Title of Invention

EMBOSSABLE AND WRITABLE MULTILAMINATE BACKING CONSTRUCTION

Abstract A novel backing construction for a transdermal drug delivery system is disclosed. In particular, the invention relates 10 a system and method for labeling a transdermal drug delivery system, wherein the backing layer contains a writable medium capable of inkless printing.
Full Text Multilaminate Backing Construction
Related Application
[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional
Application No. 60/407,126, filed on August 30, 2002.
Technical Field
[0002] The present invention relates to a multilaminate backing
construction for a transdermal drug delivery system. In particular, the
invention relates to a system and method for labeling a transdermal drug
delivery system, wherein the outermost layer of the multilaminate backing
construction contains an embossable and writable material.
Background of the invention
[0003] The use of microporous materials, including films, in label
application for various packaging materials, containers, stationary, blood
bags, recording paper, bandages and the like has been described in great
detail. The following patents U.S. Patent Nos. 6,255,552; 6,162,858;
5,906,830; 5,871,829; 5,583,171; 5,507,525; 5,484,603; 5,314,421;
4,751,087; 4,334,530 and 3,928,099 describe various ways of labeling
packaging materials, containers, stationary, blood bags and recording paper
wherein sheet materials, e.g., microporous materials, containing additives
such as inorganic powder, printing inks, sweilable agents, coloring agents,
fillers etc. are used to create markings, e.g., etching, scoring, printing, and
writing, on the label. In general, these processes require the use of high
temperatures and/or the presence of additives within the microporous film in
order to display the markings on the surface.
[0004] Labeling or printing information on transdermal systems has
been a challenge. For example, use of printing inks, coloring agents, solvents
and other additives necessary for printing may adversely interact with the
active agents within the transdermal system. To address these concerns,
tranijdermal systems have been labeled using a process not requiring the use
of inks. The backing layer of the transdermal system is labelled by a thermal
embossing process, The polyolefin face of the backing material is melted
under pressure to reveal the label.
[0005] Notwithstanding some success, the existing technology for
labeling transdermal systems has not been entirely satisfactory. The
:idditives in the backing layer and/or the adjacent layers can interact
idversely with the active agents. Additionally the use of high temperatures to
I ibel the transdermal systems may degrade various components of the
tansdermal systemis or cause adhesive flow beyond the perimeter of the
t ackino. These challenges would in turn affect the potency and stability of the
transdermal systems.
[0006] Further, the microporous films described previously are directly
laminated to a pressure sensitive adhesive to provide labels having good
achesion. However, embossing microporous film after direct lamination to a
pr ;ssure sensitive adhesive would be problematic. Embossing such
mioroporous films would result in a poorly resolved image due to the slow
intusion of the adhesive into the opaque film layer. The slow adhesive flow
inti the pores, accompanied by the crushing of the pores due to embossing
wo,lid render the film transparent. Further, the embossed image would be
pot rly resolved due to adhesive flow into the pores.
Summary of the Invention
[0007] The present invention is directed to the aforementioned needs in
the art, and provides a transdermal system having a multilaminate bacl construction, in particular, the invention relates to a system and method for
labeling a transdermal drug delivery system, wherein the outermost layer of
the multilaminate backing layer contains an embossable and writeable
material.
[0008] In one aspect, the invention relates to a multilaminate backing
construction comprising
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossable and writable material,
(b) a tie layer, the tie layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the
outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer
[0009] In another aspect, the multilaminate backing construction o! tiie
invention comprises
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossable and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a tie layer comprising a secondary drug-containing reservoir, the tie
layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer.
[00010] In another aspect, the multilaminate backing construction of the
invention comprises
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossable and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer,
wherein the outer layer is also a drug release rate controlling means;
(b) a tie layer comprising an antagonist-containing resen/oir, wherein
the antagonist-containing reservoir is disposed on the skin proximal surface of
the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer.
[00011] In another aspect, the multilaminate backing construction of the
invention comprises
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossabie and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a tie layer comprising a secondary drug-containing reservoir, the
reservoir comprising a beneficial agent, the secondary drug-containing
reservoir being disposed on the skin proximal surface of the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer,
wherein the base layer Is a drug release rate controlling means.
[00012] In another aspect, the multilaminate backing construction of the
invention comprises
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossabie and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a multilaminate tie layer, the tie layer disposed on the skin proximal
surface of the outer layer, wherein the tie layer may contain a secondary drug-
containing reservoir; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer.
[00013] In additional aspects, the multilaminate backing construction of
•he invention comprises a base layer impermeable to the drug within the drug
eservoir or the tie layer; wherein the base layer comprises a material which is
¦isoluble in water, alcohol and organic solvents. The base layer may
( ptionally be a multilaminate layer. In certain embodiments, the base layer
tiay be a drug release rate controlling means, e.g., a drug release rate
controlling membrane. The base layer comprises a polymer such as
polyolefin laminates (Dow Chemical, Midland, Ml), acrylonitrile copolymer
films (BAREX, BP Chemicals, Koln, Germany), poiyethylnapthalene (PEN),
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), PET modified with adhesion improvement
coatings such polyacrylates or polyesters, polyimide, polyurethane,
polyethylene, metallized films and glass coated films where these films can
include ethylene copolymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA),
and combinations thereof. In preferred embodiments, the base layer
comprises polyester, such as PET, laminated to a polymer, such as
polyurethane, polyethylene, and ethylene copolymers.
[00014] In preferred embodiments, the base layer is comprised of a
polymeric material selected from the group consisting of a polyester-polyolefin
material such as Scotchpak 9735 (PET-PE laminate, 3M), Medifiex 1500
(PET-pigmented EVA laminate, Mylan Technologies), Medifiex 1200 (PET-
EVA laminate, Mylan Technologies); Medifiex 1000 (a translucent polyolefin
film, Mylan Technologies), Medifilm 500 series (EVA membrane material,
Mylan Technologies); polyethylenes such as low density polyethylene (LDPE),
medium density polyethylene (MDPE), high density polyethylene (HOPE),
Kapton polyimide film, and other ethylene copolymer films such as EMA, or
EBA copolymer films.
[00015] In additional aspects, the multilaminate backing construction of
the invention comprises an outer layer comprising an embossable and
writeable material. The outer surface can be scribed with a pen, and can be
embossed by applying pressure with an embossing roll before or after
lamination of the multilaminate backing construction to a pressure sensitive
adhesive. The outer layer comprises a breathable material comprising,
porous, microporous, microfibrullar, spun-bonded, spun laced, track etched,
rayon (synthetic textile fibers produced by forcing a cellulose solution through
fine spinnerets and solidifying the resulting filaments), wood-pulp, spun laced
polyester, coated paper products, and the like, and a combination thereof. In
preferred embodiments, outer layer comprises low density polyethylene
(LDPE) materials, medium density polyethylene (MDPE) materials or high
