Title of Invention

SYNCHRONIZER RING

Abstract A synchronizer ring (1) has an annular ring body (2), a friction member (4) integrally joined to a hollow cylinder-like inner peripheral surface (3) of the ring body (2), a conical surface (5) formed on an inner surface of the friction member (4), and annular grooves (6) formed in the conical surface (5) of the friction member (4).
Full Text DESCRIPTION
SYNCHRONIZER RING
TECHNICAL FIELD
[0001]
The present invention relates to a synchronizer ring for use in a manual
transmission of an automobile.
BACKGROUND ART
[0002]
A synchronizer ring is a ring-like member which is incorporated in a
transmission of an automobile and which, at the time of a gear shifting operation of the
transmission, synchronously rotates two gears so that the two gears which are engaged
in the shift can be smoothly engaged with each other. Characteristics required for the
synchronizer ring are, among others, (1) that the coefficient of dynamic friction with
respect to a mating member is large in order to synchronize two gears by frictionally
engaging a tapered portion which is the mating member, and (2) that the synchronizer
ring has wear resistance in sliding with the mating member and the like.
Patent document 1: JP-B-7-107182
Patent document 2: JP-B-47-24053
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED BY THE INVENTION
[0003]

2
Conventionally, synchronizer rings made of Cu-Zn-based high strength brass
(refer to patent document 1) and synchronizer rings made of Cu-Al-based aluminum
bronze are frequently used as the synchronizer rings. However, in conjunction with
tendencies toward higher outputs and higher torques of automobiles and the like in
recent years, an excessively large load has come to be applied to the synchronizer ring
during the shift. Therefore, there is a problem in that a Cu-based synchronizer ring,
which has a small coefficient of dynamic friction, does not satisfy the aforementioned
characteristic (1). Furthermore, there is a problem in that the aforementioned
characteristic (1) is neither satisfied by a synchronizer ring in which molybdenum (Mo)
is thermally sprayed onto a tapered surface of an iron-based ring.
[0004]
As a synchronizer ring which overcomes the problem of the aforementioned
Cu-based synchronizer ring, a synchronizer ring has been proposed in which the tapered
surface of a metallic ring is lined with a friction material whose principal material is
fibrous (refer to patent document 2). However, with the synchronizer ring disclosed in
this patent document 2, the coefficient of friction in an initial period is extremely high,
and the coefficient of friction suddenly drops as the shift is repeated in terms of its
number of times, so that there is still the problem that aforementioned characteristic (1)
is not satisfied.
[0005]
The present invention has been devised in view of the above-described
circumstances, and its object is to provide a synchronizer ring which excels in
friction-wear characteristics and has the aforementioned characteristics (1) and (2).
MEANS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEMS

3
[0006]
The synchronizer ring in accordance with the present invention comprises:
an annular ring body, wherein a friction material is integrally joined to at least one of an
inner peripheral surface and an outer peripheral surface of the ring body, the friction
material containing a phenol resin in which 40 to 70 wt.% of a porous carbon powder
containing mineral components is dispersedly contained.
[0007]
According to the synchronizer ring in accordance with the invention, the
friction material which is joined to at least one of the inner peripheral surface and the
outer peripheral surface of the ring body has a phenol resin and a porous carbon powder
containing mineral components dispersedly contained in the phenol resin at a ratio of 40
to 70 wt.%. The surface of the friction material is made porous as the porous carbon
powder is exposed on the surface. Therefore, when the surface of the friction material
is brought into frictional contact with a mating member in oil, an oil film is difficult to
be formed on a friction interface, so that the coefficient of dynamic friction can be made
large.
[0008]
In the present invention, the annular ring body may be formed of one of iron,
an iron-based alloy, a non-ferrous alloy such as a copper alloy, and a sintered alloy
thereof.
[0009]
In the present invention, the porous carbon powder containing mineral
components may contain 65 to 75 wt.% of a carbon component, 5 to 10 wt.% of mineral
components, and 15 to 30 wt.% of oxygen.
[0010]

4
This porous carbon powder containing mineral components contributes to
improvement of the wear resistance of the friction material since mineral components
(Na, Mg, P, and K) contained in the porous carbon powder are interposed at the friction
interface in the contact with the mating member in oil. The effect due to these mineral
components is not clear. However, since the above-described effect is demonstrated
despite the fact that the carbon component in the porous carbon powder is not utterly
graphitized and does not have a low friction characteristic such as that of ordinary
graphite, it can be conjectured that the mineral components exhibit the action of
preventing direct contact at the friction interface between the carbon component and the
mating member owing to the contact with the oil.
[0011]
In the present invention, the phenol resin may be one or two or more kinds
selected from a novolak type phenol resin, an epoxy modified phenol resin, and a
melamine modified phenol resin.
[0012]
The phenol resin performs the function of a cementing material for joining
porous carbon particles to each other dispersedly contained in the resin and for joining
the friction material to at least one of the inner peripheral surface and the outer
peripheral surface of the ring body. A novolak type phenol resin, in particular, is
preferable since it facilitates compactibility at the time of fabricating the friction
material. In addition, the relative amount of the phenol resin in the friction material
requires sufficient caution since it affects the swelling of the friction material in oil. In
the present invention, it was confirmed that 30 to 60 wt.% is appropriate as the amount
of the phenol resin in the friction material.
[0013]

