|Title of Invention||
"A METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SOLUBLE SUGARS FROM A PLANT"
|Abstract||The present invention relates to a method for the production of soluble sugars from a plant comprising the following steps: i) Obtaining homogenate from leaves or stems of a transgenic plant harboring a recombinant cDNA encoding a fusion protein comprising a chloroplast-targeting peptide, a cellulase and a cellulose binding domain, wherein the recombinant cDNA is RbcS (tp) : Cel5 : CBM6 represented by SEQ. ID. NO 1; ii) Incubating the homogenate of step i) to induce autohydrolysis of cellulose; and iii) Separating and purifying autohydrolyzed soluble sugars, wherein the transgenic plant is prepared by the method comprising the following steps: i) Inducing callus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 deposited at Korean Collection for Type Cultures under Accession No: KCTC 10834BP, to a plant or plant cells; and ii) Inducing plant growth by culturing the callus.|
|Full Text||TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING CELLULASE FOR AUTOHYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE COMPONENTS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF SOLUBLE SUGAR
The present invention relates to transgenic plants expressing cellulase for autohydrolysis of cellulose components and a method for production of soluble sugar using the same, more particularly, transgenic plants produced by transfecting plants with recombinant cDNA
encoding cellulose, cellulose binding domain and
( chloroplast targeting peptide and a method for production
of soluble sugar by autohydrolysis of cellulose of the transgenic plants.
Plant biomass is the most abundant, natural and renewable resource on earth. Cellulose is the major constituent of plant cell walls and is a commercially important raw material that can be converted into useful products with appropriate methodologies (Hon'DN Cellulose: a random walk along its historical path, In Cellulose. J. C. Roberts(ed.), Chapman&Hall, 1-25, 1994). One such application is the production of fermentable sugars from cellulose for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. Because
of the potentially high importance of this process, cellulose-degrading enzymes have received a great deal of attention (Beltrane PL et al., Eioresource Technol. 39: 165-171, 1992). To date, the conversion of plant cellulose into fermentable sugars is accomplished with commercial enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation. However, the cost of producing these enzymes remains a significant barrier to the widespread utilization of this process (Cowan D, Tibtech. 14: 177-178, 1996; Ho NW et al. , Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 65: 163-192, 1999). Thus, various approaches have been taken to produce cellulose-degrading enzymes on a large scale and at low cost (Goddijin OJM and Pen J, Trends biotechnol. 13: 3790-3870, 1995; Gidding G et al. , Nature Biotech. 18: 1151-1155, 2000) . Trichoderma reesei has been a target strain for the production of cellulase, and Bacillus and Aspergillus microorganisms have been a target for the production of xylanase. But, the concentration and activity of such enzyme is not enough to be used in industry. High production costs are also a problem, resulted from a high priced purified medium containing expensive materials such as lactose as a substrate for the production of the enzyme.
Genetically engineered transgenic plants are one of the most economical systems for large scale production of recombinant proteins for industrial and medical uses,because a large quantity of enzymes can be produced with minimal input. In efforts to lower the production costs of cellulases (Jensen LG et al. , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93: 3487-3491, 1996; Kawazu T et al. , J. Ferment. Bioeng. 82: 205-209, 1996; Nuutila AM et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 41: 777-783, 1999; Ziegelhoffer T et al. , Mol. Breed. 5: 309-318, 1999; Dai Z et al. , Transgenic Res. 9: '43-54, 2000), the cellulase gene has been expressed in transgenic plants, but the expression levels obtained have been low. The purification of recombinant cellulases expressed in plants is also an expensive step, which contributes greatly to the cost of production of fermentable sugars from cellulose.
Thus, the present inventors produced transgenic plants in which a recombinant gene containing cellulase gene, cellulose binding domain gene and chloroplast targeting gene was inserted. And the present inventors completed this invention by confirming that the conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugar is possible in transgenic plants themselves by autohydrolysis using cellulose localized in chloroplasts, and the production cost is also reduced by simplifying the production line of soluble sugar from cellulose.
It is an object of the present invention to provide transgenic plants produced by inserting recombinant cDNA encoding cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting peptide in plants and a method for production of soluble fermentable sugars from cellulose with low costs by autohydrolysis of the plants.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides transgenic plants transfected with cDNA encoding cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting peptide.
