Title of Invention

"A PROCESS FOR PREPARING PHTHALOCYANINE"

Abstract A process for preparing phthalocyanine by treating anhydrous phthalic acid, phthalimide, 1,3-diiminoisoindoline, 1,2-dicyanobenzene, halogen derivative thereof, an alkyl derivative thereof or an alkoxy derivative thereof with microwaves and ultrasonic waves, optionally in the presence of a metal source selected from a metal chloride or an alkoxy metal, at 130 to 250°C for 0.25 to 15 hours.
Full Text The present invention relates to a process for preparing phthalocyanine.
Technical Field
The present invention relates to a process and an apparatus for preparing a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine using both microwave and ultrasonic wave energy in the absence or presence of a solvent.
Background Art
Phthalocyanines are compounds represented by the structural formula shown in Fig. 1, and exhibit superior stability and excellent photoelectric properties due to their unique chemical structure. For these reasons, phthalocyanines are currently used in a wide variety of applications such as dyes, pigments, chemical sensors, electrochromic displays, photovoltagic cells, radiators, photodisks, catalysts, non-linear optics and the like.
A phthalocyanine is commonly prepared by reacting a starting material . selected from anhydrous phthalic acid, phthalimide, 1,3-diiminoisoindoline, 1,2-dicyanobenzene and derivatives thereof with a metal chloride or an alkoxy metal using urea or ammonia as a nitrogen source at a temperature of 180°C or higher, in the presence of a catalyst in an inert solvent or without any solvent.
The phthalocyanine thus prepared must essentially undergo pigmentation in order to be used as a pigment. The phthalocyanine pigmentation is mainly achieved by the following techniques:
1) Kneading: A phthalocyanine and finely divided salt or a metal salt are placed in a kneader. and are then kneaded for a predetermined period of time;
2) Milling and Organic solvent treatment: A phthalocyanine is subjected to dry or wet milling, and is then treated with an organic solvent; and
3) Milling and Kneading: A phthalocyanine is subjected to dry or wet milling, and is then kneaded.
Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 8-291261 discloses a process for preparing a phthalocyanine using a heat source at 200~250°C in the presence of. a solvent such as chloronaphthalene. However, this process has the following problems: i) impurities that are difficult to remove are formed on a high-temperature portion due to the difference between internal and external temperatures of reactants, ii) since the phthalocyanine particles are non-uniformly dispersed and agglomerated in a needle shape, they must undergo long-term pigmentation before use as a pigment, iii) this process requires a large quantity of energy in order to recover the solvent used for the reaction, and iv) this process is disadvantageous in terms of process efficiency and environmental management.
Commonly, a phthalocyanine may be prepared using a conventional heat source in the absence of a solvent. This preparation process also has various problems. First, since reactants are not homogeneously mixed during preparation and are heated using electricity or thermal oil, the internal temperature of the reactor is non-uniform, causing low yield and poor quality of the phthalocyanine due to the presence of difficult-to-remove impurities formed at a high-temperature portion to which a relatively high heat is provided from the heat source. For these reasons, a number of solvent-free processes have been reported in the literatures. However, few processes have been applicable to mass production of phthalocyanines. Although some Czechoslovakian and Chinese companies have attempted and finally succeeded in mass production of phthalocyanines, they stopped in the middle of production due to poor quality of the phthalocyanine undergoing pigmentation.
In order to solve the above-mentioned problems associated with non-uniform heat transfer, electricity and thermal oil as heat sources have been replaced with microwaves. Such trials can be found in many references (U.S. Patent No. 6.491,796; and Fifth International Electronic Conference on Synthetic Organic Chemistry (ECSOC-5), 1-30 September 2001, pp 4-5). Microwaves are electromagnetic waves having a wavelength ranging from 0.001m to 1m, and have functions such as rapid heating, selective heating and volume heating, etc. Since microwaves directly heat an object that is intended to be heated, external heating is unnecessary. Accordingly, the use of microwaves minimizes the formation of difficult-to-remove impurities. However, since reactants are not homogenously mixed during reaction despite the use of microwaves, the yield of phlhalocyanines is not greatly increased, the mass production of phthalocyanines is difficult, and the quality of phthalocyanines is not comparable to that of phthalocyanines prepared by solvent processes. In conclusion, the preparation of a phthalocyanine using microwaves is not suitable for mass production and commercialization.
Disclosure of the Invention