5
In the synchronizer ring in accordance with the invention, the friction material
may, moreover, contain an inorganic whisker and/or a porous ceramic, i.e., at least one
of an inorganic whisker and a porous ceramic, at a ratio of 5 to 30 wt.%. The
inorganic whisker may be one or two or more kinds selected from a calcium sulfate
whisker, a potassium titanate whisker, a zinc oxide whisker, a magnesium sulfate
whisker, an aluminum borate whisker, a calcium silicate whisker, and a titanium oxide
whisker.
[0014]
These inorganic whiskers perform the function of remarkably improving the
wear resistance of the friction material by being compounded with the phenol resin and
the porous carbon powder mentioned above. The fiber length of the inorganic
whiskers is 10 to 100 urn, and inorganic whiskers having a fiber length of
approximately 50 m are preferable to allow a uniform dispersion in the friction
material to take place.
[0015]
In addition, the porous ceramic may be selected from at least one of activated
alumina and activated magnesia. By being compounded with the phenol resin and the
porous carbon powder mentioned above, or by being compounded with the phenol resin,
the porous carbon powder, and the inorganic whisker, this porous ceramic performs the
function of remarkably improving the wear resistance of the friction material. The
average particle size of the porous ceramic is preferably 0.5 to 10 urn or thereabouts.
[0016]
Furthermore, the compounding amount of the inorganic whisker and/or the
porous ceramic is preferably 5 to 30 wt.%, more preferably 10 to 20 wt.%. If the
compounding amount is less than 5 wt.%, a desirable effect on the improvement of the

6
wear resistance of the friction material is not exhibited. On the other hand, if
compounding is effected in excess of 30 wt.%, the proportion of exposure on the
surface of the friction material becomes large, and the effect on the wear resistance of
the porous carbon powder in the friction material is not only reduced, but the drawback
that damage is caused to the mating member appears.
ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION
[0017]
According to the synchronizer ring in accordance with the present invention,
the friction material which is integrally joined to at least one conical surface of the inner
surface and the outer surface of the annular ring body has a high coefficient of dynamic
friction and wear resistance in the sliding friction with a mating member. Therefore, it
is possible to prolong the usable life of the synchronizer ring, and allow the
synchronous rotation of two gears to be effected reliably at the time of the gear shifting
operation of the transmission.
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
[0018]
Hereafter, a detailed description will be given of an embodiment of the
invention.
[0019]
A description will be given of a porous carbon powder containing mineral
components, which is used in the invention.
[0020]


7
The method of manufacturing porous carbon particles comprises: (1) the step
of preparing a bran by defatting a bran such as rice bran and wheat bran and by
adjusting its particle size; (2) the step of adding to the bran with its particle size
adjusted a phenol resin as a thermosetting synthetic resin and water or an aqueous
solution containing an appropriate amount of an adhesive paste, then mixing them, and
subsequently granulating the mixture into a predetermined particle size; and (3) the step
of carbonizing and calcinating the granulated granules in an atmosphere of an inert gas
or in a vacuum at temperatures of 900 to 1100°C. The porous carbon powder
(particles) is manufactured through these steps (1) to (3).
[0021]
The porous carbon powder obtained by the above-described manufacturing
method contains 65 to 75 wt.% of a carbon component, 5 to 10 wt.% of mineral
components, and 15 to 30 wt.% of oxygen. The hardness of the porous carbon powder
is generally 440 Hv (Vickers hardness). As a specific example of this porous carbon
powder, for example, "Powder RBC" which is commercially available from Sanwa Oil
and Fat Co., Ltd. can be cited as a preferable one.
[0022]
The phenol resin performs the function of joining the porous carbon particles
to each other dispersedly contained in the resin and the function of a cementing material
for joining a friction material to at least one of an inner peripheral surface and an outer
peripheral surface of a ring body, and may be selected from one or two or more kinds of
a novolak type phenol resin, an epoxy modified phenol resin, and a melamine modified
phenol resin. The novolak type phenol resin, in particular, is preferable since it
facilitates compactibility at the time of fabricating the friction material. In addition,
the relative amount of the phenol resin in the friction material requires sufficient

