Title of Invention

"A CERAMIC COMPOSITION FOR PREPARING SCIENTIFIC POTTERY WARES AND PROCESS OF PREPARATION THEREOF"

Abstract The present invention provides a ceramic composition for preparing scientific pottery wares, which comprises feldspar, quartz, clay, spent catalyst and de-flocculent. The spent catalyst is used to replace or reduce seme raw materials in pottery industry due to its physico-chemical characteristics. The invention also provide a process for the preparation of scientific pottery wares from the ceramic composition.
Full Text FIELD OF INVENTION:
The present invention relates to a ceramic body mix comprising spent catalyst waste that is useful for preparing ceramic pottery and a process for preparing ceramic ware using the same. More particularly, the present invention relates to a process for utilization of spent catalyst rich in silica and alumina as raw material in ceramic pottery.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:
Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is one of the largest secondary refining process in which over 500,000 MT catalysts per year is consumed. In this process catalyst is in a continuous motion from reactor to regenerator via cyclone and as a result part of the catalyst is lost which is known as attrition loss. In the process of cracking the catalyst gradually gets permanently deactivated due to permanent loss cracking activity which is caused by the loss of crystallinity of zeolite. Loss of crystallinity may be due to several accounts such as thermal/hydrothermal destruction of zeolite in the regions such as regenerator and steam stripper of FCC unit. FCC feeds are not free of vanadium salts and during processing of metal laden feeds vanadium gradually deposits on the catalyst and destroys zeolite by reacting with structural aluminum and rare earth component. This demands periodic withdrawal of catalyst and substitution with fresh. The attrition loss is in the range of 0.5-3 wt% of inventory/day while withdrawal of spent catalyst is almost 50% of total catalyst consumed per annum. Quantum of spent catalyst generated world wide in the process of FCC is mind-boggling and is in the range 200,000-250,000 MT per annum. Environmental point of view disposal of spent catalyst is of great concern. Metals Trading International (MTI) finds a home for metal-bearing spent catalysts after they are no longer useful to the catalyst applicant. Metal bearing catalysts such as reforming, isomerization, hydrotreating, hydrocracking catalysts contain high value metals such as nickel, cobalt, rhenium, palladium and platinum. MTI works with a number of industries using metal-bearing products as raw materials for the production of primary metals, steel, and chemicals. Recovery of these metals from spent catalysts is attractive on account of process cost. However, FCC catalysts do not contain such precious metals in them and hence required to be looked in to only for their content of silica and alumina.
The disposal route of spent catalyst not containing heavy metals, or low in heavy metals, e.g. spent FCCU catalyst, depends very much on whether this type of waste is considered hazardous or not. In either case, land filling is a suitable option, but for hazardous waste the landfill should have proper containment control in place.
FCC catalysts are prepared from clay, zeolite and silica-alumina based binder and contain from 25-45 wt% of alumina and 40-50 wt% of silica. Spent FCC catalyst has alumina in the range 25-45 wt% and silica in the range 40-50 wt% and total alkali and alkali earth metal oxide is less than 1 wt%. Spent FCC catalyst may additionally contain vanadium and nickel in the range 0.4-1 wt% and 0.1-0.5 wt% respectively. These catalysts have attracted the attention of industries such as ceramic and cement as a cheap raw material due to common composition.
One way to dispose of catalytic cracking catalyst particles is to use them as an ingredient in other compositions. This would avoid costly disposal practices and in addition give the particles a commercial value of their own. U.S. Pat. 5,5032,548 provides for utilizing particles of FCC catalyst together with a small amount of binder as a composition capable of functioning as a load-bearing layer in environments where it is subjected to compressive loads, such as in a road base or levee. Here particles are present in amount, by dry weight of the composition, in the range of 80% to 96%, and the binder is present in the range of 4% to 20%, by dry weight of the composition.
A preferred end use for spent catalyst particles would be one in which large quantities of the particles are required and more preferably one, which requires composition similar to that of spent catalyst composition.
Thus, there is a constant need to provide new and cost effective ways to dispose waste catalyst which also do not pose an environment hazard.
After careful study of several industries such as cement, ceramic and refractory ceramic, ceramic appears as the composition of the raw material for the ceramic industry nearly matches the composition of the spent catalyst. However, no data relating to the suitability of the spent catalyst in the ceramics is available.
Ceramic industry uses raw materials such as quartz, feldspar and variety of clays viz., china clay, ball Clay, fire Clay , bone ash in the manufacture of pottery wares. Feldspar, quartz and clay are used in the range of 27-28 wt% , 32-33 wt% and 39-40 wt% respectively.
NATURE OF THE RAW MATERIALS BY CERAMIC INDUSTRY USED AND THEIR COMPOSITION:
The raw materials used by the ceramic industry, their composition and their properties are described herebelow.
FELDSPAR: Samples of Feldspar employed in the present investigation were obtained from the user industry and were characterized for their chemical analysis. The results indicate that the SiO2 , A12O3 and K2O content were 65.23 percent, 18.06 percent and 11.15 percent respectively. This Feldspar is classified as Potash Feldspar. In addition it may contain other minor oxides of 2.49 wt% Na2O, 1.50 wt% CaO, 0.13 wt% Fe2O3, 0.06 wt% MgO and 0.09 wt% TiO2.
QUARTZ: Samples of Quartz employed in the present investigation were also obtained directly from the user industry and were characterized for their chemical analysis. The results indicate that Quartzite contain 98.35 percent SiO2. The other minor oxides are 0.44 wt% A12O3, 0.45 wt% CaO, 0.13 wt% TiO2, 0.07 wt% Fe2O3, 0.14 wt% t MgO, 0.05 wt% K2O and 0.01 wt% wt% Na2O.
CLAYS: Three different types of clays were employed in the present investigation and they were obtained from the user industry. These clays were namely, Than Garh clay, Bikaner clay and Ashwin clay. This clay was characterized for their chemical analysis. Than Garh clay contains 13-15 wt% LOI, 55.91 wt% SiO2, 25.32 wt% A12O3 and 1.06 wt% Fe2O3 besides other minor impurities. The Bikaner clay contains 9.68 percent LOI, 63.43 wt% Si02, 24.16 wt% A12O3 and 0.67 percent Fe2O3 besides other minor impurities. In contrast, the Ashwin clay contain 10-15 wt% LOI, 46-56 wt% SiO2, 24-36 wt% t A12O3 and 0.7-1 wt% Fe2O3, 0.5 2 wt% CaO besides other minor impurities.
Although the Applicants believe that due to some similarity between the spent catalyst and the raw materials used by the ceramic industry, spent catalyst can be incorporated for preparing ceramics, factors such as the color of the ceramic pottery after incorporation of the spentcatalyst, the leaching characteristics of any residual metals present in the spent catalyst etc play a vital role on the product characteristics. Due to the lack of research in this field, no data indicating the use of spent catalyst or any clue in this regard could be found.
Objects of the Present Invention:
The main object of the present invention is to provide a ceramic body mix comprising spent catalyst waste that is useful for preparing ceramic pottery.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a process for preparing ceramic ware using ceramic body mix comprising spent catalyst waste.
STATEMENT OF THE INVENTION