density polyethylene (HOPE) materials, and the like, in preferred
embodiments, the outer layer is a single HOPE layer. In additional preferred
embodiments, the outer layer comprises a microporous layer selected from
the group consisting of Solupor microporous UHDPE P01 film (Solupor™
manufactured by DSM Desotech, the Netherlands), microporous
polypropylene, e.g. Celgard microporous PP 3401 film (Celgard™ film,
Celgard, Inc., Charlotte, NC), RoTrac Polyester Capillary Pore Membranes
(OYPHEN GmbH, Germany), spun laced polyester, polypropylene or
polyethylene.
[00016] In additional aspects, the multilaminate backing construction of
the invention comprises a tie layer, wherein the tie layer may be
multilaminate. The tie layer is comprised of materials having a low melting
point that flow easily at high temperatures to allow lamination to the outer
layer. The tie layer may be formed from standard materials as known in the
art. For example, the tie layer is formed from a hydrophobic, a lipophilic
and/or a non-polar polymeric material, such as, ethyleneoctene copolymers
such as ENGAGE 8407 (from Dupont-Dow Elastomers), ethylene-vinyl
acetate copolymer (EVA), low density polyethylene (LDPE), medium density
polyethylene (MDPE), non pressure sensitive formulation of styrenic block
copolymer thermoplastic elastomers, and the like. In preferred embodiments,
the tie layer is formed from ethyleneoctene copolymers, as described in
greater detail below.
[00017] In additional aspects, the tie layer comprises a secondary drug-
containing resen/oir. The secondary drug-containing reservoir may contain a
beneficial agent or an antagonist for the beneficial agent, wherein the
antagonist is in a form that is not releasable through the base layer. The skin
distal surface of the drug reservoir is disposed on the outer surface. The
secondary drug-containing reservoir may be the same size as the other layers
of the backing construction or the secondary drug-containing reservoir may be
inset from the edge of the die cut backing construction.
[00018] In certain embodiments, the secondary drug-containing reservoir
comprises the drug dispersed within a polymer, wherein the drug is
substantially insoluble in the secondary drug-containing reservoir polymer. In
certain embodiments, the drug is dispersed in a matrix comprising a material
which substantially prevents release of the drug; or the drug is complexed
with an ionic resin, in additional embodiments, the secondary drug-containing
reservoir comprises the drug in a multiparticulate form, wherein each particle
is individually coated with a material which substantially prevents release of
the drug. In additional embodiments, the secondary drug-containing reservoir
comprises beads coated with the drug, wherein the beads may be formed
from glass or an inert or non-dissolvable polymer, and further wherein the
coated beads are optionally coated with or dispersed in material which
substantially prevents release of the drug. In preferred embodiments, the
drug is an opioid antagonist selected from the group consisting of naltrexone.
methylnaltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, nalorphine, nalorphine dinicotinate,
nalmefene, nadide, levallorphan, cyclozoclne and pharmaceutically
acceptable salts thereof. In preferred embodiments, the antagonist is present
as a salt, preferably as a hydrochloride salt of an antagonist base.
[00019] These and other embodiments of the present invention will
readily occur to those of ordinary skill in the art in view of the disclosure
herein.
Brief Description of the Figures
[00020] Figure 1 illustrates a cross-section tinrough a scliematic,
perspective view of one embodiment of muitilaminate backing construction
according to this invention.
[00021] Figure 2 illustrates a cross-section through a schematic,
perspective view of another embodiment of muitilaminate backing
construction according to this invention.
Detailed Description of the Invention
Overview:
[00022] The present invention is directed to a transdermal system
having a muitilaminate backing construction wherein the outermost layer of
the muitilaminate backing construction can be embossed and be written upon
with a pen or pencil. In particular, the outermost layer of the muitilaminate
backing construction of the present invention contains an embossable and
writable material such as a microporous or microfibrillar film, which is
laminated via a tie layer to a base layer.
Definitions:
[00023] In describing and claiming the present invention, the following
terminology will be used in accordance with the definitions set out below.
[00024] The singular forms "a," "an" and "the" include plural referents
unless the context clearly dictates othenwise. Thus, for example, reference to
"a polymer" includes a single polymer as well as a mixture of two or more
different polymers, reference to "a permeation enhancer" includes a single
permeation enhancer as well as two or more different permeation enhancer in
combination, and the like.
[00025] As used herein, the term "drug release controlling means" refers
to a means to control/regulate the release of a drug from the secondary drug-
containing reservoir.
[00026] As used herein, the terms "drug" and "active agent" are used
interchangeably and are to be construed in the broadest sense to mean any
material which is intended to produce some biological, beneficial, therapeutic,
or other intended effect, such as permeation enhancement, an antagonist, on
the organism to which it is applied. For example, the drug may be a beneficial
agent or an antagonist of the beneficial agent.
Modes of Carrying Out the Invention
[00027] The present invention provides a multilaminate backing
construction for a transdermal drug delivery system, the outermost layer of the
multilaminate backing construction having an embossable and writable
material.
[00028] Referring now to Figure 1, a preferred embodiment of the
multilaminate backing construction 1 according to this invention comprises an
outer layer 2, a tie layer 3 wherein the skin distal surface of the tie layer is
disposed on the outer layer 2, and a base layer 4 wherein the tie layer 3 is
disposed on the skin distal surface of the base layer 4. In certain
embodiments of the backing construction 1 of the invention, the tie layer 3 is a
secondary drug-containing reservoir disposed on the skin proximal surface of
the outer layer 2, and the base layer 4 is disposed on the skin proximal
surface of the secondary drug-containing reservoir. The secondary drug-
containing reservoir may contain a beneficial agent or an antagonist for a
beneficial agent. In certain embodiments of the backing construction 1 of the
invention, wlierein tiie secondary drug-containing reservoir contains a
beneficial agent, the base layer 4 is a drug rate controlling means disposed on
the skin proximal surface of the secondary drug-containing reservoir. In
alternative embodiments of the backing construction 1 of the invention, the
secondary drug-containing reservoir contains an antagonist of a beneficial
agent, and preferably, the outer layer also functions as an antagonist release
rate controlling means.
[00029] Referring now to Figure 2 a preferred embodiment of the
multilaminate backing construction 11 according to this invention comprises
an outer layer 12, a multilaminate tie layer 13 and a base layer 14. The tie
layer comprises a first layer 16 disposed on the skin proximal surface of the
outer layer 12; a second layer 17 disposed on the skin proximal surface of the
first layer 16; a third layer 18 disposed on the skin proximal surface of the
second layer 17; and a secondary drug-containing reservoir 15. The base
layer 14 is configured to provide a central volume which contains the
secondary drug-containing reservoir 15 in the form of a gel having dissolved
or suspended drug therein. In preferred embodiments, the first layer 16 is an
EVA or LDPE layer, the second layer 17 is a PET layer, the third layer 18 is
an EVA, LDPE or a polyurethane layer; and the base layer 14 is a drug
release rate controlling means.
[00030] The outer layer 2, 12, of the multilaminate backing construction
of the invention comprises an embossable and writeable material. The outer
surface can be scribed with a pen, and can be embossed by applying
pressure with an embossing roll before or after lamination of the multilaminate
backing construction to a pressure sensitive adhesive. The outer layer
comprises a breathable material comprising, porous, microporous,
microfibrullar, spun-bonded, spun laced, track etched, rayon (synthetic textile
fibers produced by forcing a cellulose solution through fine spinnerets and
solidifying the resulting filaments), wood-pulp, spun laced polyester, coated