The present invention also provides a method for the production of soluble sugar from cellulose in transgenic plants having cellulose autohydrolysis activity.
Hereinafter, the present invention is described in detail.
The present invention provides an expression vector for plant transformation which is expressed' in a plant and contains recombinant cDNA encoding cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting peptide.
The expression vector above can be designed to express endoglucanase, exoglucanase, or endo- and
exoglucanase simultaneously, and the cellulose gene above is a gene originated from non-plants, preferably from microorganisms, and more preferably from Ruminococcus alJbus (Cel5 cellulase gene) . The ce!5 cellulase is a kind of cellulase having very strong activity against soluble cellulose substrate.-
Fusing the cellulose binding domain to the C-terminus of Cel5 increases its affinity for cellulose in the cell wall, resulting in the increase of the activity of cellulase. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, CBM6 gene originated from Xylanase A of Clostridium stercorarium was used.
In addition, a sequence involved in the targeting of a specific cell can be fused to Cel5 N-terminus. The sequence for targeting above might be a solution for toxicity of a heterologous protein expressed in transgenic plants. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, N-terminal transit peptide (RbcS(tp)) of rubisco small subunit was fused to N-terminal of Cel5:CBM6 for the migration of cellulase expressed in transgenic plants to the inside of chloroplast.
The recombinant cDNA encoding cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting peptide, represented by SEQ. ID. No 1, can be fused to a promoter
activated in a plant, and can be fused to an alfalfa rubisco small subunit promoter RbcSK-lA, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention (Khoudi et al., Gene 197:343-351, 1997) .
The present invention provides an expression vector for plant transformation which contains the above recombinant gene, more particularly, the invention provides a pHB-Cel5:CBM6 vector designed to' express RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 under the control of RbcSK-lA promoter by using pCambia2300.
The present invention provides transgenic plants having autohydrolysis activity of cellulose.
The present invention provides a novel transgenic plant generated by transfecting tobacco cells with pHB-Cel5:CBM6 expression vector containing recombinant cDNA represented by SEQ. ID. No 1.
To generate the transgenic plant, Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 was transfected with the recombinant expression vector pHB-Cel5:CBM6, resulting in a transformant to be used as a mediator for the generation of a transferred plant expressing RbcS (tp) : Cel5-. CBM6, and the present inventors deposited the transformant at Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) of Korea Research
Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology on June 28, 2004 (Accession No: KCTC 10834BP) .
In an embodiment of transgenic plants expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 of the present invention, a recombinant gene was inserted into tobacco leaf cells by leaf disc transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, and the cells were cultured under plant growth conditions, resulting in a transgenic tobacco (Harsch et al. , Science 227:1229-1231, 1985}.
The present invention also provides a method for the production of a transgenic plant expressing cellulase for autohydrolysis.
The method for the production of a transgenic plant of the present invention comprises the steps of i) constructing a plant expression vector harboring a gene encoding RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6; ii) transfecting plant cells using a recombinant microorganism transfected with the plant expression vector of i) to express RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 in the plant cells; and iii) culturing the plant cells of ii) under plant growth conditions.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 (Accession No: KCTC 10834BP) was used as a transgenic recombinant microorganism
of the above ii) , and tobacco or Dicotyledons were used as a plant of the invention.
The present inventors observed phenotypes of grown-up transgenic plants to investigate whether or not the growth
of a transgenic tobacco plant having autohydrolysis activity of cellulose was affected by the toxicity of introduced cellulase gene. As a result, the transgenic plants in which only Cel5:CBM6 gene was introduced in cytoplasm had a severe growth defect. However, the transgenic plants harboring recombinant gene RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 containing cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting gene sequences did not show any visible morphological changes (see Fig. IB) . The
above results indicate that cellulase expressed in a transgenic plant did not stayed in cytoplasm but targeted to the chloroplast by chloroplast targeting gene sequence.
The rransgenic plant of the present invention has autohydrolysis activity against cellulose of its own cell wall by the accumulation of cellulase in chlproplasts.
Particularly, when the leaf or stem tissue homogenate of transgenic tobacco plants was incubated under optimal conditions, the chloroplast-localized Cel5:CBM6 was highly effective in the degradation of cellulose in the cell wall
without any additional steps, resulting in the conversion of 12% of the total insoluble cellulose into soluble sugars. When a recombinant protein that was expressed and purified from E. coli and composed of cellulase and cellulose binding domain was externally added, autohydrolysis activity therein was nearly the same as that in the transgenic plant of the invention (see Fig. 3) .