A ceramic composition for preparing scientific pottery wares, wherein said composition comprises: a) 20 to 40% by weight of feldspar; b) 0 to 40% by weight of quartz; c) 25 to 45% by weight of clay; d) 5 to 40% by weight of spent catalyst; and e) 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of de-flocculent.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a ceramic composition for preparing scientific pottery wares, which comprises feldspar, quartz, clay, spent catalyst and de-flocculent. The spent catalyst is used to replace or reduce some raw materials in pottery industry due to its physico-chemical characteristics. The invention also provide a process for the preparation of scientific pottery wares from the ceramic composition. Method of employing spent catalyst in ceramic wares makes new avenues for disposal of catalyst waste at the same time providing useful materials.
Detailed Description of the Present Invention:
Accordingly, the present invention provides a method for employing spent catalyst in the preparation of scientific pottery wares. The physico-chemical characteristics and higher silica and alumina content of catalyst waste is considered adequate for its-use as part replacement of some raw materials used in pottery industry. Accordingly, the experiment was designed to replace quartz raw material in the body mix of pottery ware from 20-35% by Wt with spent catalyst. The performance final pottery wares were studied carefully. From the physical performance property of pottery wares prepared partly with spent catalyst it lis evident performance of finished product is not sacrificed due to the use of catalyst waste which is a disposable industrial waste.
More particularly, the present invention provides a ceramic body mix useful for preparing ceramic pottery, said ceramic body mix comprising 20 to 40% by weight of feldspar, 0 to 40% by weight of quartz, 25 to 45% by weight of clay, 5 to 40% by weight of spent catalyst and 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of a de-flocculent.
In an embodiment of the present invention, feldspar used is a naturally occurring mineral containing 60 to 70% by weight of SiO2, 15 to 25% by weight of A12O3, 8 to 15% by weight of K2O and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides selected from Na2O, CaO and TiO2.
In another embodiment of the present invention, quartz used is a naturally occurring mineral having 90 to 99% by weight of SiO2, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of A12O3 and 0.5-2.0% by weight of elemental oxides selected from K2O, Na2O, CaO and TiO2.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, clay used is a naturally occurring mineral having 45 to 65% by weight of SiO2, 25 to 40% by weight of A12O3, and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides seleced from Na2O, CaO, TiO2 and K2O.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, the de-flocculent used is selected from sodium silicate and soda ash.
In one more embodiment of the present invention, the spent catalyst used is an inorganic waste catalyst.
In one another embodiment of the present invention, the spent catalyst is obtained from Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process, Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC) process, Reforming, Hydro-treating and Hydrocracking.
In a further embodiment of the present invention, the spent catalyst consists of 45 to 70% by weight of SiO2, 30 to 95% by weight of A12O3, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of Fe2O3, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of CaO, 0.1 to 0.5% by weight of MgO, 0.1 to 0.7% by weight of Na2O, 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of TiO2, 0.01 to 2.0% by weight of Vanadium and 0.01 to 1.0% by weight of Nickel.
The present invention also provides a process for the preparation of scientific pottery wares from clays, feldspar, spent catalyst and optionally quartz comprising the steps of:
(a) Mixing feldspar, quartz, clay and spent catalyst;
(b) Slurrying and milling of material obtained under step 1 (a) above and de-flocculating
the slurry with a de-flocculent and aging;
(c) Slip casting of the slurry obtained under l(b) into a scientific pottery ware;
(d) Drying of slip cast scientific pottery wares obtained under step 1( c );
(e) Biscuit firing of scientific pottery wares obtained under step 1 (d);
(f) Glazing of biscuit fired scientific pottery wares obtained under step 1 (e);
(g) Application of Glaze and
(h) Firing of glazed scientific pottery wares obtained under step 1 (f) to obtain finished pottery ware.
In an embodiment of the present invention wherein in step (a), 20 to 40% by weight of feldspar, 0 to 40% by weight of quartz, 25 to 45% by weight of clay and 5 to 40% by weight of spent catalyst are mixed.
In another embodiment of the present invention wherein in step (b), 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of a de-flocculent is added.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, feldspar used is a naturally occurring mineral containing 60 to 70% by weight of SiO2, 15 to 25% by weight of A12O3, 8 to 15% by weight of K2O and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides selected from Na2O, CaO and TiO2.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, quartz used is a naturally occurring mineral having 90 to 99% by weight of SiO2, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of A12O3 and 0.5-2.0% by weight of elemental oxides selected from K2O, Na2O, CaO and TiO2.
In one more embodiment of the present invention, clay used is a naturally occurring mineral having 45 to 65% by weight of SiO2, 25 to 40% by weight of A12O3, and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides seleced from Na2O, CaO, TiO2 and K2O.
In one another embodiment of the present invention, the de-flocculent used is selected from sodium silicate and soda ash.
In a further embodiment of the present invention, the spent catalyst used is an inorganic waste catalyst.
In a further more embodiment of the present invention, the spent catalyst is obtained from Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process, Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC) process, Reforming, Hydro-treating and Hydrocracking.
In another embodiment of the present invention, the spent catalyst consists of 45 to 70% by weight of SiO2, 30 to 95% by weight of A1203, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of Fe2O3, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of CaO, 0.1 to 0.5% by weight of MgO, 0.1 to 0.7% by weight of Na2O, 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of TiO2, 0.01 to 2.0% by weight of Vanadium and 0.01 to 1.0% by weight of Nickel.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention wherein in step (b), water is added to the mixture of step (a) for slurrying.
In still another embodiment of the present invention wherein in step (d), the slip cast is air dried at temperature in the range of 25 to 35°C.
Technically speaking, there is scope of using the spent catalyst in all types of ceramic wares such as kitchen pottery, ceramic tiles etc. However, the Applicants have initially performed their experiments with scientific pottery. The Applicants are performing tests to find the acceptability of use of spent catalyst in other types of ceramic wares.
SPENT CATALYST: The chemical analysis of spent FCC catalyst sourced from one of RFCC unit indicates that it contains 1.15 percent LOI, 60.35 percent SiO2, 33.12 percent Al2Oa and 0.96 percent Fe2O3 besides other minor impurities. The content of Ni and V was estimated to be 0.34 percent and 0.95 percent respectively.
The X-Ray diffraction analysis was carried out to identify the mineral phases present in a used catalyst. The investigations reveal that main mineral phases present in spent catalyst are Na2Al2Si4.7O13.4. x H2O and Mg2Al4Si5O13. It was observed that the catalyst looses its crystallinity during use and tends to become more and more amorphous in nature.
The physical/thermal characterization of the used catalyst waste sample reveal that the bulk density and specific gravity of the material is 0.998 g/cc and 2.426 respectively. The catalyst waste sample is highly non plastic in nature and showed no fusion tendency up to 1450 °C. The results of physical/thermal characterization and sieve analysis are given in Table 1.
Table 1: PHYSICAL/THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WASTE CATALYST SAMPLE