8
caution since it affects the swelling of the friction material in oil. In the present
invention, it was confirmed that 30 to 60 wt.% is appropriate as the amount of the
phenol resin in the friction material.
[0023]
In the synchronizer ring in accordance with the invention, it is possible to use a
friction material in which a predetermined amount of an inorganic whisker and/or a
porous ceramic is compounded with the phenol resin and the porous carbon powder
containing mineral components, for the purpose of further improving the wear
resistance. The inorganic whisker may be selected from one or two or more kinds of a
calcium sulfate whisker, a potassium titanate whisker, a zinc oxide whisker, a
magnesium sulfate whisker, an aluminum borate whisker, a calcium silicate whisker,
and a titanium oxide whisker. In addition, the porous ceramic may be selected from at
least one of activated alumina and activated magnesia. The compounding amount of
the inorganic whisker and/or the porous ceramic is preferably 5 to 30 wt.%, more
preferably 10 to 20 wt.%. If the compounding amount is less than 5 wt.%, a desirable
effect on the improvement of the wear resistance of the friction material is not exhibited.
On the other hand, if compounding is effected in excess of 30 wt.%, the proportion of
exposure of the inorganic whisker and/or the porous ceramic on the surface of the
friction material becomes large, which not only reduces the effect on the wear
resistance of the porous carbon particles in the friction material, but the drawback of
causing damage to the mating member appears.
[0024]
The friction material consisting of the above-described component
composition is fabricated into a uniform mixture by an ordinary mixing method, by
compounding a phenol resin and a porous carbon powder containing mineral

9
components, or a phenol resin, a porous carbon powder containing mineral components,
and an inorganic whisker at a respective predetermined ratio, and by charging them into
a mixer such as a Henschel mixer.
[0025]
Next, referring to the drawings, a description will be given of a method of
manufacturing a synchronizer ring using this mixture.
[0026]

A mixture of a phenol resin and a porous carbon powder containing mineral
components, or a mixture of a phenol resin, a porous carbon powder containing mineral
components, an inorganic whisker and/or a porous ceramic, which are compounded at a
predetermined ratio, is filled into a mold, and is subjected to compression molding at
temperatures of 180 to 300°C, to thereby fabricate a hollow cylindrical friction material
consisting of the mixture. This friction material is integrally joined through an
adhesive to a cylindrical inner peripheral surface of the ring body formed of iron, a
ferroalloy, a non-ferrous alloy, or a sintered alloy thereof. Then, a cylindrical inner
surface of the friction material is formed into a conical surface by machining, thereby
fabricating a synchronizer ring in which the friction material is integrally joined to the
inner peripheral surface of the ring body. In the synchronizer ring thus fabricated, in a
case where annular grooves are required in the conical surface of the friction material, it
suffices if the annular grooves are formed, as required, by subjecting the conical surface
of the friction material to machining.
[0027]
Fig. 1 shows a synchronizer ring fabricated by the above-described first
manufacturing method. A synchronizer ring 1 includes an annular ring body 2; a

10
friction material 4 joined integrally to a cylindrical inner peripheral surface 3 of the ring
body 2; a conical surface 5 formed on the inner surface of the friction material 4; and a
plurality of annular grooves 6 formed in the conical surface 5 of the friction material 4.
[0028]
In addition, in the above-described first manufacturing method, the
synchronizer ring can also be fabricated by filling the mixture into the mold and
subjecting the mixture to compression molding at temperatures of 180 to 300°C to
thereby fabricate a friction material which consists of the mixture, has a cylindrical
surface on its outer surface, and has on its inner surface a conical surface and a plurality
of elongated grooves extending through in a longitudinal direction, and then by
integrally joining this friction material to the cylindrical inner peripheral surface of the
ring body through an adhesive. In the synchronizer ring fabricated by this method
with the above-described manufacturing method, it is possible to omit the step of
forming the cylindrical inner surface of the friction material into a conical surface by
machining. Further, in a case where, in addition to the elongated grooves, annular
grooves are required in the conical surface of the friction material, it suffices if the
annular grooves are formed, as required, by subjecting the conical surface of the friction
material to machining. Fig. 2 shows a synchronizer ring fabricated by this
manufacturing method. The synchronizer ring 1 includes the annular ring body 2; the
friction material 4 joined integrally to the cylindrical inner peripheral surface 3 of the
ring body 2; the conical surface 5 formed on the inner surface of the friction material 4;
and a plurality of vertical grooves 7 formed in the conical surface 5.
[0029]
Furthermore, in the above-described first manufacturing method, the
synchronizer ring can also be fabricated by filling the mixture into the mold and

