Title of Invention

A METHOD FOR FUNCTIONALLY CONNECTING A FIRST MEMBER AND A SECOND MEMBER

Abstract A method for preparing a more feliable connection between two members (2, 4) is provided. The method involve the use wd use of a gas removal layers (6), which allows for gas transport in a number of overall directions in a plane of the gas-removal layer.the gadafj gas removal layer comprises a resin (12) and during consolidation the gas removal layer is deformed to form a collection substantially hhdcsj free from entrapped gas wids Further more, a gas removal layer is provided as well as a mould for casting of gas removal layers shgws and a method for preparing such a mould. The method and the gas removal layere provided are particularly useful for manufacturing gsdxaj of wind turbine blades and spars for such blades. fry ga
Full Text WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
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CONNECTION BETWEEN MEMBERS
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to connecting of members such as members comprising resin
and fibres. In particular, the invention relates to removal of gas from the interface
between the members during preparation of the connection.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
It is a demand within the field of structural composites to produce still larger composite
structures. The size of wind turbine blades and spars for wind turbine blades is for
example constantly being increased to an extent where preparation of one-piece
members requires unacceptable resources. Such resources may for example be large
processing times during laying of layers and large production facilities with regard to
apparatus size and space requirements. It is therefore desirable to prepare the
composite structures in smaller members and connect these members to form the final
structure at a later stage and/or facility.
Members to be connected may be non-cured, partially cured such as pre-consolidate
or fully cured, respectively- In general, the members are becoming increasingly rigid
with the degree of curing.
Experimental work has shown that presence of voids in the interface between
connected members Is detrimental to the mechanical performance of the connection.
As a part of the connecting procedure it is therefore typically attempted to remove gas
from the interface. However, if at least one of the members is not rigid, i.e. not fully
cured, a significant risk remains that gas may be entrapped between ihe members
without any chance of removing it by for example applying a vacuum.
This is for example the situation in GB 2 378 995 A, where a connection between two
members via a compressible composite material is disclosed. The compressible
composite comprises a fibrous material and a resinous material The bulk of the
compressible composite is substantially devoid of air void. In use, the compressible
CONFIRMATION COPY

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composite memDer is piaced between the members to be connected and then formed
to resemble the shape of the^gab^etween the members by forcing the resinous
material to leave the compressible composite. As the composite structure between the
members are substantially devoid of air voids and reinforced by fibres, it may typically
possess a high mechanical strength, but the preparation method does not take into
account the aforementioned substantial risk of entrapment of gas between the
individual member and the composite structure. The weak region of the combined
structure as described in GB 2 378 995 A is hence the interfaces between the
compressible composite material and each of the members.
When the connection is furthermore bearing a load, such as most connections
between members reinforced by unidirectional fibres in the longitudinal direction of the
fibres, the sensitivity towards voids in the interface represents a major course of lack
of process reliability,
There is therefore an urgent need for a method of connecting members without the
risk of having voids in the interface. Furthermore, the connection between the
members should be highly reproducible and reliable and possess good mechanical
strength.
, WO 02/081189 concerns a bonding material for improving the bond between elements
having epoxy based and polyester based resins, respectively. A ventilating structure is
formed by reinforcement arranged on a resin film of the bonding material.
DE 39 06 872 concerns a method and an apparatus for continuous manufacturing of
thermoplastic film with dots of hot melt resin. No other support structure for the hot
melt dots is suggested. The dots are formed by an engraver roll and transferred to the
thermoplastic film in a continuous process,
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
It is the object of the invention to provide a more reliable connection between
members comprising resin and fibres.
AMENDED SHEET

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2a
The above and other objects of the invention may be realised by a method comprising
the steps of:
- providing a first member;
- providing a second member adjacent to said first member;
- providing a gas-removal layer in at least a part of an interface between said
first member and said second member, said gas-removal layer allows for gas
transport in a number of overall directions in a plane of said gas-removal layer
and said gas-removal layer comprising a resin;
- removing gas from said interface between said first member and said second
member via said gas-removal layer;
AMENDED SHEET