Therefore, the present invention has been made in view of the above problems of conventional solvent or solvent-free processes, and the present invention provides a novel process for preparing a metal or nonmetal(that is, metal-free) phthalocyanine wherein a conventional heat source, such as electricity or thermal oil, is replaced with microwave energy so that problems resulting from non-uniform heat transfer can be avoided, and a dry or wet milling device is used for homogeneously mixing reactants so that a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine can be prepared in high yield and the phthalocyanine particles can be milled immediately after being formed, thereby preventing firm agglomeration of the phthalocyanine particles. To this end, the present invention also provides a milling-type apparatus for preparing a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine using microwaves in the absence of a solvent (hereinafter, referred to as a "solvent-free milling-type microwave apparatus") comprising: a milling device, such as a vertical-type attritor or ball mill, filled with alumina or glass beads having a diameter not larger than 30mm; at least one magnetron providing a frequency of 0.1-1 OOGHz and a power of 100~4,OOOW installed on an upper cover of the milling device; a microwave-shielded infrared temperature detector for accurately measuring and controlling the temperature of reactants; a PID temperature controller for controlling the power of the magnetron; a vent port for exhausting gasses, e.g., ammonia, generated during reaction; an agitator motor for rotating an agitator so as to permit homogeneous mixing and milling inside the milling device; and a discharge valve for discharging a phthalocyanine product prepared after reaction.
Further, the present invention has been made in view of the above problems, e.g.. long-term pigmentation, of conventional solvent processes using a heat source and microwave energy, and the present invention provides a process for preparing a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine wherein both microwave and ultrasonic energy are used to enhance the yield, purity and physical properties of the phthalocyanine.
To this end, the present invention also provides an apparatus for preparing a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine comprising: a magnetron providing a frequency of 0.1~100GHz and a power of 100~3,OOOW; a mode stirrer for making the wavelength of microwaves uniform in a microwave vessel; a PID temperature controller for accurately measuring and controlling the temperature of reactants; a microwave-shielded K-type thermocouple, a condenser and an agitator which are fitted into three holes formed on top of the microwave vessel, respectively; an

ultrasonic tip fitted into a hole formed at bottom of the microwave vessel; a Pyrex container for accommodating reactants; and a solvent tank.
Brief Description the Drawings
The above and other objects, features and other advantages of the present invention will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 shows the structural formula of a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine, or a derivative thereof (wherein M is copper, iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, aluminum, gallium, vanadium, palladium, lead, tin, titanium, rubidium, terbium, cerium, lanthanum, zinc or hydrogen; X is hydrogen, fluoro, chloro, bromo, an alkyl group or alkoxy group; and k, 1, m and n are integers of 1 to 4);
Fig. 2 shows an apparatus for preparing a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine using both microwave and ultrasonic wave energy, in accordance with the present invention;
Fig. 3 shows a solvent-free milling-type microwave apparatus according to one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of a copper phthalocyanine prepared using the solvent-free milling-type microwave apparatus shown in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of a copper phthalocyanine prepared by using a conventional solvent process;
Fig. 6 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of a copper phthalocyanine prepared by using a conventional solvent-free process; and
Fig. 7 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of a copper phthalocyanine prepared by using a conventional solvent-free process using microwave.
Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention
The present invention will now be described in more detail.
The present invention provides a process for preparing a metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine by using both microwave and ultrasonic wave energy in the presence of a solvent, or by using microwave energy as a heat source in a vertical-type dry or wet milling device, such as an attritor or ball mill, in the absence of a solvent.
Anhydrous phthalic acid, phthalimide, 1,3-diiminoisoindoline, 1,2-