(Table Removed)
The presence of TiCh, FeaOa, Ni and V in the catalyst waste make it very sensitive for fired color. The catalyst waste sample was fired at 900, 1100 and 1250 °C to see the fired color of this material. It is observed that the color at 900 °C is light brown which changes to light yellow at 1100 °C and at 1250 °C changes to brown.
The chemical analysis coupled with non plastic nature and high temperature stability of this material make it suitable for use in pottery bodies.
CERAMIC WARE MOLDING
In the preparation of body mixes of pottery wares, feldspar, clay and quartz are used as raw materials. The weight proportions of these materials vary depending upon the type/quality of pottery ware to be manufactured. A triaxial diagram showing areas of commercial ceramic wares is given in Fig 1. The raw materials are mixed and wet ground in ball/drum mills of different capacities. After making slurry, it is blunged in underground blungers. The blunged slurry is pumped in the filter press to remove the water. The filtered water is collected in underground tanks and allowed to settle. The settled solids are recycled in mill along with raw materials. The water consumption is about 30 - 35% by weight of the solid materials. The filtered mix is passed through pug mill to remove entrapped air. Thereafter the material is sent to molding and casting section which is semi mechanized. The molded ceramic pieces (green wares) are dried in ambient air.
After requisite finishing and drying in open/covered space, these are loaded in the kiln with or without seggers.
The biscuit and glost firing is carried out in coal fired down draft (DD) kilns, oil fired shuttle/tunnel kilns.
EXPERIMENT 1: PREPARATION OF BODY MIX
The experiment was designed to utilize catalyst waste in the manufacture of pottery wares. In the reference (C-0) body mix, the Quartz was considered for full part. Two body mixes were prepared replacing quartz with catalyst waste. In one mix, complete quartz was replaced with catalytic waste (C-l) and in second case, 20 % catalyst waste was added in place of quartz (C-2). Details of the composition is given below:

