(IH) chloride (4.13 g, 0.00651 mol) in dichloromethane (700
mL). The resulting brown solution was allowed to be stirred for 15 min at 0 °C. To the cold
solution, a solution of 6-(trifluoromethyl)-lH-indene (51 g, 0.24 mol) in dichloromethane
(700 mL) was added with simultaneous addition of aqueous sodium hypochlorite (2 M, 200
mL). The reaction was kept at 0 °C and the brown solution remained the same color upon
addition of the indene. After 4 h, the organic phase was collected and dried over sodium
sulfate. The mixture was plugged through silica gel using pentane. After removal of the
solvent, 42 g (88%, 84% ee) of epoxide was obtained. *H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 (ppm)
7.72 (s, 1H), 7.55 (d, 1H), 7.48 (d, 1H), 6.93 (m, 1H), 6.74 (m, 1H), 3.46 (brs, 1H).
StepE
(2S)-l-Benzyl~2-methylpiperazine.
tert-Butyl (3S)~3-meihylpiperazine-l-carboxylate (380.0 g, 1.897 mol) and benzyl
bromide (248 mL, 2.09 mol) were mixed in acetonitrile (440 mL). Triethylamine (300.0 mL,
2.152 mol) was carefully added and the mixture was refluxed overnight. After the mixture
was cooled down to room temperature, the solid was filtered out. The filtrate was
concentrated. The residue was combined with the solid and dissolved in methylene chloride.
The methylene chloride solution was washed with IN NaOH and dried over magnesium
sulfate. After the solvent was removed, the residue was directly treated with 6 N HC1 at 0 °C,
and 3 hours later, the solution was basified by slowly adding solid sodium hydroxide. The
resulting mixture was extracted with methylene chloride and the extracts were dried over
magnesium sulfate. After removal of the solvent, 330 g (91.4%) of product was obtained. The
product was used directly for next step.XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 (ppm) 7.30 (m, 5H),
4.05 (d, 1H), 3.15 (d, 1H), 2.92 (m, 1H), 2.83 (m, 2H), 2.67 (m, 1H), 2.60 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m,
1H), 2.36 (bs, 2H), 2.06 (m, 1H), 1.14 (d, 3H). MS (EI) 191.1 (M+l).