dicyanobenzene, a halogen derivative thereof, an alkyl derivative thereof, an alkoxy derivative thereof or the like is used as a starting material, and urea or ammonia is used as a nitrogen source. As a metal source suitable for use in the preparation of a metal phthalocyanine, a metal chloride (e.g., copper chloride, iron chloride, titanium chloride, etc.) or an alkoxy metal (e.g., ethoxy titanium, propoxy titanium, butoxy titanium, etc.) is used. As a reaction catalyst, ammonium molybdate, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) or l,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,0]-non-5-ene (DBN) is used. As a solvent, a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon selected from alkyl benzenes, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, quinolines, trichlorobenzene and 1-chloronaphthalene, or an alcohol selected from isoamylalcohol, n-octanol. 2-ethylhexanol and ethyleneglycol, is used.
Fig. 2 shows an apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention. The apparatus comprises a magnetron 1 providing a frequency of 0.1~100GHz and a power of 100-3,OOOW; a mode stirrer 3 for making the wavelength of microwaves uniform in a microwave vessel 2; a PID temperature controller 8 made of stainless steel for accurately measuring and controlling the temperature of reactants; a microwave-shielded K-type thermocouple 4, a condenser 5 and an agitator 6 which are fitted into three holes (diameter: about 1cm) formed on top of the microwave vessel, respectively; an ultrasonic tip 7 fitted into a hole (diameter: about 1cm) formed at the bottom of the microwave vessel; a Pyrex container 9 for accommodating reactants; and a solvent tank 10 filled with decalin (decahydronaphthalene) capable of transferring ultrasonic wave energy to the reactants without any reaction with microwaves.
In the apparatus of the present invention, the reactants are heated at a rate of about 2~20°C/minute to 120°C using microwave energy at a frequency of 0.1~100GHz and a power of 100-3,000 W while being uniformly stirred in the presence of solvent, and are further heated at a rate of about 0.25~10°C,/minute to 130~250°C, which is the final preparing temperature. During reaction, the temperature of the reactants can be accurately controlled using the PID temperature controller 8 within a deviation of ± 1°C, and the microwave at a frequency of 0.1-1 OOGHz and a power of 100-3,000W and ultrasonic wave energy at a frequency of 1~ 1,000kHz and a power of 100~5,OOOW are simultaneously used starting from the initial stage of the reaction.
Fig. 3 shows another apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention. Unlike the microwave generation apparatus shown in Fig. 2, the

apparatus shown in Fig. 3 uses four magnetrons 11 providing a frequency of 0.1~100GHz and a power of 100~4,OOOW, and a milling device 12, such as a vertical-type attritor or ball mill filled with alumina beads or glass balls having a diameter not larger than 30mm as milling media. As the microwave generation apparatus, the four magnetrons providing a frequency of 0.1~100GHz and a power of 100~4,OOOW are installed in the four sides of an upper cover of the milling device 12 so that the microwave wavelength can be uniformly dispersed. In addition, this apparatus further comprises a microwave-shielded infrared temperature detector 14 for accurately measuring and controlling the temperature of reactants, a PID temperature controller 15 for controlling the power of the magnetron 11, a vent port 18 for evolving gasses. e.g., ammonia, generated during reaction, an agitator motor 18 for rotating an agitator 17 so as to permit homogeneous mixing and milling inside the milling device, and a discharge valve 19 for discharging a phthalocyanine product prepared after reaction.
First, reactants are introduced into the solvent-free milling-type microwave apparatus. Thereafter, the reactants are heated at a rate of about 2~20°C/minute to I20°C with stirring at a stirring speed of 300~400rpm and are further heated at a rate of about 0.25~10°C/minutc to 130~250°C, which is the final preparing temperature. During reaction, the temperature of the reactants can be accurately controlled using the PID temperature controller within a deviation of ± 1°C, and the microwave power is controlled within the range of 100~4,OOOW. While the final preparing temperature is maintained, the reactants are uniformly stirred for 0.25-10 hours to prepare a phthalocyanine. After completion of the preparation, unreacted reactants are removed in the following procedure. The phthalocyanine thus prepared is added to a 5% sulfuric acid solution, acid-treated at 85°C for one hour, and washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH is neutral. The acid-treated phthalocyanine is redispersed in a 1% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, alkali-treated at 85°C for one hour, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH is neutral, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours.
According to the present invention, since the combination of microwave and ultrasonic wave energy can prevent agglomeration of phthalocyanine particles inside the reaction slurry and promote homogeneity of the slurry, metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine particles in a small needle shape can be prepared without agglomeration under the same preparing conditions of temperature and time. Accordingly, since the process of the present invention can considerably shorten the

pigmentation time and enhance the quality of the phthalocyanine pigment, it is suitable for industrial applications.
In addition, the phthalocyanine produced by the process of the present invention can markedly shorten the time required for pigmentation. A phthalocyanine pigment obtained after long-term pigmentation, such as kneading or dry or wet milling, of a phthalocyanine prepared by a conventional solvent-free process is inferior in quality to a phthalocyanine pigment prepared by a conventional solvent-free process, and hence it cannot be practically used. As already reported in many references, since diy or wet milling can finely divide large particles and -loosen firmly agglomerated particles, kneading time is shortened. In particular, such dry or wet milling is an essential step in the treatment of an organic solvent. Accordingly, already known processes further involve milling after preparation of phthalocyanines. In contrast, since the phthalocyanine prepared by the process of the present invention is milled immediately after preparation of the phthalocyanine, the phthalocyanine has a particle size by 50-60% smaller than that of phthalocyanine prepared by conventional processes. In addition, since the shape of the phthalocyanine particles prepared by the process of the present invention is almost spherical, further milling is unnecessary, the time required for pigmentation can be shortened by about 50% or more, and the phthalocyanine can be directly used as a pigment without undergoing additional pigmentation according to its intended application. Accordingly, a solvent-free process for preparing phthalocyanines, which has been thought to be impossible, can be put to practical use.
Pigmentation of the phthalocyanine prepared by the process of the present invention is carried out by the following techniques.
- Pigmentation 1: Kneading
A metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine and finely divided salt are charged into a kneader equipped with a sigma blade, and then an appropriate amount of diethylene glycol (DEG) is added thereto. The resulting mixture is kneaded at 100-110°C for a predetermined period of time. After the kneaded mixture is taken out, it is dispersed in a 5% sulfuric acid solution, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH is neutral, redispersed in distilled water, filtered, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the electrical conductivity of the filtrate reaches 250uS/cm or less, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours.
- Pigmentation 2: Milling and organic solvent treatment
A metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine is introduced into an attritor or