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- deforming said gas-removal layer and
- consolidating and/or curing said interface.
The first member and/or the second member may optionally be co-consolidating
and/or co-cured together with the interface.
The first and the second member preferably comprise a first and a second resin and a
first and a second type fibres, respectively. The members may also comprise for
example fillers and/or other elements known in the art to be addable to such
composite members.
The resin comprised in the gas-removal layer will be denoted third resin to distinguish
it from the first and the second resin.
The first, the second and the third resin, respectively, may be based on for example
unsaturated polyester, polyurethane, vinyl ester, epoxy, thermoplastics, similar
chemical compounds or combinations of these. In a preferred embodiment, the
composition of the invention of the third resin is compatible to first and the second
resin. In another preferred embodiment, the first and the second resin have
substantially the same composition. The third resin may or may not have substantially
the same composition as the first resin and/or the second resin. By having
substantially the same composition with respect to resin composition is meant that at
least one of the main components of the resins is the same. In a preferred
embodiment, the first, the second and the third resin are based on one or more epoxy
compositions, Actual formulations of relevant resins are well known in the art.
The first and the second type fibres, respectively, may be based on for example one or
more fibre types selected from the group consisting of carbon fibres, glass fibres,
aramid fibres, synthetic fibres (e.g. acrylic, polyester, PAN, PET, PE, PP or PBO-
fibres, etc.), bio fibres (e.g. hemp, jute, cellulose fibres, etc.), mineral fibres (e.g.
Rockwool™, etc.), metal fibres (e.g. steel, aluminium, brass, copper, etc.), boron fibres
and combinations of two or more of these. In a preferred embodiment, the first and the
second type fibres are the same. In a more preferred embodiment, ihe fibres are
mainly carbon fibres,

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The fibres comprised in the members may have an oriented (e.g. uniaxtal, biaxial or
multtaxial) and/or a random distribution, however, it is preferred that the fibres are
mainly oriented. If one or more of the members is a laminated composite, the
orientation of the individual layers comprising fibres may or may not be the same. In a
preferred embodiment, the load-bearing fibres are mainly oriented unidirectionally in a
longitudinal direction. In a more preferable embodiment of the present invention, the
members are connected to efficiently extend the length of the unidirectional fibres, i.e.
in the longitudinal direction of the fibres.
The fibres comprised in the members may be provided as for example individual or
groups of fibres, fibre tows, tow pregs, woven or non-woven fabrics, mats, semi-pregs,
prepregs, pre-forms or a combination of two or more of these.
The members to be connected may be either unconsolidated or at least partially
consolidated. By consolidated is meant that most (preferably all) gas has been
removed from inside the member. The consolidation may for example involve heating
and/or pressing and/or applying a vacuum. The consolidation may optionally involve
partially or fully curing of the member. In a preferred embodiment, at least one of the
members is pre-consolidated. An example of an unconsolidated structure within the
scope of members relevant to the present invention is a pre-form as disclosed in
PCT/EP03/02293 incorporated herein by reference. An example of an at least partially
consolidated pre-form is a pre-consolidated pre-form as disclosed in PCT/EP03/02292
incorporated herein by reference. However, a person skilled in the art will know and be
abie to prepare many other types of members within the scope of members relevant
for connecting by the method according to the present invention.
The members to be connected may be uncured, partially cured or fully cured,
respectively, however, the advantage of the present invention is typically more
pronounced for uncured or partially cured members than for fully cured members. This
is mainly due to the rigidity of a member increasing with the degree of curing, but the
stickiness of the member also tends to decrease with increasing degree of curing. In
other words, it is more likely io form gas voids at the interface if the resin of the
member has a low degree of curing than if the resin of the member has a high degree
of curing.

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Even though the term cured typically refers to thermosetting resins, the present
invention is not limited to thermosetting resins. A member comprising a thermoplastic
resin may be connected to one or more members comprising thermoplastic and/or
thsrrnosetting resins, by the method according to the invention without departing from
the inventive idea.
The group of members relevant to the present invention is hence any uncured,
partially cured or fully cured; unconsolidated, partially consolidated or fully
consolidated composite member, which requires connection to another member.
It should be observed that it is within the scope of the invention to connect a member
as described hereinbefore to any type of structure using the claimed method.
By gas is herein meant entrapped atmospheric air as well as gaseous products, by-
products and starting materials related to the preparation process.
An essential feature of the present invention is the use of a gas-removal layer
comprising a third resin. The gas-removal layer comprises a geometrical structure,
which allows for removal of gas during processing of the connection, preferably at
least during initiation of the consolidation and/or the cun'ng of the connection. The gas-
removal layer should preferably be allowed for gas transport in a number of overall
directions at least in a plane of said gas-remova! layer for example to control and/or
prevent or diminish orientation effects, in a preferred embodiment, gas is allowed to
move in any overall direction in a plane of said gas-removal layer. In a preferred
embodiment, the gas-removal layer comprises essentially a resin, i.e. third resin, with
a geometrical structure, which allows the removal of gas.
In a preferred embodiment, the gas transportation network of the gas-removal layer
comprises a number of third resin volumes forming a three-dimensional landscape
with many mountains separated from each other. The gas transportation network
hence being formed by the volume between the mountains or peaks. The Ihird resin
volumes may or may not be interconnected., Interconnected third resin volumes may
for example be connected to 3 support as discussed below. Third resin volumes not
being interconnected may for example be a collection of particles provided directly in
the interface between the first and the second member as discussed below. In the
following, the term independent third resin volumes will denote a number of