The present invention also provides a method for production of soluble sugar from cellulose using a transgenic plant having cellulose autohydrolysis activity.
The method for production of soluble sugar using a transgenic plant of the present invention includes following steps; i) obtaining homogenate from leaves or stems of a transgenic plant; ii) incubating the homogenate of the above step i) to induce autohydrolysis of cellulose; and iii) separating and purifying autohydrolyzed soluble sugars.
Application of the method of the present invention reduces the cost of production by simplifying the production lines since the expression and purification processes for externally added recombinant cellulases are not necessary.
In the soluble sugar production method of the present invention, 40% of the total insoluble cellulose was
released as soluble sugars by the addition of externally expressed and purified exoglucanase to the homogenate of the step i).
The above results indicate that the introduction of a recombinant gene designed for co-expression of an exoglucanase together with endoglucanase enhances the production of soluble sugars on a large scale without the need for additional step of treating externally prepared exoglucanase.
Description of Drawings
Fig. 1A is a schematic diagram showing the recombinant DNA construct inserted into a transgenic plant of the present invention,
tp: Chloroplast targeting gene
Cel5: Endo-beta-1,4,-glucanase (cellulase)
CBM: Cellulose binding module
Fig IB is a set of photographs showing the growth of transgenic plants transfected with basic vector (a) , recombinant gene RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBMG of the present invention (b) , and recombinant gene Cel5:CBM without chloroplast targeting gene (c),
Fig 2A is a graph showing the enzyme activities of protein extracts prepared from leaves of control plants transfected with basic vector, and transgenic plants Tb54(F) and Tb54 transfected with RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 and Cel5:CBM6 recombinant genes, respectively. Fig. 2B is a set of photographs showing the localization of a gene inserted into transgenic plants by treating cross sections of leaf fragments of transgenic plants with anti-cellulase (Cel5) antibody as the primary antibody and with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG as the secondary antibody (green) (the localization of chloroplast was confirmed by auto-fluorescent image of chlorophyll (red)),
a: Transfected with basic vector
b: Transfected with RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6
c: Transfected with RbcS(tp):Cel5
Fig. 3 is a set of graphs showing the results of investigation of autohydrolysis activity of RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 cellulase. Cell extracts obtained from the transgenic tobacco leaves were reacted with cell wail fraction of tobacco stem alone (A) or together with the exogenous exoglucanase CelSB (exo-beta-1,4 glucanase) (B) , followed by quantification of sugar reducing ends by the DNS method,
•: Leaf extracts of transgenic plants harboring RbcS(tp):Cel5
o: Leaf extracts of transgenic plants harboring empty vector
•: Leaf extracts of transgenic plants harboring RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6
D: Addition of Cel5:CBM6 expressed and purified from E. coli
A: Exogenous Cel6B alone
A: Leaf extracts of transgenic plants expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 + exogenous Cel6B
Fig. 4 is a graph showing the result of HPLC analysis of soluble sugars released by RbcS (tp) :Cel5:CBM6.^ The cellulose components of cell walls were hydrolyzed by endogenously expressed RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6. After 72 hr incubation, soluble sugars were analyzed using a REZEX RSO oligosaccharide column.
Fig. 5 is a graph showing the result of FTIR analysis of the residual material of the cell1 wall after autohydrolysis. The cellulose components of the cell walls were hydrolyzed with RbcS (tp) : Cel5 .-CBM6, and analyzed with FTIR.
Pink line: before autohydrolysis
Black line: after autohydrolysis
Practical and presently preferred embodiments of the present invention are illustrative as shown in the following Examples.
However, it will be appreciated that those skilled in the art, on consideration of this disclosure, may make modifications and improvements within the spirit and scope of the present invention.
autohydrolysis activity of cellulose
Construction of expression. vectors for plant
The present inventors constructed expression vectors harboring cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting peptide genes' to generate transgenic tobacco plants containing cellulase gene being able to hydrolyze cellulose of their own cell walls.