vibration mill, and then steel rods or balls are introduced thereinto. The phthalocyanine is dry milled for a predetermined period of time. Separately, a rosin solution is prepared in accordance with the procedure described in Example 1 of PCT publication WO 99/54410 (Applicant: Ciba Specialty Chemicals Holding Inc.). That is, an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution and rosin are added to a certain amount of water. The resulting mixture is completely dissolved to prepare a rosin solution, after which water is added for dilution. The milled phthalocyanine is dispersed in IPS2 (Charles Tcnnant, UK) as a solvent, and then the rosin solution is added thereto. The resulting mixture is refluxed for 4 hours. Thereafter, water is added to the refluxed mixture, and distilled to collect the solvent. Hydrochloric acid is added to the solvent-free slurry to render the slurry acidic. The slurry is filtered, washed until the pH is neutral, and dried in a dryer.
- Pigmentation 3: Milling and kneading
A phthalocyanine is introduced into an attritor or vibration mill, and then steel rods or balls are introduced thereinto. The phthalocyanine is dry milled for a predetermined period of time. The milled phthalocyanine is treated in the same manner as in Pigmentation 1.
The present invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the following examples and comparative examples. However, these examples are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.
Example 1
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine
This example was done in a solvent-type apparatus according to the present invention. Specifically, 42g of anhydrous phthalic acid, 49g of urea, 7g of copper chloride, O.lg of ammonium molybdate and lOOg of an alkylbenzene were introduced into a Pvrex container 9, and then the reactants were uniformly stirred at 180~185°C for 3 hours by using microwaves at 28kHz and ultrasonic wave energy at 250W, to prepare a copper phthalocyanine. During reaction, the temperature of the reactants was accurately controlled using the PID temperature controller 8 within a deviation of ± 1°C, and thus the microwave power was maintained at 100~3,OOOW. The microwave and ultrasonic wave energy were simultaneously used starting from the initial stage of the reaction. After completion of the preparation, the removal of the solvent was carried out by distillation at reduced pressure. The dried copper phthalocyanine was added to 500ml of a 5% sulfuric acid solution, acid-treated at

85°C for one hour, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, alkali-treated with 500ml of a 1% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 85"C for one hour, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours.
Example 2
Preparation of other phthalocyanines
Various phthalocyanines were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except that 1,2-dicyanobenzene was used instead of anhydrous phthalic acid, and a metal salt as a metal source selected from titanium, iron, cobalt, aluminum, manganese, tin and nickel was used in the same equivalent weight instead of copper chloride (in the case of nonmetal phthalocyanine, the metal source was not used).
Example 3
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine
300ml of alumina beads having a diameter of 30mm were charged into an attritor mill 12 equipped with a microwave generation apparatus, and then 42g of anhydrous phthalic acid, 49g of urea, 7g of cuprous chloride and O.lg of ammonium molybdate were introduced thereinto. The reactants were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute to 120°C with agitating using an agitator 17 at 300~400rpm, and were further heated at a rate of 5°C/minute to a final preparing temperature (180°C). While the final preparing temperature was maintained for 3 hours, the reactants were uniformly agitated to prepare a copper phthalocyanine. During reaction, the temperature of the reactants was accurately controlled using the PID temperature controller within a deviation of ± 1°C, and the microwave power was maintained at 100~4,OOOW. After completion of the preparation, the attritor mill was cooled to 60°C, and 500ml of a 5% sulfuric acid solution was added thereto. After the resulting mixture was agitated at 300-400 rpm for 30 minutes, it was taken out. The copper phthalocyanine slurry was subjected to acid-treatment at 85°C for one hour, filtered, and washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral. The acid-treated copper phthalocyanine was redispersed in 500ml of a 1% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and was then alkali-treated at 85°C for one hour. The alkali-treated copper phthalocyanine was filtered, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours. Fig. 4 shows an electron micrograph (1,500x) of the copper phthalocyanine prepared