StepF
t-Butyl 4-[(3S)-4-Benzyl-3-methylpiperazin-l~yl]-4-cyanopiperidine-l-carboxylate.
In a 5 L flask, (2S)-l-benzyl-2-methylpiperazine (260.0 g, 1.366 mol),
dichloromethane (1000 mL) , ^-butyl 4-oxo~l-piperidinecarboxylate (272 g, 1.37 mol) and
titanium tetraisopropoxide (480.0 mL, 1.626 mol) were mixed and the mixture was stirred at
room temperature for 20 h. The mixture was cooled down to 0 °C and diethylaluminum
cyanide in toluene (1.0 M, 1600 mL) was added, dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred
at room temperature for 20 h. The reaction content was then split into two 5 L flasks, To each
flask, 1L of ethyl acetate, 500 g of sodium bicarbonate, 150 g of celite were added before
they were cooled down to -40 °C using dry ice/acetonitrile. To each falsk, 200 mL of
saturated aqueous sodium sulfate was then slowly added with vigorous stirring. After the
reaction mixture was slowly warmed up to room temperature and stirred for 4 hours, 1 L of
methanol was added to each flask. After being stirred overnight, the reaction mixture was
filtered through a thin layer of sand. The cake was taken back into a 5 L flask and stirred with
3 L of methanol for 5 hours, and insoluble solid was filtered off. The combined filtrates were
concentrated to dryness, and 3 L of methylene chloride was added. Insoluble solid was
filtered off. The filtrate was dried with magnesium sulfate, the solvent was removed to give
484 g (88.9%) of product as a slight yellow solid. The crude product was essentially pure and
used directly for next step. *H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 8 (ppm) 7.32 (m, 5H), 4.04 (d, 1H),
3.95 (brs, 2H), 3.15 (d, 1H), 3.15 (brs, 2H), 2.82 (m, 1H), 2.73 (m, 2H), 2.44 (m, 2H), 2.25
(t, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 2.05 (m, 1H), 1.66 (m, 1H), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.17 (d, 3H); MS (EI) 399.2
(M+l).
StepG
t-Butyl 4-[(3S)-4-Benzyl-3-methyipiperazin-l -yl]-4-methylpiperldine-l -carboxylate.
A solution of tert-butyl 4-[(3S)-4-benzyl-3-methylpiperazin-l-yI]-4-cyanopiperidine-
1-carboxylate (242 g, 0.605 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (1.5 L) in a 5 L flask was cooled down to
-40 °C using dry ice/acetonitrile. Methylmagnesium bromide (3.0 M in tetrahydrofuran, 800
mL) was slowly added. After the addition, the reaction mixture was slowly warmed up to
room temperature and stirred overnight. After cooling down to -40 °C using dry
ice/acetonitrile, celite (200g), and then ethyl acetate (500 mL) were carefully added. After the
addition, the mixture was stirred for 4 hours while the temperature slowly rose to room
temperature. The reaction mixture was cooled back down to -40 °C again, and water (200
mL), and then methanol (1.5 L) were added. After being stirred at room temperature
overnight, the mixture was filtered through a thin layer of sand. The cake was taken back into
a 5 L flask and stirred with methanol (2 L) for 5 hours. Insoluble solid was filtered off. The
combined filtrates were concentrated to dryness. Methylene chloride (3.5 L) was added.
Insoluble solid was filtered off. The filtrate was dried with magnesium sulfate. After the
solvent was removed, 436 g (92.6%) of product was obtained as a white sticky solid. The
crude product was essentially pure and used directly for next step. MS (EI) 388.3 (M+l).
StepH
t-Butyl4-Methyl-4-[(3S)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carboxylate.
A solution of ?-butyl 4-[(3S)-4-benzyl-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-methylpiperidine-l-
carboxylate (45.5 g, 0.118 mol) in methanol (320 mL) and acetic acid (35 mL, ~5 equiv) in a
2.25 L Parr bottle was charged with H2 to 60 psi and the mixture shaken for 18 hr. The
reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and the pad was washed with methanol.
The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum. The residual oil was dissolved in DCM (500
mL) and washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide (300 mL). The aqueous phase was back-
extracted with methylene chloride (200 mL). The combined organic solution was washed
with brine (500 mL), dried with sodium sulfate and the solvent was removed under vacuum
to give 35 g (100%) of product as a pale yellow viscous oil that slowly crystallized. H NMR
(400 MHz, CDCI3) 8 (ppm) 3.44 (m, 2H), 3.36 (m, 2H), 2.97 (dt, 1H), 2.84 (dd, 1H), 2.78
(m, 1H), 2.71 (brd, 2H), 2.16 (dt, 1H), 1.81 (t, 2H), 1.76 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.34 (m, 3H),
1.03 (d, 3H), 0.90 (s, 3H); MS (EI) 298.2 (M+l).
Step I
t-Butyl 4-(3S)-4-[(lR, 2R)-2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate [(lR)-7,7-Dimethyl-2-
oxobicyclo[2,2. l]hept-l-yl]methanesulfonic acid salt.
A mixture of (laS,6aR)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-6,6a-dihydro-laH-indeno[l,2-b]oxirene
(118.4 g, 0.5917 mol) and ^-butyl 4-methyl-4-[(3S)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]piperidine-l-
carboxylate (160.00 g, 0.53793 mol) in ethanol (100 mL) was heated at 70 °C (oil bath
temperature) over two days. The mixture was concentrated, and the residue was passed
through a silica plug using ethyl acetate containing 1% triethylamine. After the removal of
the solvent, 267.67 g of foamy solid was obtained. To this solid, acetonitrile (500 mL) was
added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. To the above mixture, solid [(lR)-7,7-
dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-l-yl]methanesulfoni.c acid (124.96 g., 0.53793 mol) was
added at once. The solution was slowly turned clear, then white solid started crashing out.
After overnight stirring, the solid was collected by filtration and washed with acetonitrile and
dried to give 232 g of product. The filtrate was neutralized and concentrated, and on the
residue a similar salt formation process was performed to give additional 74 g of product. The
combined yield was 70%. MS (EI) 498.2 (M+l).
Step J
t-Butyl4-(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Hydroxy-5-(trifliioromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH4nden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate.
tert-Butyl 4-(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-
yl]-3 -methylpiperazin-1 -yl-4-methylpiperidine-1 -carboxylate [(lR)-7,7-dimethyl-2-
oxobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-l-yl]methanesulfonic acid salt (512 g, 0.701 mol) was dissolved inl M
aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 L), and the solution was extracted with methylene chloride (2 x
2 L). The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated. The
residue was further dried under high vacuum to give off-white foamy solid (346 g. 99.1%).
MS (EI) 498.2 (M+l).
StepK
t-Butyl4-(3S)-4-[2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro4H-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin~l-yl-4~methylpiperidine~l-carboxylate.
Sodium hydride (5.225 g, 0.1306 mol) was mixed with dry DMF (150 mL) at 0 °C. A
solution of ?-butyl 4-(3S)-4-[2-hydi-oxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3"dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate (50.0 g, 0.1005 mol) in DMF (100
mL) was added dropwise at 0 °C over 20 min. After the addition, the mixture was stirred for
another 20 min before iodoethane (12.06 mL, 0.1507 mol) was added at one portion. After
being stirred for 1 h, the reaction content was carefully poured into 500 mL icy water. The
mixture was extracted with methylene chloride (500 mL x 3). The combined organic layer
was washed with brine, and dried over magnesium sulfate. After the removal of the solvent,
the residue was dissolved in methylene chloride, and passed through a silica plug with ethyl
acetate/hexane/triethylamine 50:50:1 (the plug was presaturated with the same solvent
system). After removal of the sovent, 48.4 g (91.6%) of product was obtained as a sticky
solid, MS (EI) 526.2 (M+l).
StepL
5-[(4-(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluommethyl)-2J-dihydro-lH^^
methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)caj-bonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
dihydro chloride
f-Butyl 4-(3S)-4-[2-ethoxy-5-(tri:Quoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate (48.4 g, 0.0921 mol) was treated with
a 4.0 M solution of hydrogen chloride in 1,4-dioxane (230 mL) at room temperature for 1 h.
The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness and the residue was further dried under
high vacuum. The formed amine hydrochloride was mixed with 4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidine-5-
carboxylic acid (16.8 g, 0.110 mol) in methylene chloride (100 mL), and then 1-
hydroxybenzotriazole (16.80 g, 0.1243 mol), N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-
ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (25.00 g, 0.1304 mol) and triethylamine (65.0 mL, 0.466
mol) were added. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight
before it was diluted with methylene chloride and washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide (1
M) and brine. The organic layer was collected and dried over magnesium sulfate. After
removal of the solvent, the residue was dissolved in methylene chloride (50 mL) and the
solution was passed through a silica plug with ethyl acetate containing 1% triethylamine. The
solution was concentrated and the residue was dissolved in 900 mL of isopropyl acetate. To
the above solution, 185 mL of 1.0 N HC1 in isopropyl acetate was slowly added. The mixture
slowly turned cloudy, and was stirred overnight. The formed white solid was collected,
washed with 40 mL of isopropyl acetate. The cake was air-dried to give 47.0g (80.7%) of
product. MS (EI) 560.3 (M+l).

Example 12
5-[(4-{(3,S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)-5-(trifliaoromethyI)-2,3^Iiliydro-lH-inden-
l-yl]-3-methylpiperazm-l-yl}-4~methylpipericlin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethyIpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 11 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 590.

Example 13
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lS,2R)-2-Ethoxj^5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-lnden-l-yI]-3-
methylpiperazi]i-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]cinnoline
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 11 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 582.4.

Example 14
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyI)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]quinoline
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 11 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 581.4.
Example 15
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethox3r-S-(trinuoromethyI)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]quinoline
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 11 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 581.4.
Example 16
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyI)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yI}-4-methyIpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-l,8-naphthyridine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 11 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 5182.4.
Example 17
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethox3^-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-iinden-l-yl]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methyIpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]isoquinoline
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 11 using
appropriate starting materials, MS (M+H)+ 581.4.
Example 18
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethy]pyrimidme.