Particularly, Cel5 gene of Ruminococcus, albus having strong activity against soluble cellulose substrate and CBM6, which is a cellulose binding domain gene known to enhance affinity to cellulose of cell wall, were fused, resulting in a recombinant gene Cel5:CBM6. The recombinant
gene Cel5:CBM6 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using pRAll and pCsCBD as templates, followed by insertion into T/A cloning vector (Karita et al., Ferment. Bioeng. 76:439-444, 1993; Karita et al. , Ferment. Bioeng. 84:354- 357, 1997).
pRAll and pCsCBD were provided by Dr. Karita (Department of Bioscience, Mie University, Tsu 514, Japan). PCR was performed with 30 cycles of 94°C/15 seconds, 55°C/30 seconds, and 72°C/ 1 minute.
DNA fragments containing Cel5 and Cel5:CBM6 genes were separated from the vecto'r above after treating restriction enzyme thereto, followed by subcloning into pKitmus54. DNA fragments containing the R. albus cellulase gene (eglV) and its ' modified version (eglV-CBDII) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using plasmids pRAll and pCsCBD2 (Karita S. et al., J. Ferment. Bioeng. 76, 439-444, 1993; Karita et al. , J. Ferment. Bioeng. 84, 354-357, 1997) as templates. The amplified PCR fragments were cloned in the T/A cloning vector. The recombinant plasmid containing eglV was digested with SacI/Xbal, and the recombinant plasmid containing eglV-CBDII was digested with SacI/Sphl. The resultant inserts were conjugated respectively to pKitmus 54 and pKitmus 61. The first construct (pKitmus-54) was fused in 1.828 kb size alfalfa Rubisco small subunit (RbcSK-lA) promoter region and 3'
noncoding sequence during translation. The promoter region included 5' noncoding leader sequence and the first 9 amino acids of chloroplast targeting peptide. The second construct (pKitmus-61) also contained RbcKS-lA promoter and 3' noncoding sequence, but it did not include transit peptide (Fig. 1) . The recombinant plasmids pKitmus-54 and pKitmus-61 were digested with Sail and Smal and the resultant inserts eglV and eglV-CBDII containing promoter and 3' noncoding region were subcloned into the corresponding region of a plant transformation vector pCambia2300 (Gambia, Canberra, Australia). The recombinant vectors were named pHB54 and pHB61. •
The resulting construct pHB54 is a recombinant vector giving translational fusion proteins with the N-terminal transit peptide from the rubisco small subunit, RbcS(tp), under the control of the rubisco small subunit promoter from alfalfa.
Finally, Cel5, Cel5:CBM6, RbcS(tp):Cel5 and RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 were subcloned with their promoters into a plant transformation vector pCarnoia2300 (Gambia, Canberra, Australia), resulting in the construction of recombinant vectors pHB54 (F) , pHB54, pHB61(F) and pHB61 (Fig. 1A) .
The present inventors generated transgenic tobacco ' plants by inserting the expression vectors constructed in the above Example into Agrobacterium twnefaciens LBA-4404 using leaf disc transformation method (Horsch R. B. et al., Science 227: 1229-1231, 1985).
First, Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 was transfected with the above recombinant expression vector by electroporation. And the ' transformed cells were distributed on LB agar plate containing 10 //g/m£ of kanamycin and 5 /ug/m^ of tetracycline, which was then cultured at 28 °C for 2 days. Transformants were selected, which were deposited at Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) of Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology on June 28, 2004 (Accession No: KCTC 10834BP).
The leaf discs of Nicotiana bentamiana were inoculated with the above Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404, followed by culture for 2 days to insert cellulase gene included in the recombinant vector into chromosome of tobacco leaf cells. The transformed leaf discs were transferred onto MS selection medium (supplemented with 0.5 ml/1 bovine albumin, Murashige-Skoog salt, 3% sucrose, 100 mg/1 kanamycin, 250 mg/1 pseudopen and 0.8% agar) to induce callus formation. The generated callus was grown up for one month and then the revived stem was transferred to a
seedbed containing vermiculite, perlite and peat moss by the equal amount, followed by further culture in a 26"C incubator under the 16 hour day-length condition to grow a transgenic tobacco plant.
The present inventors investigated phenotype of the grown up transgenic tobacco plant to examine the growth of the transgenic plant. As a result, transgenic tobacco plants expressing Cel5:CBM6 in cytoplasm had a severe growth defect. On the contrary, transgenic plants expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5;CBM6 did not show any visible morphological alterations (see Fig. IB).