by the process of the present invention.
Example 4
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine
A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except that 41.2g of 1,3-diiminoisoindoline and lOg of urea were used instead of anhydrous phthalic acid and urea.
Example 5
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine
A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except that 36.3g of 1,2-dicyanobenzene and lOg of urea were used instead of anhydrous phthalic acid and urea.
Comparative Example 1
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (conventional solvent process) 42g of anhydrous phthalic acid, 49g of urea, 7g of cuprous chloride, O.lg of ammonium molybdate and lOOg of an alkylbenzene were charged into a IL three-neck glass flask equipped with a condenser, a thermometer and an agitator. The reactants were uniformly stirred at 180~185°C for 3 hours to prepare a copper phthalocyanine. After completion of the preparation, the removal of the solvent was carried out by distillation at reduced pressure. The dried copper phthalocyanine was added to 500ml of a 5% sulfuric acid solution, acid-treated at 85°C for one hour, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, alkali-treated with 500ml of a 1% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 85°C for one hour, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, and dried in a dryer at about 105"C for 24 hours.
Comparative Example 2
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (Conventional solvent process) A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1, except that microwave energy was not used.
Comparative Example 3
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (Conventional solvent-free process)

A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the same manner as in Comparative Example 1, except that alkylbenzene was not used as a solvent.
Comparative Example 4
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (Conventional solvent-free process using microwave)
A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the same manner as in Comparative Example 2, except that alkylbenzene was not used as a solvent.
The reaction yields of the copper phthalocyanines in Example 1 and Comparative Examples 1-4 are shown in Table 1 below. Table 1
(Table Removed)
As can be seen from Table 1, the yield of the copper phthalocyanines prepared by the process of the present invention is higher than that of the copper phthalocyanines prepared by the conventional processes and the microwave processes in the absence or presence of a solvent.
The particle diameter and the particle size distribution of the copper phthalocyanines prepared in Example 1 and Comparative Examples 1 to 4 are shown in Table 2 below. Table 2
(Table Removed)
Note) mv = mean value
As evident from Table 2, the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the process of the present invention has a uniform particle diameter and a narrow particle size distribution, compared to the copper phthalocyanines prepared by the conventional processes and the microwave processes in the absence or presence of a solvent.
The results of Table 3 below clearly demonstrate that the yields of the metal and nonmetal phthalocyanines prepared in Examples 1 and 2 are relatively high. Table 3
(Table Removed)
Note) ©: Very high yield, O: relatively high yield
Comparative Example 5
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (conventional solvent-free process) 42g of anhydrous phthalic acid, 49g of urea, 7g of cuprous chloride and O.lg of ammonium molybdate were charged into a 1L three-neck glass flask equipped with a condenser, a thermometer and an agitator. The reactants were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute to 120°C with agitating at 300-~400rpm, and were further heated at a rate of 5°C/minute to a final preparing temperature (180°C). While the final preparing temperature was maintained for 3 hours, the reactants were uniformly agitated to prepare a copper phthalocyanine. After completion of the preparation, 500ml of a 5% sulfuric acid solution was introduced into the flask. After the resulting mixture was agitated for 30 minutes, it was taken out. The resulting copper phthalocyanine slurry was subjected to acid-treatment at 85°C for one hour, filtered, and washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral. The acid-treated copper phthalocyanine was redispersed in 500ml of a 1% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and was then alkali-treated at 85°C for one hour. The alkali-treated copper phthalocyanine was filtered, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours. Fig. 6 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the conventional solvent-free process.
Comparative Example 6
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (solvent-free process using
microwave)
A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the same manner as in Comparative Example 1, except that the microwave generation apparatus (2.45GHz, 100~3,OOOW) shown in Fig. 2 was used instead of the three-neck glass flask. Fig. 7 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the conventional solvent-free process using microwave.
Comparative Example 7
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine (solvent process)
A copper phthalocyanine was prepared in the' same manner as in Comparative Example 1, except that 100ml of AS-P2 (Nippon Petrochemical, Japan) was used as a solvent. Fig. 5 shows an electron micrograph (l,500x) of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the conventional solvent process.
The purity and reaction yield of the copper phthalocyanine were measured as follows.