11
subjecting the mixture to compression molding at temperatures of 180 to 300°C to
thereby fabricate a friction material consisting of the mixture and having conical
surfaces on its inner and outer surfaces and the plurality of elongated grooves extending
through on the conical surface of the inner surface in the longitudinal direction, and
then by integrally joining this friction material to the conical inner peripheral surface of
the ring body through an adhesive. Also in the synchronizer ring fabricated by this
method, in a case where annular grooves are required on the conical surface of the inner
surface of the friction material, it suffices if the annular grooves are formed, as required,
by subjecting the conical surface of the inner surface of the friction material to
machining. Fig. 3 shows a synchronizer ring fabricated by this manufacturing method.
The synchronizer ring 1 includes the annular ring body 2; the friction material 4 joined
integrally to a conical inner peripheral surface 8 of the ring body 2; the conical surface
5 of the inner surface of the friction material 4; and the plurality of vertical grooves 7
formed in the conical surface 5.
[0030]
In addition, Fig. 4 shows the synchronizer ring 1 in which a plurality of
annular grooves are further formed in the conical surface 5 of the inner surface of the
friction material 4 of the synchronizer ring 1 shown in Fig. 3. The synchronizer ring 1
includes the annular ring body 2; the friction material 4 joined integrally to the conical
inner peripheral surface 8 of the ring body 2; the conical surface 5 of the inner surface
of the friction material 4; the plurality of vertical grooves 7 formed in the conical
surface 5; and the plurality of annular grooves 6 formed in the conical surface 5.
[0031]

A ring body similar to the above-described one is disposed in a forming mold,

12
and a mixture similar to the above-described one is filled over the cylindrical outer
peripheral surface of this ring body and is subjected to compression molding at
temperatures of 180 to 300°C, to integrally join to the outer peripheral surface of the
ring body a friction material having on its outer surface a conical surface and a plurality
of elongated grooves extending through in the longitudinal direction. A synchronizer
ring is thereby fabricated in which the friction material is integrally joined to the outer
peripheral surface of the ring body. Also in the synchronizer ring fabricated by this
method, in the case where annular grooves are required in the conical surface of the
friction material, it suffices if the annular grooves are formed, as required, by subjecting
the conical surface of the friction material to machining.
[0032]
In the above-described second manufacturing method, a synchronizer ring in
which a friction material is integrally joined to at least one of an inner peripheral
surface and an outer peripheral surface, which is formed in a conical shape, of the ring
body may be formed as follows: The ring body in which at least one of the inner
peripheral surface and the outer peripheral surface thereof is formed in the conical
shape is disposed in the forming mold. The mixture is then filled over the at least one
of the inner peripheral surface and the outer peripheral surface, which is formed in the
conical shape, of this ring body, and is subjected to compression molding at
temperatures of 180 to 300°C. The friction material having a plurality of elongated
grooves extending through in the longitudinal direction is thereby integrally joined to
the at least one of the inner peripheral surface and the outer peripheral surface, which is
formed in the conical shape, of the ring body. Also in the synchronizer ring fabricated
by this method, in the case where annular grooves are required in the conical surface of
the friction material, it suffices if the annular grooves are formed, as required, by

13
subjecting the conical surface of the friction material to machining. Fig. 5 shows a
synchronizer ring fabricated by this manufacturing method. The synchronizer ring 1
includes the ring body 2 having the cylindrical inner peripheral surface 3 and a conical
outer peripheral surface 9; the friction material 4 joined integrally to the conical outer
peripheral surface 9 of the ring body 2 and having a conical surface 11; and a plurality
of vertical grooves 12 formed in the conical surface 11 of the friction material 4 in such
a manner as to extend through in the longitudinal direction.
[0033]
In addition, Fig. 6 shows the synchronizer ring 1 in which a plurality of
annular grooves 13 are further formed in the conical surface 11 of the friction material 4
of the synchronizer ring 1 shown in Fig. 5. The synchronizer ring 1 includes the ring
body 2 having the cylindrical inner peripheral surface 3 and the conical outer peripheral
surface 9; the friction material 4 joined integrally to the conical outer peripheral surface
9 of the ring body 2 and having the conical surface 11 on its outer surface; the plurality
of vertical grooves 12 formed in the conical surface 11 of the friction material 4 in such
a manner as to extend through in the longitudinal direction; and the plurality of annular
grooves 13 formed in the conical surface 11 of the friction material 4.
[0034]
Fig. 7 shows a synchronizer ring fabricated by the above-described second
method. The synchronizer ring 1 shown in Fig. 7 includes the ring body 2 having the
conical inner peripheral surface 8 and the conical outer peripheral surface 9; the friction
materials 4, 4 respectively joined integrally to the conical inner peripheral surface 8 and
the conical outer peripheral surface 9 of the ring body 2; and the plurality of elongated
vertical grooves 7, 12 formed respectively in the friction materials 4, 4 in such a manner
as to extend through in the longitudinal direction. Fig. 8 shows the synchronizer ring