paper products, and the like, and a combination thereof, in preferred
embodiments, outer layer comprises low density polyethylene (LDPE)
materials, medium density polyethylene (MDPE) materials or high density
polyethylene (HOPE) materials, and the like. In preferred embodiments, the
release controlling means is a single LDPE layer. In additional preferred
embodiments, the outer layer comprises a microporous layer selected from
the group consisting of Solupor microporous UHDPE P01 film (Solupor™
manufactured by DSM Desotech, the Netherlands), microporous
polypropylene, e.g. Celgard microporous PP 3401 film (Celgard^" film
manufactured by Celgard, Inc., Charlotte, NC), RoTrac Polyester Capillary
Pore Membranes (OYPHEN GmbH, Switzerland), spun laced polyester,
polypropylene or polyethylene. The outer layer is free of any additives and is
not directly laminated to a pressure sensitive adhesive. Alternatively, the
outer layer can be coated with low levels of surfactants, for example, pluronic
polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide block copolymers and the like, to
provide further control over the rate of drug release from the underlying tie
layer.
[00031] The outer layer 2, 12, has a thickness of about 0.012 mm (0.5
mil) to about 0.125 mm (5 mil); preferably 0.025 mm (1 mil) to about 0.1 mm
(4 mil); more preferably 0.0375 mm (1.5 mil) to about 0.0875 mm (3.5 mil);
and even more preferably 0.05 mm (2 mil) to about 0.0625 mm (2.5 mil).
[00032] The multilaminate backing construction according to the
nvention comprises a tie layer 3, 13, wherein the tie layer may be
multilaminate. The tie layer is comprised of materials having a low melting
ooint that flow easily at high temperatures to allow lamination to the outer
:ayer 2, 12, such materials excluding pressure sensitive adhesives and HOPE.
HOPE has a very high melting point and its use in the outer layer would
ender the embossable film prematurely clear due to high laminating
emperatures and coincidental melting of the outer layer. Incorporation of

pressure sensitive materials in the outer layer would result in flow of the
adhesive into the pores, which would result in the embossable film
prematurely turning clear. In certain embodiments, the tie layer comprises a
secondary drug-containing reservoir. The secondary drug-containing
reservoir may contain a beneficial agent or an antagonist for the beneficial
agent. In certain embodiments, when the secondary drug-containing reservoir
contains an antagonist, the outer layer also functions as a drug release rate
controlling means. In certain embodiments, when the second drug-containing
reservoir contains a beneficial agent, the base layer 4 is a drug release rate
controlling means is disposed on the skin proximal surface of the secondary
drug-containing reservoir. The secondary drug-containing reservoir may be
THE same size as the other layers of the backing construction or the
secondary drug-containing reservoir may be inset from the edge of the die cut
backing construction. The tie layer may be formed from standard materials as
known in the art. In particular, the tie layer 3, 13, is formed from low melting
materials that flow easily at high temperatures and exclude pressure sensitive
adhesives and HOPE. For example, the tie layer is formed from a
hydrophobic, a lipophilic and/or a non-polar polymeric material, such as,
ethyleneoctene copolymers such as ENGAGE 8407 (from Dupont-Dow
Elastomers), ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), low density
polyethylene (LDPE), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), styrenic block
copolymer thermoplastic elastomers, PET, polyurethanes, and the like. In
preferred embodiments, the tie layer is formed from ethyleneoctene
copolymers, as described in greater detail below.
[00033] In certain embodiments wherein the tie layer contains a
secondary drug-containing reservoir, particularly an antagonist-containing
reservoir, the antagonist is dispersed in a matrix comprising a polymeric
material which substantially prevents release of the antagonist, preferably a
thermoformable material; or the antagonist is complexed with an ionic resin.
In additional embodiments, the antagonist-containing reservoir comprises the

J ntagonist in a multiparticulate form, wherein eacln particle is individually
' oated with a polymeric material which substantially prevents release of the
jntagonist, wherein the polymeric material is preferably a thermoformable
Tiaterial. In additional embodiments, the antagonist-containing reservoir
comprises beads coated with the antagonist, wherein the beads may be
formed from glass or an inert or non-dissolvable polymer, and further wherein
the coated beads are optionally coated with or dispersed in a polymeric
material which substantially prevents release of the antagonist, wherein the
polymeric material is preferably a thermoformable material. Examples of
antagonist include, but are not limited to, naltrexone, methylnaltrexone,
naloxone, nalbuphine, nalorphine, nalorphine dinicotinate, nalmefene, nadide,
levallorphan, cyclozocine and the like, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts
thereof. Preferably, the antagonist is present as a salt.
[00034] As discussed above, the antagonist-containing reservoir
comprises the antagonist dispersed within a polymer. Preferably, the
antagonist is dispersed in a matrix comprising a thermoformable material
which substantially prevents release of the antagonist. Alternatively, the
antagonist is present in a multiparticulate form, wherein each particle is
individually coated with a polymeric material which substantially prevents
release of the antagonist. Preferably, the polymeric material which
substantially prevents release of the antagonist is hydrophobic - i.e.,
substantially prevents release of the antagonist during normal use, minimizes
the amount of antagonist during incidental/casual exposure to solvents
(moisture e.g., sweat, during a shower), and upon ingestion or immersion in a
solvent, releases the antagonist in abuse limiting amounts. Preferably, the
polymeric material has a low melting point to allow processing of the
antagonist in solid phase and to prevent degradation of the antagonist.
Examples of a polymeric material which substantially prevents release of the
antagonist include, but are not limited to, polyethylene, polyoctene, polyvinyl
acetate, polymethyl acrylate, polymethyl acrylate, polyethyl acrylate,

polystyrene polymers and copolymers and mixtures thereof; polystyrene
copolymers such as styrenic block copolymers (SIS, SBS, SEBS), ethylene
copolymers such as polyethyleneoctene copolymers, ethylene-vinyl acetate
copolymer (EVA), ethylenemethyl acrylate copolymers (EMA), ethyiene-
acrylic acid copolymer, ethylene-ethylacrylate copolymer, and the like, and
combinations thereof.
[00036] In additional embodiments, the antagonist is complexed with an
ionic resin. Examples of ionic resins include, but are not limited to sulfonated
polystyrene resins, and the like. Preferably the resin contains a sulfonic acid
functionality which when neutralized with the antagonist base forms the
sulfonate salt of the antagonist.
[00036] In additional embodiments, the antagonist-containing reservoir
comprises beads coated with the antagonist, wherein the spheres or beads
may be formejd from glass, metals or an inert or non-dissolvable polymer, and
further wherein the coated beads are optionally coated with or dispersed in a
polymeric material which substantially prevents release of the antagonist, as
described above. The beads may be in any shape, size or form, but are
preferably small sized, preferably less than 10 microns. Examples of an inert
or non-dissolvable polymer include, but are not limited to
polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate and polystyrene.
[00037] In certain embodiments wherein the tie layer contains a
secondary drug-containing reservoir, the secondary drug-containing reservoir
is disposed on the skin proximal surface of the outer layer 2 and the skin
distal surface of the base layer 4. The secondary drug-containing reservoir
may be formed from standard materials as known in the art. For example, the
secondary drug-containing reservoii- is formed from a hydrophobic and/or
lipophilic polymeric material, such as, hydrophobic poiyurethane, ethylene-
vinyi acetate copolymer (EVA) and the like.
[00038] In preferred embodiments, when the drug is a beneficial agent,
the secondary drug-containing reservoir comprises about 5 to about 35 wt%
of the drug; more preferably about 10 to about 35 wt% of the drug; and even
more preferably about 15 to about 30 wt% of the drug. Examples of beneficial
agent include, but are no limited to, fentanyl, sufentanil, risperidone,
gallantamine, norelgestromin, testosterone, estradiol, nicotine,
methylphenidate, fenoldopam, and the like. Preferably, the material forming
the secondary drug-containing reservoir has a solubility for the drug of about 5
wt% to about 40 v\rt% of the total polymer composition; more preferably about
10 wt% to about 35 wrt%; and even more preferably about 15 wt% to about 30
wt% of the total polymer composition.
[00039] In additional preferred embodiments, the drug is an antagonist,
preferably the antagonist is in the salt form and the preferred antagonists are
naltrexone, methylnaltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, nalorphine, nalorphine
dinicotinate, nalmefene, nadide, levailorphan and cyclozocine. When the drug
is an antagonist of a beneficial agent, the secondary drug-containing reservoir
comprises about 20 to about 70 vj\% of the drug; more preferably about 40 to
about 65 wt% of the drug; and even more preferably about 50 to about 60
wt% of the drug. Preferably, the material forming the secondary drug-
containing reservoir 5 has a solubility for the drug of about 0 wt% to about 1
wt% of the total polymer composition; more preferably about 0 v/t% to about
0.8 v/t%; and even more preferably about 0 wt% to about 0,5 wt% of the total
polymer composition.
[00040] The tie layer 3, 13,including the secondary drug-containing
reservoir, has a thickness of about 0.0125 mm (0.5 mil) to about 0.1 mm (4
mil); preferably about 0.015 mm (0.6 mil) to about 0.0875 mm (3.5 mil); more
preferably 0.025 mm (1 mil) to about 0.08 mm (3.3 mil); and even more
preferably about 0.02 mm (1.6 mil) to about 0.075 (3 mil).

[00041] In additional embodiments, the secondary drug-containing
reservoir may optionally contain additional components such as, permeation
enhancers, stabilizers, diluents, antioxidants, excipients, gelling agents, anti-
irritants, vasoconstrictors and other materials as are generally known to the
transdermal art.
[00042] Examples of permeation enhancers include, but are not limited
to, fatty acid esters of glycerin, such as capric, caprylic, dodecyl, oleic acids;
fatty acid esters of isosorbide, sucrose, polyethylene glycol; caproyl lactylic
acid; iaureth-2; laureth-2 acetate; laureth-2 benzoate; laureth-3 carboxylic
acid; laureth-4; laureth-5 carboxylic acid; oleth-2; glyceryl pyroglutamate
oleate; glyceryl oleate; N-lauroyI sarcosine; N-myristoyI sarcosine; N-OGtyl-2-
pyrrolidone; lauraminopropionic acid; polypropylene glyGol-4-laureth-2;
polypropylene glycol-4-laureth-5dimethyl lauramide; lauramide
diethanolamine (DEA). Preferred enhancers include, but are not limited to,
iauryi pyroglutamate (LP), glyceryl monolaurate (GML), glyceryl
monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and
sorbitan monolaurate. Additional examples of suitable permeation enhancers
are described, for example, in U.S. Patent Nos.: 5,785,991; 5,843,468;
5,882,676; and 6,004,578.
[00043] The multilaminate backing construction according to this
invention comprises a base layer 4,14, wherein the tie layer 3, 13, is
disposed on the skin distal surface of the base layer 4, 14. The base layer 4,
14, may be multilaminate. The base layer 4 comprises a polymer such as
polyolefin laminates (Dow Chemical, Midlane, Ml), acrylonitrile copolymer
films (BAREX, BR Chemicals, Koln, Germany), polyethylnapthalene (PEN),
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide, polyurethane, polyethylene,
metallized films and glass coated films where these films can include ethylene
copolymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and

combinations thereof. In preferred embodiments, the base layer comprises a
polyester such as PET laminated to a polymer such as polyurethane,
polyethylene, and ethylene copolymers. In certain embodiments, the base
layer may be a drug rate controlling means, as described in greater detail
hereinafter, in certain embodiments wherein the secondary drug-containing
reservoir contains an antagonist, the base layer 4 is impermeable to the
antagonist within the secondary drug-containing reservoir; the base layer
comprising a material which is insoluble in water, alcohol and organic
solvents.
[00044] In preferred embodiments, the base layer is comprised of a
polymeric material selected from the group consisting of a polyester-polyolefin
material such as Scotchpak 9735 (PET-PE laminate, 3M), Mediflex 1500
(PET-pigmented EVA laminate, Mylan Technologies, Saint Albans, VT),
Mediflex 1200 (PET-EVA laminate, Mylan Technologies, Saint Albans, VT);
Mediflex 1000 (a translucent polyolefin film, Mylan Technologies, Saint
Albans, VT), Medifilm 500 series (EVA membrane material, Mylan
Technologies, Saint Albans, VT); polyethylenes such as low density
polyethylene (LDPE), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), high density
polyethylene (HOPE), ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), ethylene
ethyl acrylate copolymer (EEA), or ethylene butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA)
copolymers. The base layer has a thickness of about 0.01 mm (0.4 mil) to
about 0.125 mm (5 mil); preferably 0.025 mm (1 mil) to about 0.1 mm (4 mil);
more preferably 0.0625 mm (1.5 mil) to about 0,0875 mm (3.5 mil); and even
more preferably 0.025 mm (1 mil) to about 0.05 mm (2 mil).
[00045] The multilaminate backing construction comprises a drug
release rate controlling means, preferably within the outer layer or within the
base layer. In certain embodiments, when the secondary drug-containing
reservoir is an antagonist-containing reservoir, the outer layer 2, 12, also
functions as a drug release rate controlling means disposed on the skin distal

surface of the secondary drug-containing reservoir. In alternative
embodiments, when the secondary drug-containing reservoir contains a
beneficial agent, the base layer 4, 14, is a drug release rate controlling means
disposed on the skin proximal surface of the secondary drug-containing
reservoir. In preferred embodiments, the tie layer comprises an antagonist-
containing resei"voir, and the outer layer is a drug release controlling means.
[00046] The rate controlling means is made of a polymeric material such
as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene-ethyl
acrylate copolymer, ethylene butylacrylate copolymer, polyisobutylene (PIB),
polyethylene (RE) such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), medium density
polyethylene (MDPE), high density polyethylene (HOPE), and the like, and a
combination thereof; the polymeric materials may be plasticized. In preferred
embodiments, the base layer is a drug release rate controlling means and is
adhered to the skin with an acrylic, silicone, polyisobutylene (PIB) or other
pressure sensitive adhesive material. The rate controlling means has a
thickness of about 0.012 mm (0.5 mil) to about 0.125 mm (5 mil); preferably
0.025 mm (0.6 mil) to about 0.1 mm (4 mil); more preferably 0.0625 mm (0.8
mil) to about 0.0875 mm (3.5 mil).
[00047] The multilaminate backing construction can be processed with
less stretching under web tension because of the less extensible outer layer,
preferably the Solupor layer, which also provides a surface for embossing and
writing.
[00048] The transdermal devices are manufactured according to known
methodology. In general, the transdermal device according to this invention
comprises a backing construction 1, 11, a primary drug-containing reservoir
disposed on the backing construction, wherein at least the skin contacting
surface of the primary drug-containing reservoir is adhesive, and a peelabie
protective laye-. The multilaminate backing construction is laminated via a
pressure sensitive adhesive to a primary drug-containing reservoir. The
primary drug-containing reservoir is typically formed from a pharmaceutically
acceptable pressure sensitive adhesive but, in some cases, can be formed
from a non-adhesive material. If the primary drug-containing reservoir Is
formed from a material that does not have adequate adhesive properties, the
primary drug-containing reservoir may be formulated with a thin adhesive
coating. The primary drug-containing reservoir intermediate is optionally
laminated to a drug release-rate controlling membrane disposed between the
primary drug-containing drug reservoir and the peelable protective layer. In
subsequent operations, individual transdermal devices are die-cut, separated
and unit-packaged using suitable pouchstock. Transdermal devices are
cartoned using conventional equipment. The resulting transdermal delivery
system provides a rate-controlled drug delivery device having embossing and
writing capabilities.
[00049] Transdermal drug delivery systems having the multilaminate
backing construction containing an antagonist-containing reservoir within the
tie layer, when used in combination with opioid-delivering transdermal
formulations, provide a deterrence to drug abusers attempting to misuse the
systems, while at the same time, enable embossed labeling or scribing with a
pen.
[00050] The multilaminate hacking construction is embossed by
application of pressure without the application of high temperatures, and
without melting the outer layer. Simply applying pressure without increasing
the temperature is sufficient to provide a very striking visual graphic. The
method of labeling a transdermal system using the multilaminate backing
construction of the invention eliminates the need for solvent-based inks when
printing transdermal systems by a heat-free embossing technique.
Additionally, the method of the invention eliminates adverse drug-additive
interactions, improving stability, thermal sensitivity, therapeutic effects,shelf-
life and ease of manufacture of a transdermal drug delivery system.
[00051] Additionally, the multilaminate backing construction of the
invention is writable, allowing physicians, nurses, or users to write directly on
the backing with a pen without the ink smearing. This feature is important in
many clinical settings because physicians and nurses need to indicate on
multiple-day transdermal systems when replacement is required. If not
replaced at the appropriate time, sub-therapeutic quantities of drug may be
delivered as the drug content in the system depletes.
[00052] Further, when the multilaminate backing construction is
laminated to a primary drug-containing adhesive matrix, the drug cannot
penetrate through the multilaminate backing construction into the heat seal
layer of the pouch material due to the microporous/microfibrous nature of the
outer layer.
[00053] In additional embodiments, the multilaminate backing
construction is laminated to a pressure sensitive adhesive, enabling bonding
to any medical device such as a blood bag, IV bag, or form-fill-seal
transdermal patch, e.g. Duragesic® transdermal fentanyl delivery system.
[00054] A wide variety of materials which can be used for fabricating the
various layers of the multilaminate backing construction according to this
invention have been described above. This invention therefore contemplates
the use of materials other than those specifically disclosed herein, including
those which may hereafter become known to the art to be capable of
performing the necessary functions.
Methods of Manufacture
[00055] The multilaminate backing construction of the invention are
manufactured as follows. The drug-containing reservoirs are manufactured
according to known methodology, as described in greater detail below.
Drug-containing Reservoir
[00056] The secondary drug-containing reservoir can be formed by dry
blending a drug, with a polymeric material, preferable a thermoformable
material, at high shear and temperature using equipment such as sigma blade
mixers or extruders, either batch-wise or continuously. The extrudate is
calendered to the desired thickness between release liners, followed by
lamination at elevated temperature to a barrier film and/or an analgesic rate
controlling means. Parameters such as drug loading, drug-containing
reservoir thickness, membrane selection for the rate controlling means, and
surfactant modification of the rate controlling means can be varied to achieve
the targeted release rate of drug, as illustrated in the Examples hereinafter. In
preferred embodiments, surfactants are coated onto membrane materials
forming the rate controlling means using techniques such as dip-coating,
gravure coating, and the like.
[00057] In alternative embodiments, the secondary drug-containing
reservoirs are manufactured according to known methodology as follows. A
solution of the polymeric reservoir material, as described above, is addcjd to a
double planetary mixer, followed by addition of desired amounts of the drug,
and optionally, a permeation enhancer Preferably, the polymeric secondary
drug-containing reservoir matenai is solubilized in an organic solvent, e.g.,
ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, and the like The mixer is then closed and
activated for a period of time to ac*iie.;vc acceptable uniformity of the
ingredients. The mixer is attached by means of connectors to a suitable
casting die located at one end oi a rasting/film drying line. The mixer is
pressurized using nitrogen to feed solution to the casting die. Solution is cast
as a wet film onto a moving siliconized polyester web. The web is drawn
through the lines and a series of ovens are used to evaporate the casting
solvent to acceptable residual limits. The dried secondary drug-containing
reservoir film is then laminated to a selected base layer and the laminate is
wound onto the take-up rolls. In another process, the secondary drug-
containing reservoir can be formed using dry-blending and thermal film-
forming using equipment known in the art. Preferably, the materials are dry
blended and extruded using a slot die followed by calendering to an
appropriate thickness. Parameters such as drug loading, secondary drug-
containing reservoir thickness, drug selections, material selections and
manufacturing process can be varied for preparing drug-containing reservoirs
of the current invention, as illustrated in the Examples hereinafter.
[00058] The primary drug-containing reservoir is manufactured as
described above using known materials and according to known procedures.
Multilaminate Backing construction
[00059] In general, the multilaminate backing construction is
manufactured as follows. For example, as illustrated in Figure 1, the tie layer
is laminated to the base layer, followed by lamination of the outer layer on the
surface of the tie layer distal to the base layer at elevated temperature and
pressure. Alternatively, both laminations could be conducted in a single
operation by extruding the tie layer at the required width and thickness directly
between the outer layer and the base layer prior to lamination. In general, the
lamination is performed at a temperature ranging from about 70°C to about
120°C, and a pressure ranging from 50 psi to about 120 psi, at the rate
ranging from about 2 fpm to about 20 fpm.
[00060] in an alternative embodiment, wherein the tie layer comprises a
secondary drug-containing reservoir, the multilaminate backing construction,