"A"g of a copper phthalocyanine is dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid, and then the resulting sulfuric acid solution is diluted in distilled water to recrystallize the copper phthalocyanine. The copper phthalocyanine crystal is filtered through a glass filter (2G4) weighing "B"g, washed with distilled water until the pll is neutral, redispersed in a 3% aqueous ammonia, filtered, washed with distilled water until the pH is neutral, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours. Thereafter, the glass filter is placed in a desiccator to allow it to cool to room temperature, and weighed ("C"g).
The purity of the copper phthalocyanine is calculated according to the following equation:
(Equation Removed)

First, the weight (A) of a crude copper phthalocyanine prepared through preparing and purification is multiplied by the purity (B). The obtained product is divided by the molecular weight (C) of the copper phthalocyanine to obtain a mole number (D) of the copper phthalocyanine, the mole number (D) is divided by a value
obtained by dividing the mole number (E) of anhydrous phthalic acid (or its derivative) added as a starting material by 4, and then the resulting value is multiplied by 100 to determine the reaction yield of the copper phthalocyanine.
(Equation Removed)
The purity and reaction yield of the copper phthalocyanines prepared in Example 1 and Comparative Examples 1 to 3 are shown in Table 4 below.
Table 4
(Table Removed)
As can be seen from Table 4, the solvent-free process using the milling-type microwave apparatus enables the preparation of copper phthalocyanines with a high purity in high yield comparable to the conventional solvent processes.
Example 6
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine pigment (kneading)
50g of each of the copper phthalocyanines prepared in Example 1 and Comparative Examples 1 to 7, 300g of finely divided salt and 50g of diethylene glycol (DEG) were charged into a kneader, and then the resulting mixture was kneaded at 100~110°C for 4, 6 and 8 hours, respectively, to prepare copper phthalocyanine pigments. After kneading, each of the kneaded mixtures was taken out, dispersed in a 5% sulfuric acid solution, filtered, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the pH was neutral, redispersed in distilled water, filtered, washed with distilled water at 90°C until the electrical conductivity of the filtrate reached 250µs/cm or less, and dried in a dryer at about 105°C for 24 hours.
Example 7

Preparation of copper phthalocyanine pigment (kneading and organic solvent treatment)
lOOg of each of the copper phthalocyanines prepared in Examples 1 to 5 and Comparative Examples 1 to 7 was charged into a vibration mill (CHUOKAKOKI, Japan) filled with 14kg of steel rods having a diameter of 15mm, and was then milled for 60, 90 and 120 minutes, respectively. Separately, 15.3g of a 50% aqueous potassium hydroxide and 40g of rosin were added to 250g of water, and completely dissolved to prepare a rosin solution. Water was added to the rosin solution until the total volume reached 267mL. 70g of the milled copper phthalocyanine, was dispersed in 200mL of IPS2 (CHARLES TENNANT, UK) as a solvent, and then 10.5g of the rosin solution was added thereto. The mixture was refluxed for 4 hours. Thereafter, 200ml of water was added to the refluxed mixture, and distilled to collect the solvent. 30ml of a 36% hydrochloric acid solution was added to the solvent-free slurry to render the slurry acidic. The slurry was filtered, washed until the pH was neutral, and dried in a dryer at 75°C.
Example 8
Preparation of copper phthalocyanine pigment (Milling + kneading)
lOOg of each of the copper phthalocyanines prepared in Examples 1 to 5 and Comparative Examples 1 to 7 was charged into a vibration mill (CHUOKAKOKI, Japan) filled with 14kg of steel rods having a diameter of 15mm, and was then milled for 60 minutes. 50g of the milled copper phthalocyanines, 300g of finely divided salt and 50g of diethylcne glycol (DEG) were charged into a kncader, and then the resulting mixture was kneaded at 100-110°C for 4, 6 and 8 hours, respectively, to prepare copper phthalocyanine pigments.
The quality of the copper phthalocyanine pigments prepared by the pigmentation processes was evaluated by the following tests and graded based on the following criteria.
Grade Sharpness (dC) Color density (%)
/=/ 0.00-0.10 0-1
1 0.11-0.30 1-2
2 0.31-0.18 2-5
3 0.81-1.40 5-10
4 1.41-2.20 10-20
5 2.21-3.00 20-40