(Table Removed)
The composition was slurried with water and ground for 24 hours. The addition of water was 35% by weight. In order to arrest the settling of particles, the deflocculent such as soda ash and sodium silicate were added at 0.15 wt % and 0.30 wt% respectively. The slurry was kept for 24 hors for aging.
EXAMPLE 2: SLIP CASTING FOR MAKING SCIENTIFIC POTTERY WARES
Plaster of Paris moulds were used for slip casting of the scientific pottery wares. Before pouring into the moulds, the slip was stirred manually for 5 minutes and then the moulds were filled with slip. Due to suction of water through the plaster of Paris moulds, the water was sucked in and thickening of slurry took place. Variety of shapes was cast and the shaped crucibles, pan, etc. were manufactured.
EXAMPLE 3: DRYING AND FIRING OF SCIENTIFIC POTTERY WARES
Scientific Pottery wares were dried naturally under the shade for 48 hours. The dried green scientific pottery wares were biscuit fired at a temperature of 900 °C. The biscuit firing carried out to generate strength in the relatively soft wares with thinner side walls and bottom so that
the enamel or glaze can be applied easily without crumbling of the wares. After biscuit firing, the wares were cooled and then the enamel was applied by dipping. When the enamel was dried up, the wares were loaded in the industrial shuttle kiln and fired at a temperature of 1250 °C. The fired scientific pottery wares were inspected for any visual cracks, etc. Fig. 2, shows some of the disc and crucibles manufactured from above.