Step A
6-Bromo-lH-indene
A solution of 5-bromoindan-l-ol (5.00 g, 23.5 mmol) and p-Toluenesulfonic acid
monohydrate (100 mg, 0.5 mmol) in benzene (150.00 mL) was heated to reflux for 2 h and
water was continuously removed from the reaction mixture with a Dean-Stark trap. After
cooling to room temperature, the benzene solution was washed with water, dried over
anhydrous Na2SC>4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. Purification of the residue by
flash chromatography (hexane) yielded pure 5-bromoindene (4.0g, 87%).

StepB
4-Bromo-6,6a-dihydro-laH-indeno[l> 2-bJoxirene
To a solution of 4-(3-phenylpropyl)pyridine N-oxide (68.88 rag, 0.323 mmol) in
methylene chloride (6.00 mL) was added (S,S)-(+)-N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-
l,2-cyclohexanediamino-manganese(III) chloride (58.62 mg, 0.09.23 mmol) and 2.0 M of
sodium hypochlorite in water (4.00 mL) at 0 °C. The resulting brown suspension was stirred
at 0 °C for 15 min. To the cooled suspension was added a solution of 6-bromo-lH-indene
(900 mg, 4.6141 mmol) in methylene chloride (6.00 mL) at 0 °C with simultaneous addition
of 2.0 M of sodium hypochlorite in water (4.00 mL) at 0 °C. The reaction was kept at 0 °C for
1 h. The reaction was allowed to warm up to room temperature and then stirred at room
temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into brine and. then extracted with
methylen chloride (4 x 40 mL). The combined extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SC>4,
filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude product was used directly for the
next reaction. The ratio of the two diastereomers was 8/1.

StepC
tert-Buiyl 4~{(3S)-4-[(lR, 2R)-5-Bromo-2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate
To a solution of 4-bromo-6,6a-dihydro-laH-indeno[l52-b]oxirene (247.9 mg, 1.1746
mmol) in ethanol (10.00 mL) was added tert-'butyl 4-methyl-4-[(3S)-3-methylpiperazin-l-
yFjpiperidine-l-carboxylate (349.36 mg, 1.1746 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated to
reflux overnight. After cooling down, the mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure.
Purification on silica gel with 50%ethyl acetate (P/oNHUOH) and hexane afforded the fast
moving product as the desired compound (295 mg; 49.4%).
StepD
tert-Butyl4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2~ethoxy~2,3-dihydro-lH-mden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-I-carhoxylate
To a solution of tart-butyl 4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-bromo-2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate (564 mg, 1.1 mmol)
in tetrahydrofuran (20.00 mL) was added sodium hydride (448 mg, 17.75 mmol) at room
temperature. After stirring for 10 min, iodoethane (1.42 mL, 17.75 mmol) was added. The
reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and quenched with saturated
aqueous ammonium chloride solution (20 mL). The organic layer was seperated and the
aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (3' x30 mL). The combined extracts were
washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SC>4, filtered and evaporated under reduced
pressure to afford the crude product (488 mg, 82%). LC-MS [M+l]=536.3, 538.8.
StepE
(2S)-l-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2-ethoxy~2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-2-methyl-4-(4-
methylpiperidin-4-yl)piperazineTrihydrochloride
To a solution of tert-butyl 4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro4H-
inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl}>4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate (50 mg, 0.093 mmol)
in tetrahydrofuran (3 mL) was added a 4.00 M solution of hydrogen chloride in 1,4-dioxane
(3 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. Evaporation under
reduced pressure afforded the desired de-Boc product.
StepF
5-[(4~{(3S)-4-[(lS,2R)-5-Bromo--2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydw-lH-inden-l~ylJ~3--methylpiperazin-l-
yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l~yl)carbonylJ-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
To a slurry of (2S)-l-[(lR,2R)-5-bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-2-
methyI-4-(4-methylpiperidin-4-yl)piperazine trihydrochloride (50 mg, 0.0916 mmol) in
methylene chloride (6 mL) were added 4,6~dimethyl-pyrimidine-5~carboxylic acid (27.88 mg,
0.183 mmol), N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (21.07 mg,
0.11 mmol), l-hydroxybenzotriazole (13.62 mg, 0.101 mmol) and triethylamine (0.0894 mL,
0.641 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Direct
chromatography on silica gel with 10% MeOHZEtOAc(l% NH4OH) afforded the desired
product (42 mg, 80%). LC-MS [M+l]=570.10; 572.05.
Example 19
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dIihydro-lH-inden-l-yI]-3-
raethylpiperazm-l-yl}-4-methy]pIperidin-l~yl)carbonyl]cinnoline
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 18 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 592.3, 594.3.
Example 20
H-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Brom©-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-mden-l-yl]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yI}-4-methyIpiperidm-l-yl)carbonyI]-l,8-naphthyridme
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 18 using
appropriate starting materials. MS (M+H)+ 592.3,594.3.
I
Example 21
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2-(pyridin-2-yloxy)-2,3-dihydro-lH-mden-l-yl]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yI}-4-methyIpJperidin-l-yI)carbonyI]-4,6-dimethyIpyrimidine
This compound was prepared substantially as described in Example 18 using
appropriate starting materials, MS: (M+H)+ 619.3, 621.3.
Example 22
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(l,3-thiazol-2-yl)~2,3-dihydro-lH-iaden-l-yl]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yI}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine

Step A
[(5-Bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)oxy](tert-butyl)dimethylsilane
To a solution of 5-bromoindan-l-ol (4.00 g, 18.8 mmol) m. N,N'-dimethylformamide
(25.00 mL) were added triethylamine (5.23 mL, 37.5 mmol), tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride
(4.244 g, 28.16 mmol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (115 mg, 0.939 mmol) at room
temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was
diluted with ether (100 mL) and quenched with water. The aqueous phase was extracted with
ether (4 x 40 mL). The combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous
Na2S04, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. Chromatography on silica gel with
5% EtOAc/hexane afforded the desired product (6.05g, 98%).

StepB
2-(l~{[tert-Butyl(dimethyl)silyl]oxy}-2,3-dihydro~lH4nden-5-yl)-l,3-thiazole
To a stirred suspension of zinc (899 mg, 13.75 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (1.60 mL)
was added 1,2-dibromoethane (0.118 mL, 1.37 mmol). The suspension was heated with a
heat gun until no evolution of ethylene gas. Chlorotrimethylsilane (0.0698 mL, 0.55 mmol)
and a solution of 2-bromothiazole (0.413 mL, 4.58 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran were added.
After 15 min [(5-bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)oxy](tert-butyl)dimethyIsilane (1.0 g,
3.055 mmol) and tetraMs(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (70.6 mg, 0.0611 mmol)
dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (8.00 mL) were added. The mixture was stirred for 24 h at reflux
and quenched with 15 mL of brine. The organic layer was seperated and the aqueous phase
was extracted with methylene chloride (25 mL x 3). The combined extracts were washed
with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, and evaporated under reduced pressure.
Chromatography on silica gel with 2.5% EtQAc/hexane afforded the desired coupling
product (800mg, 79%).
StepC
5-(l,3-Thiazol~2~yl)indan~l-ol
To a solution of 2-(l-{[tert-butyl(dimethyl)silyl]oxy}-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-5-yl)-
1,3-thiazole (630 mg, 1.9 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (10.00 mL) was added a 1.00 M solution
of tetrabutylammonium fluoride, trihydrate in tetrahydrofuran (1.90 mL) at 0 °C. The ice bath
was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture
was diluted with ether, washed with saturated NaCl aqueous solution, dried over anhydrous
MgS04, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to afford the desired product (410
mg, 99%).
StepD
2-(lH-Inden~6-yl)-l, S-thiazole
To a solution of 5 tetrahydrofuran (20.00 raL) was added a 1.0 M solution of hydrogen chloride in water (20.00
mL). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux overnight. After cooling down to room
temperature, the reaction was quenched with 30 mL of 1 N NaOH aqueous solution. The
organic layer was seperated and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30mL).
The combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous MgSCU, filtered, and
evaporated under reduced pressure to afford the desired product (381 mg, 46%). LC-MS
[M+l]=200.2.
StepE
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy~5-(lMhiazol-2-yl)-2,3-d^
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4~methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
Starting from the intermediate of step D, the title compound was prepared using
procedures analogous to those described for Example 18, MS (M+H) 575.2,
Example 23
3-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoyp5-pyrldin-2-yl-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden4-yl]-3-
methylpiperazm-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyI]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
The title compound was prepared in a manner analogous to that for Example 22. MS
(M+H) 569.3.
Example 24
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[3-Methoxy-5-(tri:fluoromethyI)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-lL-yl]-3-
methylpiperazm-l-yI}-4-methyIpiperidin-l-y!)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine

Step A
5-(Trifluomethyl)-3-vinyl-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-l-ol
To a solution of N,N,N'-trime'thyl-l,2-ethanediamine (4.76 mL, 37.4 mmol) in
tetrahydrofuran (150.00 mL) was added a 1.6 M solution of n-butyllithium in hexane (25.7
mL) at -40 °C. The colorless solution became light yellow. The cold bath was removed and
the reaction stirred for 30 min while warming to -15 °C. The reaction was rechilled at -40 °C
and 4-trifluoromethylbenzaldehyde (5.00 mL, 37.4 mmol) was added. The reaction was
stirred at -50 °C for 35 min before a second addition of a 1.60 M solution of n-butyllithium in
hexane was carried out. The reaction was allowed to warm to -25 °C and maintained at -25 °C
for 2 h at which time acrolein (2.75 mL, 41.2 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was
stirred overnight and quenched by addition of 30 mL of 6 N HC1 aqueous solution. The
organic layer was seperated and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc twice (2 x30
mL). The combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, evaporated in vacuo
and purified by flash chromatography to give the desired product (2.4g, 28% yield). LC-MS
[M+l]=231.2.

StepB
l-[5-(Trifluorofnethyl)-2-vinylphenyl]prop-2-en-l-ol
Triphenylmethylphosphonium bromide (1.71 g, 4.78 mmol) was dissolved in ether
(20.00 mL). After cooling to 0 °C, a 1.60 M solution of n-butyllithium in hexane (2.72 mL)
was added rapidly by syringe and the resulting orange mixture was warmed to room
temperature and stirred overnight. The stirring was stopped to allow the solids to settle and
then the ylid was transferred via cannula to a solution of 5-(trifiuoromethyl)-3-vinyl-l,3-
dihydro-2-benzofuran-l-ol (1.00 g, 4.34 mmol) in ether (10.00 mL) while stirring at 0 °C.
Following the addition, the ice bath was removed and the mixture was heated to reflux
overnight. The reaction was allowed to cool and then the solids filtered off and washed with a
small amount of ether. Most of the solvents were evaporated and the crude product was
loaded onto silica gel and eluted with hexane/EtOAc (10:1) to give the desired product
(0.81g, 82%), LC-MS [M+lj-229.2.
StepC
6-(Trifluoromethyl)-lH-inden-l-ol
To a solution of the l-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-vinylphenyl]prop-2-en-l-ol (462 mg,
2.02 mmol) in methylene chloride (20 mL) under nitrogen was added benzylidene-
bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)dichlororuthenium (70 mg, 0.08 mmol). The dark mixture was
stirred at 25 °C for 30 min and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash
chromatography to give the desired compound (278.1 mg, 68%). LC-MS [M+l]=279.2.

StepD
6-(Trifluoromethyl)-lH-inden-l-om
To a solution of pyridinium chlorochromate (1.08 g, 5.0 mmol) in methylene chloride
(15 mL) was added dropwise a solution of 6-(trifluoromethyl)-lH-inden--l-ol (500 mg, 2.498
mmol) in methylene chloride (10 mL). After being stirred for 14 h, ether (30 mL) was added,
and the reaction mixture was filtered through silica gel. The filtrate was concentrated in
vacuo. The crude material was chromatographed ( 10:1 hexane/EtOAc) to afford 200mg
(40%) of the product. LC-MS [M+l]=199.2.
StepE
tert-Butyl4-Methyl-4-{3-methyl-4-[3-oxo-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3~&
yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidine-l-carboxylate
A solution of 6-(trifluoromethyl)-lH-inden-l-one (100 mg, 0.505 mmol) and tert-
butyl 4-methyl-4-(3-methylpiperazin-l-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (420 mg, 1.412 mmol) in
carbon tetrachloride (8.00 mL) was heated at 60 °C for 18 h with stirring. After evaporation
of solvent, the residue was purified on silica gel to give two diastereomers (3/1 ratio). Yield
180 mg (72%). LC-MS [M+l]=496.4.
StepF
tert-Butyl 4-{(3S)-4-[3-Hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dinydro-lH-inden-l~yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidim-l-carboxylate
To a solution of tert-butyl 4-methyl-4-{3-methyl-4-[3-oxo-5-(trifluorornethyl)-2,3-
dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]piperazin-l-yl}piperidine-l-carboxylate (100 mg, 0.202 mmol) in
ethanol (7 mL) was added sodium borohydride (57 mg, 1.5 mmol). The reaction mixture was
stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo, and the residue was
quenched with 10 mL of 1 N aqueous NaOH solution and 10 mL of EtOAc. The organic
phase was seperated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc twice (2 x 15mL). The
combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2SC>4 and evaporated under reduced
pressure to give the desired product which was directly used for the next step (93 mg, 92%).
LC-MS [M+l]=498.4.
StepG
tert-BMtyl4-{(3S)-4-[3~Methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin~l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate
To a suspension of sodium hydride (150 mg, 3.75 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (15 mL)
was added a solution of tert-butyl 4-{4-[3-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromet!liyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-l-yi}-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxylate (92 mg, 0.185 mmol)
in tetrahydrofuran (5 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h
before methyl iodide (0.50 mL, 8.05 mmol) was added. The reaction was continuously stirred
at room temperature overnight amd quenched by addition of 10 mL of water and 10 mL of
EtOAc. The organic phase was seperated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc
twice (2x15 mL). The combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, and
evaporated under reduced pressure to give the crude product (81 mg, 85%) which was used
directly for the next step. LC-MS [M+l]=511.3.
Step H
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[3~Methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydw-lH-inden-l-ylJ-3-methylpiperazm^
l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]~4,6-dimethylpyrimidine
tert-Butyl 4-{4-[3-methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidine-l-cai.,boxylate (85 mg, 0.166 mmol) was dissolved
in a 4.00 M solution of hydrogen chloride in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL). The mixture was stirred for
1 h and oncentrated to driness and pumped in vacuo.
To a slurry of 4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid (50.6 mg, 0.333 mmol) in
acetonitrile (4 mL) at 0 °C, a drop of DMF (used as catalyst) was added followed by oxalyl
chloride (0.028 mL, 0.333 mmol). The resulting slurry was stirred at room temperature for 2
h. To the reaction mixture was added the solution of the above amine hydrochloride in
acetonitrile (4 mL) in the presence of triethylamine (0.139 mL, 0.998 mmol) at 0 °C. The
resulting slurry was heated at 45-50 °C for 6 h and at 80 °C for 3 h. Direct chromatography on
silica gel afforded the desired product (71mg, 78%). LC-MS [M+l]=546.3.
Example 24
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[3-Ethoxy-5-(triJauoromethyl)-2,3-dihy(iro-lH-inden-l-yI]-3-
methyIpiperazin-l-yI}-4-methyIpiperidin-l-yI)carbonyI]-4,6-dimethyIpyrimidine
The title compound was prepared in a manner analogous to that for Example 23. MS (M+H)
560.2.
Example A
CCR5 Expression
A leukophoresis (Biological Specialty, Colrnar, PA) was obtained from normal, drug
free donors and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated via density
gradient centrifugation. Monocytes were further isolated via centrifugal elutriation. After
being washed, the monocytes were re-suspended at 106 cells/ ml with RPMI (Invitrogen,
Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% FBS (Hyclone, Logan, UT) and 10-20 ng/mL of
recombinant human IL-10 (R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN) and incubated in the same
medium at 37 °C with 5% C02 for 24-48 ht. CCR5 expression on the IL-10 - treated
monocytes was then verified by staining the cells with a PE-conjugated anti-human CCR5
antibody ((PharMingen, San Diego, CA), followed by FACS analysis using FACSCalibur
(BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA).
Example B
CCR5 Binding Assay
In a 96 well MultiScreen™ filter plate (Millipore Systems, Billerica, MA), 3x105 IL-
10-treated monocytes in 150 |iL RPMI (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) with 20 mM HEPES
(Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and 0.3% BSA (Sigma, St Louis, MO) were incubated at room
temperature for 1 hr. with 0.2 nM 125I-MIP-ip (Perkin Elmer, Boston, MA) and a series
concentrations of compound of the invention. Non-specific binding was determined by
incubating the cells with 0.3 (xM MIP-ip (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). The binding
reaction was terminated by harvesting the cells onto the filter in the plate on a vacuum
manifold (Millipore Systems, Billerica, MA). The filter was then washed 5 times with RPMI
(Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 20 mM HEPES (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA),
0.3% BSA (Sigma, St Louis, MO) and 0.4 M NaCl on the vacuum manifold, air dried, and
peeled from the plate. The filter dishes corresponding to the sample wells in a filter plate
were punched out using the Millipore Punch System (Millipore Systems, Billerica, MA). The
amount of bound radioactivity on each filter dish was determined by counting on a gamma
counter. Specific binding was defined as the total binding minus the non-specific binding.
The binding data were evaluated with Prism (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA).
Compounds of the invention were found to have a binding affinity of about 1 uM or less
according to this assay.
Example C
HTV-1 Entry Assay
Replication defective HIV-l reporter virions are generated by cotransfection of a
plasmid encoding the NL4-3 strain of HIV-l (which has been modified by mutation of the
envelope gene and introduction of a luciferase reporter plasmid) along with a plasmid
encoding one of several HTV-1 envelope genes as described by, for example, Connor et al,
Virology, 206 (1995), 935-944. Following transfection of the two plasmids by calcium
phosphate precipitation, the viral supernatants are harvested on day 3 and a functional viral
titer determined. These stocks are then used to infect U87 cells stably expressing CD4 and the
chemokine receptor CCR5 which have been preincubated with or without test compound.
Infections are carried out for 2 hows at 37 °C, the cells washed and media replaced with fresh
media containing compound. The cells are incubated for 3 days, lysed and luciferase activity
determined. Results are reported as the concentration of compound required to inhibit 50% of_
the luciferase activity in the control cultures.
Example D
HIV-l Replication Assay in MT-4 Cells
Inhibition of HIV-l NL4.3 (or IIIb) replication assays can be carried out as previously
described (Bridger, et al., J. Med. Chem. 42:3971-3981 (1999); De Clercq, et al, Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. 89:5286-5290 (1992); De Clercq, et al.,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:668-
674 (1994); Bridger, et al. J. Med. Chem. 38:366-378 (1995)). To summarize, anti-HIV
activity and cytotoxicity measurements are carried out in parallel and are based on the
viability of MT-4 cells that are infected with HTV in the presence of various concentrations of
the test compounds. After the MT-4 cells are allowed to proliferate for 5 days, the number of
viable cells are quantified by a tetrazolium-based calorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-
2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) procedure in 96-well microtrays. Results can be
quanitited to yield ECso values which represent the concentration required to protect 50% of
the virus-infected cells against viral cytopathicity.
Example E
Chemokine Receptor Inhibition/Binding Assajra
The capacity of the compounds of the invention to antagonize chemokine receptor
(e.g., CCR2) function can be determined using a suitable screen (e.g., high through-put
assay). For example, an agent can be tested in an extracellular acidification assay, calcium
flux assay, ligand binding assay or chemotaxis assay (see, for example, Hesselgesser et al., J
Biol. Chem. 273(25):15687-15692 (1998); WO 00/05265 and WO 98/02151, each of which
is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).
In an example assay, a chemokine receptor which can be isolated or recombinantly
derived is used which has at least one property, activity or functional charateristic of a
mammalian chemokine receptor. The specific property can be a binding property (to, for
example, a ligand or inhibitor), a signalling activity (e.g., activation of a mammalian G
protein, induction of rapid and transient increase in the concentration of cytosolic free
calcium [Ca4"1"]!, cellular response function (e.g., stimulation of chemotaxis or inflammatory
mediator release by leukocytes), and the like.
In one embodiment, a composition containing a chemokine receptor or variant thereof
is maintained under conditions suitable for binding. The receptor is contacted with a
compound to be tested, and binding is detected or measured.
In further embodiments, the assay is a cell-based assay in which cells are used that are
stably or transiently transfected with a vector or expression cassette having a nucleic acid
sequence which encodes the receptor. The cells are maintained under conditions appropriate
for expression of the receptor and are contacted with an agent under conditions appropriate
for binding to occur. Binding can be detected using standard techniques. For example, the
extent of binding can be determined relative to a suitable control. Also, a cellular fraction,
such as a membrane fraction, containing the receptor can be used in lieu of whole cells.
Detection of binding or complex formation between compounds of the invention and
chemokine receptors can be detected directly or indirectly. For example, the compound can
be labeled with a suitable label (e.g., fluorescent label, label, isotope label, enzyme label, and
the like) and binding can be determined by detection of the label. Specific and/or competitive
binding can be assessed by competition or displacement studies, using unlabeled agent or a
ligand as a competitor.
The antagonist activity of test agents can be reported as the inhibitor concentration
required for 50% inhibition (IC50 values) of specific binding in receptor binding assays using,
for example, 125l-labeled MCP-1, as ligand, and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
(PBMCs) prepared from normal human whole blood via density gradient centrifugation.
Specific binding is preferably defined as the total binding (e.g., total cpm on filters) minus the
non-specific binding. Non-specific binding is defined as the amount of cpm still detected in
the presence of excess unlabeled competitor (e.g., MCP-1),
The human PBMCs described above can be used in a suitable binding assay. For
example, 200,000 to 500,000 cells can be incubated with 0.1 to 0.2 nM 125I-labeled MCP-1,
with or without unlabeled competitor (lOnM MCP-1) or various concentrations of
compounds to be tested. 12sI-labeled MCP-1, can be prepared by suitable methods or
purchased from commercial vendors (Perkin Elmer, Boston MA), The binding reactions can
be performed in 50 to 250 ul of a binding buffer consisting of 1M HEPES pH 7.2, and 0.1%
BSA (bovine serum albumin), for 30 min at room temperature. The binding reactions can be
terminated by harvesting the membranes by rapid filtration through glass fiber filters (Perkin
Elmer) which can be presoaked in 0.3% polyethyleneimine or Phosphate Buffered Saline
(PBS). The filters can be rinsed with approximately 600 uL of binding buffer containing 0.5
M NaCl or PBS, then dried, and the amount of bound radioactivity can be determined by
counting on a Gamma Counter (Perkin Elmer).
The capacity of compounds to antagonize chemokine receptor function can also be
determined in a leukocyte chemotaxis assay using suitable cells. Suitable cells include, for
example, cell lines, recombinant cells or isolated cells which express a chemokine receptor
(e.g., CCR2) and undergo chemokine receptor ligand-induced (e.g., MCP-1) chemotaxis. The
assay utilizes human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in a modified Boyden Chamber
(Neuro Probe). 500,000 cells in serum free DMEM media (In Vitrogen) are incubated with
or without the inhibitors and warmed to 37 °C. The chemotaxis chamber (Neuro Probe) is
also prewarmed. 400 \xL of wanned 10 nM MCP-1 is added to the bottom chamber in all
wells expect the negative control which has DMEM added. An 8 micron membrane filter
(Neuro Probe) is place on top and the chamber lid is closed. Cells are then added to the holes
in the chamber lid which are associated with the chamber wells below the filter membrane.
The whole chamber is incubated at 37 °C, 5% C02 for 30 minutes. The cells are then
aspirated off, the chamber lid opened, and the filter gently removed. The top of the filter is
washed 3 times with PBS and the bottom is left untouched. The filter is air dried and stained
with Wright Geimsa stain (Sigma). Filters are counted by microscopy. The negative control
wells serve as background and are subtracted from all values. Antagonist potency can be
determined by comparing the number of cells that migrate to the bottom chamber in wells
which contain antagonist, to the number of cells which migrate to the bottom chamber in
MCP-1 control wells.
Compounds of the present invention can be considered active if they have IC50 values
in the range of about 0.01 to about 500 nM for the above binding assay. In chemotaxis assays,
active compounds have IC50 values in the range of about 1 to about 3000 nM.
Various modifications of the invention, in addition to those described herein, will be
apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are
also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. Each reference cited in the
present application, including all patents, publications and books, is incorporated herein by
reference in its er+^el+"
WE CLAIM:
1. A compound of Formula I:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:
R1 is heteroaryl optionally substituted by one or more R6;
R2 is H, halo, cyano, nitro, Ci-C6 alkyl, G-C6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl,
aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, SOR7, S02R7, COR8, OR9, SR9, COOR9,
NRI0RnorNR10COR8;
R3 is F, CI, Br, I, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 haloalkoxy or heteroaryl;
R4 is H, C,-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl or Ci-C6 haloalkyl;
R5 is H, Ci-Cg alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl or CrC6 haloalkyl;
Rs is H, Ci-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, G-C6 haloalkyl, Ci-C6 alkoxy, G-C6
haloalkoxy, amino, (C1-C6 alkyl)amino or di(Ci-C6 alkyl)amino;
R7 is H, C,-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, CrC6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7
cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl, (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl,
heterocycloalkylalkyl, orNR12R13;
R8 is H, Ci-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, d-C6 haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7
cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl, (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl,
heterocycloalkylalkyl, orNR12R13;
R9 is H, Ci-Cg alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, d-C6 haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl,
haloalkoxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, heteroaryloxyalkyl, cycloalkyloxyalkyl,
heterocycloalkyloxyalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl,
heteroarylalkyl; (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)alkyl or heterocycloalkylalkyl;
R10 and Ru are each, independently, H, CrC6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, Ci-C6
haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl; (C3-C7
cycloalkyl)alkyl or heterocycloalkylalkyl;
or R10 and R11 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or
7-membered heterocycloalkyl group;
R12 and R13 are each, independently, H, CrC6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, CrC6
haloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl; (C3-C7
cycloalkyl)alkyl or heterocycloalkylalkyl;
or R12 and R13 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or
7-membered heterocycloalkyl group; and,
r is 1, 2 or 3.
2. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R1 is a 5-, 6-, 9- or 10-membered heteroaryl group containing at least one ring-forming
N atom, wherein said 5-, 6-, 9- or 10-membered heteroaryl group is optionally substituted by 1,
2, 3 or 4 R6 groups.
3. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R1 is:
4. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R1 is:
5. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R1 is:
6. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R2 is H, d-C6 alkyl, C,-C6 haloalkyl, OR9, SR9 or NR10Rn.
7. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R2 is H or OR9.
8. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R3 is F, Br, CF3, or 6- or 5-membered heteroaryl.
9. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R4 is C1-C6 alkyl.
10. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R4 is methyl.
11. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R5 is d-C6 alkyl.
12. The compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R5 is methyl.
13. The compound as claimed in claim 1 having Formula Ha:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form thereof.
14. The compound as claimed in claim 13, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is:
15. The compound as claimed in claim 13, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R1 is:
16. The compound as claimed in claim 1 selected from:
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lS,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]cinnoline;
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]quinoline;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]quinoline;
4-[(4-{(3 S)-4-[( 1 R,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1 H-inden-1-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-1,8-naphthyridine;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]isoquinoline;
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]cinnoline; and,
4-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin- 1-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-1,8-naphthyridine, or pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof.
17. A composition comprising a compound as claimed in claim 1, or pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
18. A compound which is 5-[(4-(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-
lH-inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-
dimethylpyrimidine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
19. The compound as claimed in claim 18 which is 5-[(4-(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-
(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl-4-methylpiperidin-l-
yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine dihydrochloride.
20. A compound which is 5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(l,3-thiazol-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-
lH-inden-1 -yl]-3-methylpiperazin-1 -yl}-4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-
dimethylpyrimidine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
21. A compound which is 5-[(4-{4-[2-ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-
yl]-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine, or a
pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
22. The compound as claimed in claim 21 which is 5-[(4-{4-[2-ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-
2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-1 -yl]-3-methylpiperazin-1 -yl}-4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-
dimethylpyrimidine dihydrochloride.
23. A compound which is 5-[(4-{4-[2-ethoxy-5-(l,3-thiazol-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-
yl]-3-methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine, or a
pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
24. A compound of Formula I:

or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:
R1 is CrC2o heteroaryl optionally substituted by one or more R6;
R2 is H, halo, cyano, nitro, Ci-C6 alkyl, CrC6 haloalkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, C6-
C,8 aryl, C1-C20 heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl, SOR7, S02R7, COR8, OR9,
SR9, COOR9, NR10RU or NR10COR8;
R3 is F, CI, Br, I or CrC4 haloalkyl;
R4 is H, CrC6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl or Ci-C6 haloalkyl;
R5 is H, Ci-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl or C,-C6 haloalkyl;
R6 is H, Ci-Ce alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, d-C6 haloalkyl, C,-C6 alkoxy, Ci-C6
haloalkoxy, amino, (Ci-C6 alkyl)amino or di(Ci-C6 alkyl)amino;
R7 is H, C,-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, d-C6 haloalkyl, C6-C1S aryl, CrC20
heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl, C6-Ci8 aryl-Ci-C6 alkyl, C1-C20 heteroaryl-
Ci-Cs alkyl, (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)-C,-C6 alkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl-d-C6 alkyl, or NR12R13;
R8 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, C,-C6 haloalkyl, C6-CiS aryl, C,-C20
heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl, d-Cis aryl-Ci-C5 alkyl, Ci-C20 heteroaryl-
Ci-C6 alkyl, (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)-Ci-C6 alkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl-Ci-C6 alkyl, or NR12R13;
R9 is H, d-d alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, C,-C6 haloalkyl, alkoxy-C,-C6 alkyl,
haloalkoxy-Ci-Ce alkyl, C6-Ci8 aryloxy-Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C20 heteroaryloxy-Ci-C6 alkyl,
cycloalkyloxy-Ci-C6 alkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyloxy-Ci-C6 alkyl, C6-Ci8 aryl, Ci-C20
heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl, d-Ci8 aryl-Ci-d alkyl, C1-C20 heteroaryl-
Ci-C6 alkyl; (C3-C7 cycloalkyl)-d-C6 alkyl or C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl-d-C6 alkyl;
R10 and R11 are each, independently, H, d-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, Ci-C6
haloalkyl, C6-Ci8 aryl, Ci-C20 heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl, C6-Ci8 aryl-
Ci-Cs alkyl, d-C20 heteroaryl-Ci-C6 alkyl; (C3-d cycloalkyl)-d-C6 alkyl or C3-C20
heterocycloalkyl-Ci-C6 alkyl;
or R10 and R11 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or
7-membered C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl group;
R12 and R13 are each, independently, H, d-C6 alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, Ci-C6
haloalkyl, C6-Ci8 aryl, Ci-C20 heteroaryl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, C3-C20 heterocycloalkyl, C6-Ci8 aryl-
Ci-C6 alkyl, d-C20 heteroaryl-Ci-d alkyl; (d-d cycloalkyl)-Ci-C6 alkyl or C3-C20
heterocycloalkyl-Ci-Ce alkyl;
or R12 and R13 together with the N atom to which they are attached form a 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or
7-membered heterocycloalkyl group; and
r is 1, 2 or 3.
25. The compound as claimed in claim 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R1 is
26. The compound as claimed in claim 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R2 is H or OR9.
27. The compound as claimed in claim 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R3 is F, Br, or CF3.
28. The compound as claimed in claim 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R4 is methyl.
29. The compound as claimed in claim 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein R5 is methyl.
30. The compound as claimed in claim 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,
wherein r is 1.
31. The compound as claimed in claim 1 selected from:
5-( {4-[(3S)-4-(5-bromo-2,3 -dihydro-1 H-inden-1 -yl)-3-methylpiperazin-1 -yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-({4-[(35)-4-(5-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-rnden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-({4-[(35)-4-(6-bromo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-1 -yl} carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-({4-[(3S)-4-(6-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-({4-[(35)-4-(6-bromo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-1 -yl} carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine ;
5-({4-[(3iS)-4-(7-bromo-l,2s3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-l-yl)-3-methylpiperazin-l-yl]-4-
methylpiperidin-l-yl}carbonyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
4,6-dimethyl-5-[(4-methyl-4-{(35)-3-methyl-4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden- l-yl]piperazin-1 -yl} piperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]pyrimidine;
4,6-dimethyl-5-[(4-methyl-4-{(31S*)-3-methyl-4-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-
inden-1 -yl]piperazin- 1-yl} piperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]pyrimidine;
l-((25)-4-{l-[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-5-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl}-2-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)indan-2-ol;
5-[(4-{(35)-4-[2-methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(35)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dirnethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(3,S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-
l-yl]-3-methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-5-Bromo-2-(pyridin-2-yloxy)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-(l,3-thiazol-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-l-yl}-4-methylpiperidin-l-yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[(lR,2R)-2-Ethoxy-5-pyridin-2-yl-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl} -4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine;
5-[(4-{(3S)-4-[3-Methoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl]-3-
methylpiperazin-1 -yl}-4-methylpiperidin-1 -yl)carbonyl]-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine, or
pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
32. A composition comprising a compound of any one as claimed in claims 18-31, or
pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.


The present invention relates to compounds of Formula I:

wherein variable substituents are defined herein, that modulate the activity of or bind to
chemokine receptors such as CCR5. In some embodiments, the compounds of the invention
are selective for CCR5. The compounds can be used, for example, to treat diseases
associated with chemokine receptor expression or activity such as inflammatory diseases,
immune diseases and viral infections.

Documents:

02997-kolnp-2006 abstract.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 assignment.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 claims.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 correspondence others.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 description(complete).pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 form-1.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 form-3.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 form-5.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 international publication.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 international search authority report.pdf

02997-kolnp-2006 pct form.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-(10-04-2012)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-(10-04-2012)-OTHERS.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-ABSTRACT.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-AMANDED CLAIMS.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-assignment.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-correspondence.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-description (complete).pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECIEVED.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-examination report.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-FORM 1.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-form 13.1.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-FORM 13.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-form 18.1.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-form 18.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-FORM 2.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-form 3.1.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-FORM 3.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-form 5.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-FORM-27.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-gpa.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-granted-abstract.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-granted-claims.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-granted-description (complete).pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-granted-form 1.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-granted-form 2.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-granted-specification.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-OTHER PCT FORM.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-OTHERS.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-others1.1.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-PETITION UNDER RULE 137-1.1.pdf

2997-KOLNP-2006-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

2997-kolnp-2006-reply to examination report.pdf

abstract-02997-kolnp-2006.jpg


Patent Number 249090
Indian Patent Application Number 2997/KOLNP/2006
PG Journal Number 39/2011
Publication Date 30-Sep-2011
Grant Date 29-Sep-2011
Date of Filing 17-Oct-2006
Name of Patentee INCYTE CORPORATION
Applicant Address EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ROUTE 141 & HENRY CLAY ROAD, BUILDING E336,WILMINGTON, DE 19880, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 XUE CHU-BIAO 307 WELLSPRING COURT, HOCKESSIN, DE 19707, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2 CHEN LIHUA 1191 SPLIT RAIL DRIVE, BOOTHWYN, PA 19061, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
3 WANG ANLAI 102 BUNTING DRIVE, WILMINGTON, DE 19808, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
4 ZHANG KE 107 SIMCA LANE,#9, WILMINGTON,DE 19605, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
5 HUANG TAI SHENG 8 RECTOR COURT,APT.B, WILMINGTON,DE 19810, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
6 MELONNI DAVID 127 MEGAN DRIVE, BEAR,DE 19701, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
7 ANAND RAJAN 1378 BIRCH LANE, WILMINGTON,DE 19809, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
8 GLENN JOSEPH 103 DEER HORN DRIVE, MOUNT ROYAL,NJ 08061, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
9 METCALF BRIAN 297 LAKEFIELD PLACE, MORAGA,CA 94556, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
10 CAO GANFENG 110 CLEAR CREEK DRIVE, BEAR, DE 19701, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
PCT International Classification Number A61K 31/495
PCT International Application Number PCT/US2005/012265
PCT International Filing date 2005-04-12
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/572,221 2004-05-18 U.S.A.
2 60/561,697 2004-04-13 U.S.A.