14
1 in which the plurality of annular grooves 6, 13 are further formed in the friction
materials 4, 4 respectively joined integrally to the conical inner peripheral surface 8 and
the conical outer peripheral surface 9 of the synchronizer ring 1 shown in Fig. 7. The
synchronizer ring 1 includes the ring body 2 having the conical inner peripheral surface
8 and the conical outer peripheral surface 9; the friction materials 4, 4 respectively
joined integrally to the conical inner peripheral surface 8 and the conical outer
peripheral surface 9 of the ring body 2; the plurality of vertical grooves 7, 12 formed
respectively in the friction materials 4, 4 in such a manner as to extend through in the
longitudinal direction; and the plurality of annular grooves 6, 13 formed respectively in
the friction materials 4, 4.
[0035]

In the above-described second manufacturing method, the synchronizer ring is
fabricated by integrally joining a friction material consisting of the mixture to the
cylindrical outer peripheral surface of the ring body or at least one of the conical inner
peripheral surface 8 and the conical outer peripheral surface 9 of the ring body by
injection molding, instead of integrally joining the friction material consisting of the
mixture to the cylindrical outer peripheral surface of the ring body or at least one of the
conical inner peripheral surface 8 and the conical outer peripheral surface 9 of the ring
body by compression molding. Also in the synchronizer ring fabricated by this
method, in the case where annular grooves are required in the conical surface of the
friction material, it suffices if the annular grooves are formed, as required, by subjecting
the conical surface of the friction material to machining.
[0036]
In the synchronizer ring fabricated by any one of the above-described

15
manufacturing methods, a friction material consisting of a mixture of a phenol resin and
a porous carbon powder containing mineral components, or a mixture of a phenol resin,
a porous carbon powder containing mineral components, an inorganic whisker and/or a
porous ceramic, is integrally joined to the inner peripheral surface of the ring body or
the inner peripheral surface and the outer peripheral surface thereof. Therefore, in the
frictional sliding with respect to a mating member, the aforementioned characteristics
are demonstrated, i.e., the characteristics: (1) that the coefficient of dynamic friction
with respect to a mating member is large in order to synchronize the two gears by
frictionally engaging a tapered portion which is the mating member, and that (2) the
synchronizer ring has wear resistance in sliding with the mating member.
EXAMPLES
[0037]
Hereafter, a detailed description will be given of the present invention on the
basis of examples. It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the
examples.
[0038]
Examples 1 to 3
A porous carbon powder with an average particle size of 150 m containing
72.8 wt.% of a carbon component, 19.8 wt.% of oxygen, and 7.4 wt.% of mineral
components (Na:1.9 wt.%, Mg:0.8 wt.%, P:2.8 wt.%, and K:1.9 wt.%) was prepared,
and 50 to 70 wt.% of this porous carbon powder and 30 to 50 wt.% of a novolak type
phenol resin were charged into a Henschel mixer and were mixed for 5 minutes, thereby
obtaining a mixture.
[0039]

16
A ring body made of a copper alloy was prepared, the ring body was disposed
in advance in a forming mold, and the mixture was filled on the inner surface of the
ring body. Then, heating was effected to a temperature of 300°C, and compression
molding was effected, to thereby integrally join the friction material to the inner surface
of the ring body. After molding, the assembly was removed from the mold, the inner
surface of the friction material was machined into a conical surface, and annular
grooves were formed in the conical surface of the friction material by machining.
Thus, a synchronizer ring in which the friction material was integrally joined to the
inner surface of the ring body was fabricated.
[0040]
Examples 4 to 9
A porous carbon powder similar to that of the above-described Examples was
prepared, and a calcium sulfate whisker, a potassium titanate whisker, and an aluminum
borate whisker having a fiber length of 50 m were prepared as inorganic whiskers
serving as wear resistance improving agents. Then, 50 wt.% of the porous carbon
powder, 0 to 20 wt.% of the inorganic whisker, and 30 to 40 wt.% of the novolak type
phenol resin were charged into the Henschel mixer and were mixed for 5 minutes,
thereby obtaining a mixture. Thereafter, a synchronizer ring in which the friction
material was integrally joined to the inner surface of the ring body was fabricated in a
method similar to that of the above-described Examples.
[0041]
Examples 10 to 12
A porous carbon powder similar to that of the above-described Examples was
prepared. Activated alumina having an average particle size of 0.5 m as a porous
ceramic and a potassium titanate whisker having a fiber length of 50 m as an inorganic