6 3.01- 40-
+ Sharp High
Not sharp Low
Test 1. Oil ink test
A copper phthalocyanine and a copper phthalocyanine pigment were mixed to have the composition indicated below:
Copper phthalocyanine (pigment): lOg
Oil ink resin (Rosin Modified Phenolic Resin): 40g
The mixture was dispersed twice using a three-roll mill, and then the color and the dispersability were evaluated.
0.3g of the dark ink sample thus obtained and 3g of a white ink were homogeneously mixed to prepare a colored ink sample, and then the color was evaluated.
Test 2. Dispersability test
The degree of dispersion of the copper phthalocyanines and the copper phthalocyanine pigments was tested and evaluated from the dark ink samples obtained in Test 1 using a Grind-O-Meter.
The oil ink test and the dispersablity lest of the copper phthalocyanines in the examples and comparative examples, and the copper phthalocyanine pigments prepared by the pigmentation processes of the present invention were conducted, and the results are shown in Tables 5 to 8 below.
Table 5
(Table Removed)
Table 6
(Table Removed)

Table 7
(Table Removed)

Table 8
(Table Removed)
A copper phthalocyanine and a copper phthalocyanine pigment was mixed in accordance with the compositions indicated below:
Glass balls: lOOg
Transparent paint resin (Alkyd/melamine resin): 50g
Copper phthalocyanine (pigment): 3g
The mixture was placed in a plastic tub, and dispersed in a paint mill for 45 minutes to prepare a dark paint sample. The color of the paint sample was evaluated.
5g of the dark paint sample was mixed with 20g of a white paint to prepare a colored paint sample. The color of the colored paint sample was evaluated. The dark and colored paint samples were applied onto a paint-extension paper using a paint extender, dried in a dryer, and then their colors were evaluated. The results are shown in Tables 9 to 11 below. Table 9
(Table Removed)
Table 10
(Table Removed)
Table 11
(Table Removed)
As is apparent from the above tables, the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the conventional solvent-free process (Comparative Example 5) and the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the microwave solvent-free process (Comparative Example 6) are very poor in dispersability, sharpness (dC) and color density, compared to the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the solvent process (Comparative Example 7). In contrast, the copper phthalocyanines prepared by the milling-type microwave solvent-free process of the present invention have a comparable quality in every respect to the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the solvent process (Comparative Example 7). In particular, the copper phthalocyanines prepared by the milling-type microwave solvent-free process of the present invention have a sharpness superior to the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the solvent process (Comparative Example 7).
. In addition, the pigment obtained by the pigmentation of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the conventional solvent-free process (Comparative Example 5) and the pigment obtained by the pigmentation of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the microwave solvent-free process (Comparative Example 6) are very poor in sharpness, color density and dispersability, compared to the pigment obtained by the pigmentation of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the solvent process (Comparative Example 7) under the same conditions. In contrast, despite a short pigmentation time period, the pigments obtained by the pigmentation of the copper phthalocyanines prepared by the milling-type microwave solvent-free process of the present invention (Examples 3~7) have substantially identical quality and excellent sharpness, compared to the pigment obtained by the pigmentation of the copper phthalocyanine prepared by the solvent process (Comparative Example 7).
Industrial Applicability
As apparent from the above description, according to the present invention, since the combination of microwave and ultrasonic wave energy in the presence of a solvent can prevent agglomeration inside the reaction slurry and promote homogeneity of the slurry, uniform metal or nonmetal phthalocyanine particles in a small needle shape can be prepared without agglomeration under the same preparing conditions of temperature and time. Accordingly, the time required for pigmentation can be considerably shorten. In addition, the solvent-free milling-
type microwave apparatus of the present invention can increase low yields and minimize the formation of difficult-to-remove impurities resulting from non-uniform heat transfer, which is a representative problem of conventional solvent-free processes. Furthermore, since the apparatus of the present invention can solve a problem, i.e. poor quality of pigments of copper phthalocyanines prepared by solvent-free processes than pigments of copper phthalocyanines prepared by solvent processes despite long-term pigmentation, it enables preparation of pigments having a comparable quality to pigments of phthalocyanine prepared by solvent processes and a sharpness superior to the phthalocyanines prepared by solvent processes by short-term pigmentation. Therefore, the solvent-free process for preparing phthalocyanines, which has been thought to be impossible, can be put to practical use.
Although the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, additions and substitutions are possible, without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as disclosed in the accompanying claims.