We claim:
1. A ceramic composition for preparing scientific pottery wares, wherein said
composition comprises:
a) 20 to 40% by weight of feldspar:
b) 0 to 40% by weight of quartz;
c) 25 to 45% by weight of clay;
d) 5 to 40% by weight of spent catalyst such as herein described; and c) 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of de-flocculent such as herein described.

2. The composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein feldspar used is a naturally occurring mineral containing 60 to 70% by weight of SiO2. 15 to 25% by weight of Al2O3. 8 to 15% by weight of K2O and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides selected from Na2O. CaO and TiO2; quartz used is a naturally occurring mineral having 90 to 99% by weight of SiO2, 0.1 to 1 % by weight of Al2O3 and 0.5-2% by weight of elemental oxides selected from K2O, Na2O. CaO and TiO2; clay used is a naturally occurring mineral having 45 to 65%) by weight of SiO2. 25 to 40% by weight of Al2O3 and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides selected from Na2O, CaO. TiO2 and K2O: dcflocculent used is selected from sodium silicate and soda ash and; the spent catalyst used is an inorganic waste catalyst and more specifically the spent catalyst contains 45 to 70 % by weight of SiO2, 30 to 90% by weight of A12O3. 0.1 to 1.0 % by weight of Fc2O3, 0.1 to 1.0 % by weight of CaO, 0.1 to 5.0 % by weight of MgO. 0.1 to 0.7% by weight of Na2O, 0.1 to 2.0 % by weight of TiO2, 0.01 to 2.0% by weight of Vanadium and 0.01 to 1.0 % by weight of nickel.
3. A process for the preparation of scientific pottery wares from the composition as claimed in claim 1 comprising the steps of:
a. mixing 20 to 40% by weight of feldspar, 0 to 40% by weight of quartz. 25 to 45% by
weight of clay and 5 to 40%) by weight of spent catalyst;
b. slurrying and milling of material obtained under step 3 (a) above and de-flocculating
the slurry with a de-flocculent and ageing;
c. slip casting the slurry obtained under 3 (b) into scientific pottery ware;
d. drying the slip cast scientific pottery wares obtained under step 3 (c);
c. biscuit firing the scientific pottery wares obtained under step 3 (d); and
f. applying glaze to the biscuit fired scientific pottery wares obtained under step 3 (e) and firing glazed scientific pottery wares obtained under step 3 (f) to obtain finished pottery ware.
4. The process as claimed in claim 3. wherein steps (d) to (1) are carried out by conventional methods.
5. The process as claimed in claim 3, wherein feldspar used is a naturally occurring mineral containing 60 to 70% by weight of SiO2. 15 to 25% by weight of Al2O3. 8 to 15% by weight of K2O and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides selected from Na2O, CaO and TiO2; quartz used is a naturally occurring mineral having 90 to 99% by weight of SiO2, 0.1 to 1 % by weight of A12O3 and 0.5-2% by weight of elemental oxides selected from K2O, Na2O, CaO and TiO2; clay used is a naturally occurring mineral having 45 to 65% by weight of SiO2, 25 to 40%) by weight of AI7O3 and 2 to 4% by weight of elemental oxides selected from Na2O, CaO, TiO2 and K2O and: the spent catalyst used is an inorganic waste catalyst and more specifically the spent catalyst contains 45 to 70 % by weight of SiO2. 30 to 90% by weight of A12O3, 0.1 to 1.0 % by weight of Fc2O3, 0.1 to 1.0 % by weight of CaO, 0.1 to 5.0 % by weight of MgO, 0.1 to 0.7% by weight of Na2O. 0.1 to 2.0 % by weight of TiO2, 0.01 to 2.0% by weight of Vanadium and 0.01 to 1.0 % by weight of nickel.
6. The process as claimed in claim 3. wherein in step (b), water is added to the mixture of step (a) for slurrying and in step (d). the slip cast is air fired in the range of 25 to 35°C.
7. A ceramic composition for preparing scientific pottery wares substantially as herein described with reference to the foregoing examples and figures.
8. A process for preparation of scientific pottery ware substantially as herein described with reference to the foregoing examples.