The above results indicate that a recombinant protein expressed in a transgenic tobacco plant was targeted to chloroplasts by chloroplast targeting peptide RbcS(tp), preventing toxicity possibly caused by a recombinant protein in a transgenic plant.
In order to confirm whether or not a recombinant cellulase could be expressed normally in a transgenic tobacco plant, total RNA and total protein extracts were
obtained from fifty independent lines of transgenic plants expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6, and then Northern blot and Western blot were performed.
As a result, the expression of the inserted cellulase gene was observed in chloroplasts or in cytosol even though the expression level varied amongst the transgenic lines. Tb54(F)-14 and Tb54-8, expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5;CBM6 and RbcS(tp):Cel5 recombinant proteins respectively, were selected to quantify the cellulase protein in chloroplasts. The amount of cellulase protein in the chloroplasts of Tb54(F)-14 was 0.38% of the total soluble protein, and in Tb54-8 was 0.22% of the total soluble protein.
Localization of a recombinant cellulase in a transgenic tobacco plant
Immunolocalization was performed by using anti-cellulase (anti-Cel5) antibody to localize a recombinant cellulase in a transgenic tobacco plant.
Leaf samples were fixed with 4% formaldehyde in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH7.2) for 24 hours, washed in the same buffer, dehydrated in an ethanol series, and embedded in paraffin according to standard methods. Sections (7 (m) were deparaffined, rehydrated, and treated for 15 minutes with a blotto blocking solution consisting of 5% non-fat dry milk powder in 10 mM PBS buffer. Subsequently, an
anti-cellulase (Cel5) antibody in 2% blotto was layered on the sections after removing excess liquid. Incubation was performed in a high humidity incubator overnight at 4t. Slides were then washed with PBS buffer containing 0.5% Tween 20, and 100 fd of FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (Sigma) was layered on the sections. Slides were incubated for 2 hours at room temperature, washed with PBS buffer and distilled water, and mounted with DABCO anti-fade solution. Images were captured with a Zeiss Axiophot microscope (Johnson et al., Gene Anal. Techniques 1:3-8, 1984). For confocal microscopy, sections were examined under a Zeiss LSM 310 microscope. A 488 nm argon laser and a 515-565 nm emission band-pass filter were used to visualize the FITC-conjugated antibody and a 543 nm HeNe laser line and a 590 nm emission high-pass filter were used to visualize the autofluorescence of chlorophyll.
As a result, intense fluorescent signals were detected from the chloroplasts of leaf cells obtained from the transgenic plants, whereas the control non-transgenic plants did not show any significant signals (Fig. 2B) .
Cellulase activity in a transgenic tobacco plant
The cellulase activity expressed in transgenic tobacco plants were determined using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a substrate from protein extracts obtained from
fully grown up tobacco plant leaves. Particularly, the cellulase activity with CMC as the substrate was measured by the reduction in viscosity of 1% (w/c) CMC solution in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) after 5 minute incubation with the sample at 37°C. One unit of enzyme activity was defined as the amount of enzyme required to reduce the viscosity of the CMC solution by one centipoise in 1 min.
As shown in Fig. 2A, total protein extracts of the transgenic plants showed strong cellulase activity compared to protein extracts obtained from transgenic plants harboring a vector without cellulase gene. Protein extracts obtained from transgenic plants expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 showed a slightly higher cellulase activity than those expressing RbcS(tp):Cel5.
Measurement of autohydrolysis activity of RbcS(tp);Cel5;CBM6 expressed in a transgenic tobacco plant
The present inventors performed following experiments to examine whether the cellulase expressed in a transgenic tobacco plant could hydrolyze the cellulose of the cell wall after lysis of the cells.
Cel5:CBM6 expressed in E. coli was purified to be used to determine the activity, and the cellulase activity
ithout purification. To prepare crude extracts from the leaf tissues of transgenic tobacco plants, 1 g of leaf tissue was ground to homogeneity in 5 ml of protein extraction buffer (100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) with sea sand. The cellulase activity was determined using two different substrates, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the insoluble cell wall components of plant stems. The cellulase activity with CMC as the substrate was measured with the same method as described in Example , that is the cellulase activity was measured by the reduction in viscosity of an 1% (W/V) CMC solution in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) after 5 minute incubation with the sample at 37°C. One unit of enzyme activity was defined as the amount of enzyme required to reduce the viscosity of the CMC solution by one centipoise in 1 min.