17
whisker, which serve as wear resistance improving agents, were respectively prepared.
Then, a mixture obtained by charging into the Henschel mixer 50 to 60 wt.% of the
porous carbon powder, 10 to 20 wt.% of the activated alumina, and 30 wt.% of the
novolak type phenol resin and by mixing them for 5 minutes, as well as a mixture
obtained by charging into the Henschel mixer 50 wt.% of the porous carbon powder, 10
wt.% of the activated alumina, 10 wt.% of the potassium titanate whisker, and 30 wt.%
of the novolak type phenol resin and by mixing them for 5 minutes, were respectively
prepared. Thereafter, a synchronizer ring in which the friction material was integrally
joined to the inner peripheral surface of the ring body was fabricated in a method
similar to that of the above-described Examples.
[0042]
Comparative Example 1
40 wt.% of a carbon fiber, 20 wt.% of a calcium silicate powder, 10 wt.% of
brass powder, and 30 wt.% of the novolak type phenol resin were charged into the
Henschel mixer and were mixed for 5 minutes, thereby obtaining a mixture.
Thereafter, a synchronizer ring in which the friction material was integrally joined to
the inner surface of the ring body was fabricated in a method similar to that of the
above-described Examples.
[0043]
Comparative Example 2
A porous carbon powder similar to that of the above-described Example 1 was
prepared, and 30 wt.% of this porous carbon powder and 70 wt.% of the novolak type
phenol resin were charged into the Henschel mixer and were mixed for 5 minutes,
thereby obtaining a mixture. Thereafter, a synchronizer ring in which the friction
material was integrally joined to the inner surface of the ring body was fabricated in a

18
method similar to that of the above-described Examples.
[0044]
Comparative Example 3
A porous carbon powder similar to that of the above-described Example 1 was
prepared, and 80 wt.% of this porous carbon powder and 20 wt.% of the novolak type
phenol resin were charged into the Henschel mixer and were mixed for 5 minutes,
thereby obtaining a mixture. Thereafter, a synchronizer ring in which the friction
material was integrally joined to the inner surface of the ring body was fabricated in a
method similar to that of the above-described Examples.
[0045]
Comparative Example 4
A synchronizer ring made of brass (Zn 30 wt.%, Al 4.5 wt.%, Ni 2.0 wt.%, Fe
1.0 wt.%, Ti 0.8 wt.%, Nb 0.2 wt.%, and the balance copper) and having on its inner
surface a conical surface was fabricated.
[0046]
Next, a description will be given of the results of a test conducted of the
friction-wear characteristics of synchronizer rings with respect to the synchronizer rings
in accordance with the above-described Examples and the synchronizer rings in
accordance with the Comparative Examples by using the testing equipment shown in
Fig. 9. In Fig. 9, reference numeral 1 denotes a synchronizer ring; 15 denotes a
tapered cone; 16 and 17 denote tapered cone mounting jigs; and 18 and 19 denote
synchronizer ring pressing jigs.
[0047]



19
Number of revolutions: 1500 rpm
Pressing load: 60 kgf (surface pressure 8.83 Mpa)
[0048]

Using the testing equipment shown in Fig. 9, the synchronizer ring 1 was
pressed against the tapered cone 15, which was rotated at the aforementioned number of
revolutions, for 0.3 second in 70°C lubricating oil (ISUZU BESCO 5W-30 (tradename))
and was released for 1.5 second, and this process was set as one cycle, and 2000 cycles
were performed in terms of the number of pressing times. As for the coefficients of
friction, values at the time of 10 cycles, 500 cycles, 1000 cycles, 1500 cycles, and 2000
cycles in terms of the number of pressing times were measured, while as for the
amounts of wear, a value at the time of 2000 cycles in terms of the number of pressing
times was measured.
[0049]


Using ISUZU BESCO 5W-30 (tradename) as lubricating oil, an oil bath with
the lubricating oil filled therein was prepared. In a state in which the lubricating oil in
the oil bath was kept at a temperature of 70°C, test pieces (synchronizer rings in
accordance with the above-described Examples and Comparative Examples) were
immersed in the oil bath for 200 hours while agitating the lubricating oil in the oil bath,
and the amounts of displacement (m) of the test pieces before and after the test were
measured.
[0050]
The method of measuring the amount of displacement of the inner surface of

20
the test piece before and after the test in the above-described test was carried out by
using the measuring jig shown in Fig. 10. Namely, a taper gage G having a tapered
surface 20 on its outer surface was prepared, and the conical surface at the inner surface
of each of the above-described test pieces S was fitted over the tapered surface 20 of
this taper gage G, and a dimension L1 before the test and a dimension L2 after the test
between an end face 21 of the taper gage G and an end face 22 of each of the test pieces
S were measured, the difference between the dimension L1 and the dimension L2 being
set as the amount of displacement (amount of swelling).
[0051]
The test results of the above-described test on the synchronizer rings in
accordance with the above-described Examples and Comparative Examples are shown
in Tables 1 to 6.