is manufactured by laminating sequentially or simultaneously the secondary
drug-containing reservoir layer to the base layer and to the outer layer under
lamination conditions as described above. The secondary drug-containing
reservoir is manufactured as described earlier.
[00061] In another embodiment of the multilaminate backing
construction, as illustrated in Figure 2, the tie layer is a multilaminate layer
containing an outermost first layer 16 (EVA/LDPE layer) on the skin proximal
surface of the outer layer, laminated to a second layer 17 (PET layer)
disposed on the skin proximal surface of the first layer 16, the bi-layer is
further laminated to a third layer 18 (EVA/LDPE/polyurethane layer) disposed
on the skin proximal surface of the second layer 17, and a form fill type of a
secondary drug-containing resen/oir 15. The base layer 14, e.g. a drug
release rate controlling means, is configured to provide a central volume
which contains the secondary drug-containing reservoir 15 in the form of a gel
having dissolved or suspended drug therein.
Experimental
[00062] Below are examples of specific embodiments for carrying out
the present invention. The examples are offered for illustrative purposes only,
and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way.
[00063] Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to
numbers used (e.g., amounts, temperatures, etc.), but some experimental
error and deviation should, of course, be allowed for.
[00064] Specific examples of various multilaminate backing construction
of the invention will be described in ttie examples set for hereinafter. In the
followmQ examples ail percentages are by weight unless noted otherwise.
Example 1
[00065] A polyester-polyolefin transdermal backing material such as
Scotchpak 9735 (PET-PE laminate, 3M, Cottage Grove, MN), Mediflex 1500
(PET-pigrnented EVA laminate, Mylan Teclinclogies, Saint Albans, VT), or
Mediflex 1200 (PET-EVA laminate, Mylan Technologies) are laminated to
Solupor microfibrous UHMW-HDPE P01 film (DSM Solutech, Heerlen, the
Netherlands) at elevated temperature and pressure. The temperature
required for the lamination is above the melting point of the polyolefin layer of
the backing, usually above 100°C. The resulting multilaminate is used as a
transdermal backing, the Solupor surface of which can be scribed with a pen,
and which can be embossed by applying pressure with an embossing roll
before or after lamination to a pressure sensitive adhesive.
Example 2
[00066] Mediflex 1200, a polyester- EVA laminate, is bonded to a
Solupor microfibrous UHMW-HDPE film via a tie layer. The tie layer contains
an ENGAGE 8407 ethylene-octene copolymer (Dupont-Dow Elastomers,
DSM Solutech's) containing a naltrexone hydrochloride dispersion. Adequate
bonding is achieved by performing a hot lamination step at 90 psi, 5 fpm, and
100°C. The resulting multilayered construction is laminated to a fentanyl-
containing adhesive reservoir. The resulting construction is embossed for
identification, can be written upon with a ballpoint pen, and contains the
antagonist, naltrexone hydrochloride, to prevent fentanyl abuse
Example 3
[00067] A multilaminate backing construction using Celgard microporous
PP 3401 film (Celgard Microporous Membrane) is prepared, as described hi
Example 1 above.
Example 4
[00068] A multilaminate backing construction using Rotrac Capillary
Pore Membrane (Oxyphen, Zug, Switzerland) is prepared, as described in
Example? 1 above.
Example 5
[00069] A multilaminate backing construction using Celgard microporous
PP 3401 film is prepared, as described in Example 2 above.
Example 6
[00070] A multilaminate backing construction using Rotrac Capillary
Pore Membrane (Oxyphen, Zug, Switzerland)microporous polyester is
prepare;d, as described in Example 2 above.
Example 7
[00071] A translucent polyolefin film, Mediflex 1000 (Mylan
Technologies, Saint Albans, VT), is laminated to the Solupor microfibrous film
P01 via a low melting Engage 8407 ethyiene-octene copolymer. The
conditions 'equired for the lamination are 80°C, 90 psi, and 3 fpm. The
resulting transdermal backing material can be processed with less stretching
under web tension because of the less extensible Solupor layer, which also
provides a surface for embossing and writing. Further, when this backing
material is laminated to a pnmary drug-containing adhesive matrix, drug
cannd penelrate through the multi-layered backing into the heat seal layer of
the pouch material because of the microfibrous nature of the Solupor layer.
Example 8
[00072] The procedure outlined in Example 7 is followed except an EVA
film is substituted for the LDPE film. The resulting construction provides the
benefits outlined in example 7 with the added benefit of providing an
additional drug reservoir in the EVA backing layer. Drug incorporation into the

EVA film is acjiieved during its extrusion or through the slow diffusion of drug
into the EVA after lamination to an active drug-pressure sensitive adhesive
reservoir.
Example 9
[00073] A LDPE or EVA membrane material such as the Medifllm 500
series from Mylan Technologies, is laminated to a polyolefin drug reservoir
consisting of an EVA-40 drug dispersion, which is, in turn, laminated to the
Solupor P01 film at 70°C, 50 psi, and 3 fpm on hot lamination equipment. The
resulting multi-layered construction, after lamination to a pressure sensitive
adhesive, provides rate-controlled drug delivery, embossing, and writing
capabilities.
Example 10
[00074] Any of the multilayered constructions described in Examples 1-9
are laminated to a pressure sensitive adhesive, enabling bonding to any
medical device such as a blood bag, IV bag, or form-fill-seal transdermal
patch such as Duragesic transdermal fentanyl delivery system.
[00075] The above-described exemplary embodiments are intended to
be illustrative in all respects, rather than restrictive, of the present invention.
Thus the present invention is capable of many variations in detailed
implementation that can be derived from the description contained herein by a
person skilled in the art. All such variations and modifications are considered
to be within the scope and spirit of the present invention.
Claims
1. A multilaminate backing construction comprising:
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossable and writable material;
(b) a tie layer, the tie layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the
outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer.
2. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 1 wherein the outer
layer comprises a breathable material.
3. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 2 wherein the outer
layer comprises a breathable material comprising, porous, microporous,
microfibrullar, spun-bonded, spun laced, track etched, rayon, wood-pulp, spun
laced polyester, or coated paper products and combinations thereof.
4. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 3 wherein the outer
layer comprises a material selected from the group consisting of low density
polyethylene (LDPE), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), high density
polyethylene (HOPE), ultra high density polyethylene (UHDPE),
polypropylene, polyester, and polyethylene.
5. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 1 the tie layer
comprises a hydrophobic, a lipophilic or a non-polar polymeric material and
combinations thereof.
6. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 5 wherein the tie layei
comprises ethyleneoctene copolymers, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer
(EVA), low density polyethylene (LDPE), medium density polyethylene
(MDPE), non pressures sensitive formulation of styrenic block copolymer or
thermoplastic elastomers, and combinations thereof.
7. A multilaminate backing construction comprising:
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossabie and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a tie layer comprising a secondary drug-containing reservoir, the tie
layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal suri'ace of the tie layer.
8. A multilaminate backing construction comprising:
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossabie and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a tie layer comprising an antagonist-containing reservoir, wherein
the antagonist-containing reservoir is disposed on the skin proximal surface of
the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer.
9. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 8 wherein the
antagonist is in a form that is not releasable through the base layer and the
outer layer is an antagonist release rate controlling means.
10. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 9 wherein the outer
layer is coated with surfactants.
11. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 8 wherein the base
layer is impermeable to the antagonist within the antagonist-containing
reservoir.
12. A multilaminate backing construction comprising:
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossabie and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a tie layer comprising a secondary drug-containing reservoir, the
reservoir comprising a beneficial agent, the secondary drug-containing
reservoir being disposed on the skin proximal surface of the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer,
wherein the base layer is a drug release rate controlling means.
13. A multilaminate backing construction comprising:
(a) an outer layer comprising an embossable and writable material,
wherein the outer layer is a microporous layer or a microfibrullar layer;
(b) a multilaminate tie layer, the tie layer disposed on the skin proximal
surface of the outer layer; and
(c) a base layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the tie layer.
14. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 13 wherein the tie
layer comprises a secondary drug-containing reservoir.
15. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 13 wherein the
multilaminate tie layer comprises:
(i) a first layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the outer layer;
(ii) a second layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the first
layer;
(iii) a third layer disposed on the skin proximal surface of the second
layer; and
(iv) a secondary drug-containing reservoir.
16. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 15 wherein the first
layer is ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) or low density polyethylene
(LDPE) layer; the second layer is a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) layer;
the third layer is ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA); low density
polyethylene (LDPE) layer, or a polyurethane layer.
17. The multilaminate backing construction of claim 14 or claim 15 wherein
the secondary drug-containing reservoir comprises a beneficial agent and the
base layer is a drug release rate controlling means.


A novel backing construction for a transdermal drug delivery system is disclosed. In particular, the invention relates
10 a system and method for labeling a transdermal drug delivery system, wherein the backing layer contains a writable medium
capable of inkless printing.

Documents:

508-KOLNP-2005-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-ABSTRACT 1.2.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-abstract.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-AMANDED CLAIMS.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-ASSIGNMENT.1.3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-ASSIGNMENT.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-CLAIMS.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE 1.1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE.1.3.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-correspondence.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE) 1.1.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-description (complete).pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-DRAWINGS 1.1.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-drawings.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECIEVED.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-EXAMINATION REPORT.1.3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 1 1.1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 1-1.2.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-form 1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 18.1.3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 2 1.1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 2-1.2.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-form 2.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 26.1.3.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-form 26.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 3.1.3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 5.1.3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM 5.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-FORM-27.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-ABSTRACT.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-CLAIMS.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-DRAWINGS.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 2.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-LETTER PATENT.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-SPECIFICATION.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-MISCLLENIOUS.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-OTHERS.1.3.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-OTHERS.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-PETITION UNDER RULE 137-1.1.pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-PETITION UNDER SECTION 8(1).pdf

508-KOLNP-2005-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.1.3.pdf

508-kolnp-2005-specification.pdf


Patent Number 247693
Indian Patent Application Number 508/KOLNP/2005
PG Journal Number 18/2011
Publication Date 06-May-2011
Grant Date 02-May-2011
Date of Filing 28-Mar-2005
Name of Patentee ALZA CORPORATION
Applicant Address 1900 CHARLESTON ROAD, P.O. BOX 7210 MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 JAY DOUGLAS AUDETT 1195 BRYANT AVENUE, MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040
PCT International Classification Number B32B 7/06, 33/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/US2003/026545
PCT International Filing date 2003-08-22
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/407,126 2002-08-30 U.S.A.