The cellulase activity with the cell wall components as the substrate was measured using 0.2 g of stems ground in liquid nitrogen and incubated in 5 ml of leaf extracts for 65 hours at 40°C. Samples were withdrawn at regular time intervals. The amount of reducing .sugars released from the incubation mixture was determined by the DNS method using glucose as the standard (Miller, G.L. et al, Anal Biochem. 1:127-132, 1960).
As a result, crude extracts of Tb54(F)-14 containing RbcS (tp):Cel5:CBM6 produced a large amount of soluble sugars from the insoluble cell wall fraction of the transgenic plants (Fig. 3A) . Chemical analysis of the insoluble fraction obtained from the reaction mixture indicated that approximately 12% of the total insoluble cellulose components or the cell wall fraction was released as soluble sugars. In contrast, protein extracts obtained from Tb54-8 or non-transgenic plants showed negligible activity toward the cell wall fraction.
The present inventors compared the hydrolysis activity of RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 with that of externally added Cel5:CBM6. As a result, when Cel5:CBM6 that was expressed and purified from E. coli was added to the cell wall fractions, the amount of soluble sugar released was nearly the same as that was obtained with equal amounts cf RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6.
The amount of released soluble sugar may not accurately reflect the level of RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 activity, because Cel5:CBM6 is an endoglucanase, which can only digest the cellulose internally. Soluble sugars are only released efficiently by the concerted action of an endoglucanase and exoglucanase. Therefore, the present inventors examined the efficiency of soluble sugar released by RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 in the presence of an exogenously
added exoglucanase. In the present invention, exoglucanase Cel6B, a (i-l, 4-glucan cellobiohydrolase, purified from Thermobifidus fusca was used.
As a result, when Cel6B was added to the autohydrolysis reaction mixture containing RbcS (tp) -. Cel5 :CBM6, the amount of soluble sugar released was greatly increased compared to that released by the exoglucanase, Cel6B, alone. Chemical analysis of residual insoluble fraction revealed that approximately 40% of the total insoluble cellulose was released as soluble sugars. The above results indicate that RbcS(tp) :Cel5:CBM6 may generate a large number of long polymeric oligosaccharides from cell walls that can be substrates for the exoglucanase.
Analysis of soluble sugars converted by R3acS(tp) ;Cel5;CBM6
The present inventors analyzed the released sugar compounds to better understand the mechanism of the autohydrolysis disclosed in the above Example .
Particularly, protein extracts obtained from transgenic Tb54 (F) -14 were incubated with • the cell wall fractions for 72 hours, and sugar molecules were separated from the undigested materials by gel filtration. The liquid fraction was analyzed by HPLC (Millipore Waters 600E) using REZEX RSO oligosaccharides column (Phenomenex
Inc.) . Water at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min was used as the elution solvent. Pure cellulo-oligosaccharides (1% w/v in 10 mM phosphate buffer (Seikagaku Corporation, Japan)) such as glucose (Gl), cellobiose (G2), cellotriose (G3) , cellotetraose (G4), cellopentaose (G5), and cellohexaose (G6) were used as standards.
As a result, as shown in Fig. 4, the breakdown products of autohydrolysis were mainly long polymeric oligosaccharides together with small amounts of glucose (Fig. 4).
This type of hydrolytic activity is expected since RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 is an endoglucanase. The oligosaccharide chains were longer than cellohexaose, but the length of the oligosaccharide chain was reduced when the incubation time was increased.
The residual cell wall fraction obtained after autohydrolysis was also analyzed, using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Particularly, IR spectra were taken with KBr pellets (1 mg of transgenic tobacco holocellulose in 300 mg KBr) using a Bio-Rad FTIR (FTS 175C) spectromet (Kacurakova et al. , Carbohydr. Res. 337: 1145-1153, 2002). The plant cellulose content was determined with the alcohol-be -izene extraction method (Goering, H. K. et al., Agriculture Handbook, 379, 1970).