21
[0052]
[Table 1]

Component composition of friction material Example 1 Example 2 Example 3
Porous carbon powder (wt.%) 50 60 70
(wt.%)
Novolak type phenol resin 50 40 30
(wt.%)
Calcium sulfate whisker
Potassium titanate whisker
Aluminum borate whisker - - -
Coefficient of
dynamic friction Pressing cycles 10
500
1000
1500
2000 0.116
0.116
0.114
0.113
0.112 0.127
0.125
0.121
0.119
0.117 0.132
0.130
0.128
0.125
0.123
Amount of wear of friction material (rn) 146 220 220
Amount of swelling (m) 120 30 3
[0053]
[Table 2]

Component composition of friction material Example 4 Example 5 Example 6
Porous carbon powder (wt.%) 50 50 50
(wt.%)
Novolak type phenol resin 40 40 40
(wt.%)
Calcium sulfate whisker
Potassium titanate whisker
Aluminum borate whisker 10 10 10
Coefficient of
dynamic friction Pressing cycles 10
500
1000
1500
2000 0.112
0.116
0.115
0.115
0.114 0.125
0.123
0.120
0.117
0.116 0.130
0.128
0.126
0.123
0.121
Amount of wear of friction material (m) 130 180 168
Amount of swelling (m) 42 38 37

22
[0054]
[Table 3]

Component composition of friction material Example 7 Example 8 Example 9
Porous carbon powder (wt.%) 50 50 50
(wt.%)
Novolak type phenol resin 30 30 30
(wt.%)
Calcium sulfate whisker
Potassium titanate whisker
Aluminum borate whisker 20 20 20
Coefficient of
dynamic friction Pressing cycles 10
500
1000
1500
2000 0.114
0.118
0.116
0.115
0.115 0.125
0.120
0.118
0.116
0.115 0.127
0.125
0.124
0.122
0.120
Amount of wear of friction material (m) 104 163 132
Amount of swelling (m) 3 5 6
[0055]
[Table 4]

Component composition of friction material Example 10 Example 11 Example 12
Porous carbon powder (wt.%) 60 50 50
(wt.%)
Novolak type phenol resin 30 30 30
(wt.%)
Activated alumina 10 20 10
(wt.%)
Potassium titanate whisker 10
Coefficient of
dynamic friction Pressing cycles 10
500
1000
1500
2000 0.126
0.118
0.117
0.117
0.117 0.133
0.128
0.122
0.120
0.120 0.130
0.126
0.122
0.122
0.120
Amount of wear of friction material (m) 100 120 132
Amount of swelling (m) 100 110 78

23
[0056]
[Table 5]

Comparative
Example 1 Comparative
Example 2
Coefficient of
dynamic friction Pressing cycles 10
500
1000
1500
2000 0.120
0.115
0.110
0.093
0.086 0.106
0.105
0.104
0.103
0.102
Amount of wear (m) 320 485
Amount of swelling (m) 5 270
[0057]
[Table 6]

Comparative
Example 3 Comparative
Example 4
Coefficient of
dynamic friction Pressing cycles 10
500
1000
1500
2000 0.125
0.125
0.120
0.118
0.115 0.088
0.088
0.086
0.086
0.087
Amount of wear (m) 530 59
Amount of swelling (m) 2 0
[0058]
From the above-described test results, it was confirmed that the synchronizer
rings in accordance with the Examples exhibit high coefficients of dynamic friction and
excel in the wear resistance, and that no damage was caused to the surfaces (friction
surfaces) of the mating member after the test. On the other hand, the synchronizer
ring in accordance with the Comparative Example 1 showed satisfactory values in the
coefficient of dynamic friction in an early period, but has the problem that the
coefficient of dynamic friction declines with an increase in the pressing cycles, and is
therefore difficult to be used as a synchronizer rings. As for the synchronizer ring in

24
accordance with the Comparative Example 2, it was confirmed that although the porous
carbon powder is contained, since its content is small, the friction behavior of the
phenol resin of the cementing material becomes noticeable, its coefficient of dynamic
friction is low, its wear resistance is inferior, and its amount of swelling is very large.
In addition, as for the synchronizer ring in accordance with the Comparative Example 3,
since the content of the porous carbon powder is excessively large contrary to the
above-described Comparative Example 2, the strength of the friction material becomes
small, with the result that its wear resistance is insufficient. Furthermore, the
synchronizer ring in accordance with the Comparative Example 4 exhibits sufficient
wear resistance, but its coefficient of dynamic friction is low, so that it still has a
problem as a synchronizer ring.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0059]
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating an embodiment of the
synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating another embodiment of
the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating still another
embodiment of the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating a further embodiment
of the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating a still further
embodiment of the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating a further

25
embodiment of the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating a further
embodiment of the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view illustrating a further
embodiment of the synchronizer ring of the present invention;
Fig. 9 is an explanatory diagram illustrating testing equipment; and
Fig. 10 is an explanatory diagram illustrating a method of measuring an
amount of swelling.
DESCRIPTION OF REFERENCE NUMERALS AND SIGNS
[0060]
synchronizer ring
ring body
cylindrical inner peripheral surface
friction material
conical surface
annular groove
vertical groove