Documents:

269-DEL-2004-Abstract-(08-06-2010).pdf

269-del-2004-abstract.pdf

269-DEL-2004-Claims-(08-06-2010).pdf

269-DEL-2004-Claims-(11-08-2010).pdf

269-del-2004-claims.pdf

269-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(08-06-2010).pdf

269-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(11-08-2010).pdf

269-del-2004-correspondence-others.pdf

269-del-2004-correspondence-po.pdf

269-DEL-2004-Description (Complete)-(08-06-2010).pdf

269-del-2004-description (complete).pdf

269-del-2004-drawings.pdf

269-DEL-2004-Form-1-(08-06-2010).pdf

269-del-2004-form-1.pdf

269-del-2004-form-18.pdf

269-DEL-2004-Form-2-(08-06-2010).pdf

269-del-2004-form-2.pdf

269-del-2004-form-26.pdf

269-del-2004-form-3.pdf

269-del-2004-form-5.pdf


Patent Number 248230
Indian Patent Application Number 269/DEL/2004
PG Journal Number 26/2011
Publication Date 01-Jul-2011
Grant Date 28-Jun-2011
Date of Filing 23-Feb-2004
Name of Patentee INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED
Applicant Address HEAD OFFICE AT G-9, ALL YAVAR JUNG MARG, BANDRA(EAST) MUMBAI 400 051, IMDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 K. MOHAN NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
2 K.M. SHARMA NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
3 M.M. ALI NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
4 S.K. CHATURVEDI NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
5 D.YADAV NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
6 S.K. AGARWAL NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, 34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
7 PANKAJ KASLIWAL INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED,RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER, SECTOR 13, FARIDABAD 121 007, HARYANA.
8 N.R. RAJE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER, SECTOR 13, FARIDABAD 121 007, HARYANA.
9 V. KRISHNAN INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER, SECTOR 13, FARIDABAD 121 007, HARYANA.
10 S. GHOSH INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER, SECTOR 13, FARIDABAD 121 007, HARYANA.
11 SATISH MAKHIJA INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER, SECTOR 13, FARIDABAD 121 007, HARYANA.
12 S. RAINA NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS,34 KM STONE, DELHI-MATHURA ROAD, (NH-2), BALLABGARH-121004, HARYANA, INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number C04B 35/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA