|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYCES
|Abstract||The present invention relates to a process a process for removing lead from lead containing industrial waste waters or effluents. This invention particularly relates to a process for removal of lead from industrial waste waters or effluents using cheap, easily available, easy to handle solid industrial waste as adsorbent from the solid waste selected from leach residue of manganese ore, sea nodule residue, iron precipitate from the zinc extraction, possessing a very high adsorption capacity for the toxic elements like lead which would cause hazardous effects on the environment if disposed off untreated. The process avoids the problem of solvent handling etc by providing technically simple non-tedious and clean process|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to a process for removal of lead from lead containing industrial waste waters or effluents. This invention particularly relates to a process for removal of lead from industrial waste waters or effluents using cheap, easily available, easy to handle solid industrial waste possessing a very high adsorption capacity for the toxic elements like lead which would cause hazardous effects on the environment if disposed off untreated. Background of the Invention
In the recent years there has been a growing concern over the environmental problem for the disposal of industrial waste in the form of liquid and solid both because of their toxic nature. A large amount of solid and liquid wastes are generated during the metallurgical processing of primary and secondary materials. Lead is one of the toxic metals generated by the industries like plating, paint and dyes, glass operations, lead batteries etc (Yadava,K..P., Tyagi,B.S., Singh,V.N., J.Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 1991, 51, 47). The metal is thus often found in waste water / groundwater and is designated as the priority pollutant. The toxicity and deleterious effects of lead are well documented(Manahan, S., Environmental Chemistry, Brooks/Cole: California. 1984, Chapter 7). It causes severe poisoning in the kidney, reproductive system, liver, brain and central nervous system The permissible limit of lead in drinking water, into land waters, public sewers etc is 0.1 ppm as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (Encyclopedia of environmental pollution and control, R.K.Trivedi, 1995, Environmedia, Karad, India, Vol-1, P-392; ISI. drinking water specification, 1991, IS: 10500.), and in drinking water it is0.05mg/L.
Out of the wastewater treatment methods involving lead and other metal ions, pH adjustment, coagulation-sedimentation, reverse osmosis, ion exchange (Groffrnan, A., Peterson, S., Brookins, D., Water Environ., Technol. 1992, 4, 54-59), are often recommended but these processes suffer from the drawbacks of the application of costly membranes/ion exchangers, requirement of acids and alkali to regenerate the exhausted exchanger and flooded membrane, large amount of waters for exchanger regeneration and washing, besides very large settling time for precipitation. As regards cementation (Agelidis, T, Fytianos, K, Vasilikiotis, G., Resour. Conserv.. Recycl. 1989, 2, 131-138) this again has a drawback of high-energy requirement. Although activated
Another objective of the present invention is to take care of extreme reaction conditions (temperature, pressure etc) associated with conventional processes.
Yet another objective of the present invention is to provide inexpensive solid waste as an effective sorbent for wide range of applications to remove inorganic pollutants.
Yet another objective of the present invention is that the process is cost effective as a solid waste generated during the process is utilised for detoxification of the effluent generated in other process.
Novelty of the present invention is that the waste product that is generated from the recovery of copper, nickel and cobalt constitutes a disposal problem because of its huge amount, is found to have a very high adsorption capacity for lead that is unknown so far. The adsorption capacity is much higher to the adsorption capacity of the most extensively used adsorbents like activated carbon. The water after detoxification is found to contain lead levels well below the permissible limits as per environmental regulations thus becomes safe for disposal.
Accordingly the present invention provides a process for removing lead from lead containing industrial waste waters or effluents which comprises of:
(i) Obtaining a adsorbent from the solid waste selected from leach residue of manganese ore, sea nodule residue, iron precipitate from the zinc extraction,
(ii) adding a lead solution of concentration in the range 10-400 ppm of lead to the adsorbent in the solid : liquid ratio in the range of 1:100 to 1:1000 and maintaining temperature in the range of 30-60°C, pH in the range of 2.0-6.0, stirring for 1-24 h and filtering the adsorbent thereafter,.
(iii) analysing the lead content in the filtrate and recovering lead free industrial waste. In an embodiment of the present invention the selected adsorbent comprises of sieve size in the range of 150-76µm and transferring to a conical flask. In another embodiment of the present invention the used solid waste adsorbent comprises of the composition in the range of about:
1. A process for the preparation of antioxidants from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces,
i) selecting the calyces from the fruit of Hibiscus sabdariffa ;
ii) drying the calyces under shade for 2-3 days to obtain moisture content in the range of 9-10%;
iii) powdering of dried calyces to obtain 60-80 mesh size;
iv) extracting the above said material with hexane in a ratio of 1:4 to 1:5 Soxhlet extractor at a temperature of 55-60°C for a period of 6-8 h;
v) distilling the above extracted material to recover the solvent at a temperature in the range of 50-60 °C;
vi) extracting the spent material obtained from the above step with acetone and methanol successively in a ratio of 1:4 to 1:5 in a Soxhlet extractor at a temperature of 50-60 °C for a period of 30-120 min;
vii) filtering the extract as obtained in the above step to obtain the particle free extract;
viii) concentrating the above particle free extract at a temperature of 35 -50°C under vacuum at 10-25 mm of mercury to obtain the product.
2. A process for preparation of antioxidant as claimed in claim 1, wherein the
hibiscus sabdariffa extract has 78% radical scavenging acitivity.
3. A process as claimed in claims 1-2, the yield of methanol extract is 6-7% and it is reddish in colour and of neutral flavour.
4. A process for the preparation of antioxidants from Hibiscus sadbafiffa substantially as herein described with reference to the examples accompanying this specification.
|Indian Patent Application Number||523/DEL/2004|
|PG Journal Number||17/2011|
|Date of Filing||19-Mar-2004|
|Name of Patentee||COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110001, INDIA|
|PCT International Classification Number||A 23L 3/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|