26
CLAIMS
[1] A synchronizer ring characterized by comprising: an annular ring body,
wherein a friction material is integrally joined to at least one of an inner peripheral
surface and an outer peripheral surface of said ring body, said friction material
containing a phenol resin in which 40 to 70 wt.% of a porous carbon powder containing
mineral components is dispersedly contained.
[2] The synchronizer ring according to claim 1, wherein said ring body is formed
of one of iron, a ferroalloy, a non-ferrous alloy, and a sintered alloy thereof.
[3] The synchronizer ring according to claim 1 or 2, wherein said porous carbon
powder containing mineral components contains 65 to 75 wt.% of a carbon component,
5 to 10 wt.% of mineral components, and 15 to 30 wt.%) of oxygen.
[4] The synchronizer ring according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said
phenol resin is one or two or more kinds selected from a novolak type phenol resin, an
epoxy modified phenol resin, and a melamine modified phenol resin.
[5] The synchronizer ring according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein said
friction material contains an inorganic whisker and/or a porous ceramic at a ratio of 5 to
30 wt.%.
[6] The synchronizer ring according to claim 5, wherein said inorganic whisker is
one or two or more kinds selected from a calcium sulfate whisker, a potassium titanate
whisker, a zinc oxide whisker, a magnesium sulfate whisker, an aluminum borate
whisker, a calcium silicate whisker, and a titanium oxide whisker.
[7] The synchronizer ring according to claim 5, wherein said porous ceramic is
selected from at least one of activated alumina and activated magnesia.

A synchronizer ring (1) has an annular ring body (2), a friction member (4) integrally joined to a hollow cylinder-like inner peripheral surface (3) of the ring body (2), a conical surface (5) formed on an inner surface of the friction member (4), and annular grooves (6) formed in the conical surface (5) of the friction member (4).

Documents:

02331-kolnp-2005-abstract.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-claims.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-description complete.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-drawings.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-form 1.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-form 3.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-form 5.pdf

02331-kolnp-2005-international publication.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-ASSIGNMENT.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE 1.1.pdf

2331-kolnp-2005-correspondence-1.2.pdf

2331-kolnp-2005-correspondence-1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-EXAMINATION REPORT.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-FORM 18.1.3.pdf

2331-kolnp-2005-form 18.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-FORM 3.1.1.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-FORM 3.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-FORM 5.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-FORM-27.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GPA.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-ABSTRACT.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-CLAIMS.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE).pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-DRAWINGS.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-FORM 1.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-LETTER PATENT.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-GRANTED-SPECIFICATION.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-OTHERS.1.3.pdf

2331-kolnp-2005-others.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.1.3.pdf

2331-KOLNP-2005-TRANSLATED COPY OF PRIORITY DOCUMENT.1.3.pdf

abstract-02331-kolnp-2005.jpg


Patent Number 247512
Indian Patent Application Number 2331/KOLNP/2005
PG Journal Number 16/2011
Publication Date 22-Apr-2011
Grant Date 13-Apr-2011
Date of Filing 22-Nov-2005
Name of Patentee OILES CORPORATION
Applicant Address 30-5, HAMAMATSU-CHO 1-CHOME, MINATO-KU, TOKYO 105-8584, JAPAN
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 TAKAMURA SATOSHI C/O OILES CORPORATION, FUJISAWA PLANT, 8, KIRIHARA-CHO, FUJISAWA-SHI, KANAGAWA 252-0811, JAPAN
2 NAKASHIMA KUNIO C/O CHUETSU METAL WORKS CO., LTD. 1-1, NISHIASHIHARASHIN, TATEYAMA-MACHI, NAKANIKAWA-GUN, TOYAMA 930-0298, JAPAN
3 YAGO WATARU C/O CHUETSU METAL WORKS CO., LTD. 1-1, NISHIASHIHARASHIN, TATEYAMA-MACHI, NAKANIKAWA-GUN, TOYAMA 930-0298, JAPAN
4 ICHIDA KENICHI C/O CHUETSU METAL WORKS CO., LTD. 1-1, NISHIASHIHARASHIN, TATEYAMA-MACHI, NAKANIKAWA-GUN, TOYAMA 930-0298, JAPAN
5 NAKAMARU TAKASHI C/O OILES CORPORATION, FUJISAWA-SHI, KANAGAWA 252-0811, JAPAN
6 YASUKAWA ATSUSHI C/O CHUETSU METAL WORKS CO., LTD. 1-1, NISHIASHIHARASHIN, TATEYAMA-MACHI, NAKANIKAWA-GUN, TOYAMA 930-0298, JAPAN
7 ABURATANI SHIGEYUKI C/O CHUETSU METAL WORKS CO., LTD. 1-1, NISHIASHIHARASHIN, TATEYAMA-MACHI, NAKANIKAWA-GUN, TOYAMA 930-0298, JAPAN
PCT International Classification Number F16D 23/06
PCT International Application Number PCT/JP2004/007937
PCT International Filing date 2004-06-07
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 2003-165707 2003-06-10 Japan