WE CLAIM:
1. A process for preparing phthalocyanine by treating anhydrous phthalic acid, phthalimide, 1,3-diiminoisoindoline, 1,2-dicyanobenzene, halogen derivative thereof, an alkyl derivative thereof or an alkoxy derivative thereof with microwaves and ultrasonic waves, optionally in the presence of a metal source selected from a metal chloride or an alkoxy metal, at 130 to 250°C for 0.25 to 15 hours.
2. The process as claimed in claim 1 in which a solvent is used.
3. The process as claimed in claim 1 carried out in the absence of a solvent.
4. The process as claimed in claim 1, in which the phthalocyanine is a metal phthalocyanine and the metal of the metal source is selected from the group consisting of iron, nickel, cobalt, manganese, aluminum, palladium, tin, lead, titanium, rubidium, vanadium, gallium, terbium, cerium, lanthanum and zinc.
5. The process as claimed in claim 4 in which the metal of the metal source is copper.
6. The process as claimed in claim 1 carried out in the presence of a nitrogen source selected from urea or ammonia.
7. The process as claimed in claim 6 carried out under urea or ammonia atmosphere.
8. The process as claimed in claim 1 carried out in the presence of a catalyst selected from ammonium molybdate, l,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and l,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,0]-non-5-ene (DBN).
9. The process as claimed in claim 1, comprising heating at a rate of 2~ to 20°C/minute to 120°C using microwave energy, and further heating at a rate of 0.25~ to 10°C/minute to a final preparing temperature of 130- to 250°C.
10. An apparatus for preparing phthalocyanine according to the process as claimed in anyone
of claims 1 to 9 comprising: a magnetron 1 providing a frequency of 0.1- to 100GHz and a
power of 100~ to 3,000W; a mode stirrer 3 for making the wavelength of microwaves uniform a
microwave vessel 2; a PID temperature controller 8 for accurately measuring and controlling the
temperature of reactants; a microwave-shielded K-type thermocouple 4 for controlling the
temperature of reactants (support in the deleted part of this claim), a condenser 5 and an agitator
6 which are fitted into three holes formed on top of the microwave vessel 2, respectively; an
ultrasonic tip 7 providing a frequency of 1 to 1,000GHz and a power of 100 to 5,000W (support
in the deleted part of this claim) fitted into a hole formed at bottom of the microwave vessel 2; a
Pyrex container 9 for accommodating reactants; and a solvent tank 10.
11. The apparatus as claimed in claim 10 in which the phthalocyanine is a metal
phthalocyanine and the metal is selected from the group consisting of copper, iron, nickel, cobalt,
manganese, aluminum, palladium, tin, lead, titanium, rubidium, vanadium, gallium, terbium,
cerium, lanthanum and zinc.
12. The apparatus as claimed in claim 11 in which the metal is copper.


Documents:

05220-delnp-2005-abstract.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-claims.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-correspondence-others.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-drawings.pdf

05220-DELNP-2005-Form-1.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-form-18.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-form-2.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-form-3.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-form-5.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-gpa.pdf

05220-delnp-2005-pct-101.pdf

5220-delnp-2005-abstract (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Abstract-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-claims (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Claims-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-correspondence-others (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-Correspondence-Others (18-11-2009).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Correspondence-Others-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Description (Complete)-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-description (complete).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-drawings (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Drawings-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-form-1 (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Form-1-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-form-2 (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Form-2-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-form-3 (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Form-3-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-gpa (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-GPA-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Others-Documents-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-PCT-210-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-petition-137 (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Petition-137-(25-06-2009).pdf

5220-delnp-2005-petition-138 (08-04-2011).pdf

5220-DELNP-2005-Petition-138-(25-06-2009).pdf


Patent Number 247701
Indian Patent Application Number 5220/DELNP/2005
PG Journal Number 18/2011
Publication Date 06-May-2011
Grant Date 02-May-2011
Date of Filing 14-Nov-2005
Name of Patentee PHTHALOS CO., LTD.
Applicant Address #508, PUKYONG TECHNO-COMPLEX, PUKYONG UNIVERSITY, YONGDANG CAMPUS, YONGDANG-DONG, NAM-GU, BUSAN 608 080, REPUBLIC OF KOREA,
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 JONG HO KWON #401, 106-DONG, DONGBU APARTMENT, 1412, JWA-DONG, HAEUNDAE-GU, BUSAN 612-778, REPUBLIC OF KOREA;
2 KI SUCK JUNG #102, DAEDONG VILLA 4TH, 871-18, DAEYOUN-1-DONG, NAM-GU, BUSAN 608-811, REPUBLIC OF KOREA.
3 WOO HO SON #71, MYOUNGJI PRIME VIL, 876-13, DAEYOUN-1-DONG, NAM-GU, BUSAN 608-811, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
4 SEONG SOO PARK #302, 129-DONG, LG METROCITY, 176-30, YONGHO-DONG, NAM-GU, BUSAN 608-890, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
PCT International Classification Number C07F 1/08
PCT International Application Number PCT/KR2004/001144
PCT International Filing date 2004-05-14
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 10-2003-0030726 2003-05-14 Republic of Korea
2 10-2003-0030727 2003-05-14 Republic of Korea