As a result, from the comparison of spectra between the control and RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6-treated cell wall fractions was revealed that the major difference was decrease in the intensity of the bands assigned to the cellulose:glycosidic C-O-C bond of cellulose at 1157 cm"1, the C-O-C bond at 1060 cm"1, and the C-C bond at 898 cm"1 in the RbcS(tp):Gel5:CBM6-treated cell wall fractions.
The above results proved that RbcS(tp):Cel5:CBM6 expressed in a transgenic plant of the invention has autohydrolysis activity in its own cell wall (Fig. 5).
As explained hereinbefore, a method of the present invention for ^production of a transgenic plant showing autohydrolysis activity against cellulose and production of soluble sugars using the same can enhance the production of soluble sugars from the cell wall materials of plant cells without the need for additional steps or an external source of enzymes. Thus, it is a highly cost-effective system for the production of soluble sugars, minimizing the enzyme production processes, compared with the conventional method using enzymes externally produced by fermentation on a large scale.
Sequence List Text
SEQ. ID. No 1 is the sequence of RbcS (tp) :Cel5 :CBM6, a recombinant cDNA harboring cellulase, cellulose binding domain and chloroplast targeting peptide.
Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the conceptions and. specific embodiments disclosed in the foregoing description may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other embodiments for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. Those skilled in the art will also appreciate that such equivalent embodiments do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
mi!.'M'E-.r IKKA-n INTERNATIONAL FORM
RECEIPT IN THE CASE OF AN ORIGINAL DEPOSIT
issued pursuant to Rule 7.1
'TO : HWANG. Inhwan
Center for Plant Iritrscellular TrafftcldnR, Pohang University of Science and Techno1i>KV, #San31. Hyoja -dong, Nan- RU, Pohang 790-7B4, Republic of Korea
Idcntificsciriii refercnc6 ftiven by chft ORPOSJTOn:
Afrahacterium tumefaciens I..BA-440/I
Accession number given by the INTERNATIONAL DEPOSITAKY
U. JjClEN'Timc l>eSCJU?TIONAND/pn PROPOSED TAXONOMIC DESIGNATION . .
The a-iiraiMrganism identified under C above was accompanied by:
1 x j n scientific description it la proposed uxonomic designation I (Mark witli a cross where applicable!
This IntcmationrJ Depositary Authority accepts the microorganism identified >under I above, which was received by it en
JV - RECEIPT OF REQUEST. FOH COKVeRStQN ^
Th* ruicrooreanism identified under I above was received by thjs International Depositary Authority on June 28 2004 and a request to convert the original deposit to a deposit tinder the Budapest Treaty was received by it on August 17 200$
,. V. INTClWATtONAL DEPOSITARY AUTHORITY
me. Korean Collection (or Type Cultures
Signaturfe(s) of person(s) having the power to represent the International Depositary Authority of authorized officiaK*)'
Addres*: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology .(KR1BB)
*52. Oun-clong. Yusong-ku, Taejon 305-333. Republic of Korea
OH, Hee Mock Director Date: August 19 2005
Op.I turTC Fimn 17)
1. A method for the production of soluble sugars from a plant comprising the following steps:
i) Obtaining homogenate from leaves or stems of a transgenic plant harboring a recombinant
cDNA encoding a fusion protein comprising a chloroplast-targeting peptide, a cellulase and a
cellulose binding domain, wherein the recombinant cDNA is RbcS (tp) : Cel5 : CBM6
represented by SEQ. ID. NO 1;
ii) Incubating the homogenate of step i) to induce autohydrolysis of cellulose; and
iii) Separating and purifying autohydrolyzed soluble sugars,
wherein the transgenic plant is prepared by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-
4404 deposited at Korean Collection for Type Cultures under Accession No: KCTC 10834BP.
2. The method for the production of soluble sugars as claimed in claim 1, wherein the addition of externally expressed and purified exoglucanase to the homogenate of step i) is optionally included.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1411/DELNP/2007|
|PG Journal Number||27/2011|
|Date of Filing||21-Feb-2007|
|Name of Patentee||POSTECH FOUNDATION|
|Applicant Address||SAN 31 HYOJA-DONG, NAM-KU POHANG-SI, GYEONGSANGBUK-DO 790-784 REPUBLIC OF KOREA|
|PCT International Classification Number||C12N 15/11|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/KR2005/002494|
|PCT International Filing date||2005-07-30|