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interconnected or not interconnected third resin volumes forming a three-dimensional
landscape with a gas transportation network in at least two dimensions.
By gas transport in an overall direction is meant movement parallel to a direction from
side to side of the gas-removal layer. Hence, the overall direction does not refer to the
direction within the gas-removal layer on a local scale where some parts may be
closed off. The requirement that the gas-rernovaJ layer should allow for gas transport-
in a number of overall directions should only refer to the situation prior to the initiation
of the consolidation and/or curing. However, the gas-removal layer should stay open
for an extended period of time to ensure a thorough removal of gas, for example in the
beginning of the consolidation and/or curing process.
By a plane of the gas-removal layer is meant an imaginary layer substantially parallel
to a main surface of the gas-removal layer on a local scale. Hence, if the gas-removal
layer is applied on a curved surface, such as a part of an outer surface of a
polyhedron, said plane may also be curved.
To just appreciate the present invention it is crucial to recognise the difference
between preparing of an individual member and connection of such members.
Channels for transporting gas is known from the art of preparing members comprising
fibres and a resia In WO02/094564A1, GB2376660A and WO02/090089A1 examples
of venting structures are disclosed. However, all of these venting structures require
interaction with a fibrous material to realise sufficient venting effect. In a member, this
is not a problem as fibrous material is typically present anyway, and in some cases the
fibrous material may contribute to the reinforcement of the member. When connecting
two members, the situation is completely different, The introduction of a fibrous layer
with sufficient thickness to effect the venting of the gas is often disadvantageous as
the fibres typically are oriented in the plane of the interface and hence do not
contribute to the mechanical strength of the connection. In many cases, the
introduction of such a layer may even weaken the connection as the distance between
the load-bearing fibres of the members are separated with a greater distance if the
fibres are present than if the fibres are not present. The methods for venting gas
Known from the art of preparing members will hence not lead to a reliable product if
used for connecting members.

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The method according to the present invention provides a venting structure without
having the need for introduction of a fibrous material into the interface between the
members. Furthermore, the method according to the present invention is easy and fast
to manufacture as will bs discussed below.
The gas-removal layer may comprise fibrous material. If fibrous material is present, the
main purpose of the fibrous material is typically to act as a carrier of the Independent
third resin volumes prior to the consolidation and/or curing of the third resin. The fibre
content is hence low compared to situations where the main purpose of the fibrous
material is to act as reinforcement or as means for gas transportation. Typically, the
fibre content should be below about 25 weight-% and preferably below about 10
weight-%.
In a preferred embodiment, however, fibrous material is included in the gas-removal
layer to provide potential equalising between the members to be connected. This is
particularly relevant when the members are conductive or comprise conductive fibres.,
The main purpose for including fibrous material may in such cases be the potential
equalising or a combination of potential equalising and support of the independent
third resin volumes.
The removal of gas from the interface between the members may for example be
realised via a vacuum applied on the interface, by mechanically forcing the gas out of
the interface, by chemically reacting at least part of the gas or by a combination of at
least two of these methods. If a vacuum method is applied, it is preferred to include the
step of providing a vacuum enclosure encompassing said interface and optionally said
first member and/or said second member. In a preferred embodiment, the vacuum
enclosure is flexible such that the consolidation may be enhanced by pressing on the
interface and optionally said first member and/or said second member for example via
a vacuum inside the vacuum enclosure or by an external press. Mechanical forcing out
the gas may for example be realised by an external press, for example by substantially
the same pressure on the entire surface or by a sweeping and/or increasing pressure
on the interface, which method may force the gas to one end of the interface.
The deformation of the gas-removal layer is intended to remove or diminish the open
volume of the gas-removal layer. This may for example be realised by temporarily
overcoming the viscosity of the third resin for example by mechanical pressure or -

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preferably - decreasing the viscosity of the third resin by heating. The lowering of the
viscosity allows for the gas-removal layer to flow or melt together, thereby reducing the
open volume of the gas-removal layer. In a preferred embodiment, the decreasing of
the viscosity is controlled to ensure thai the decreasing of the viscosity takes place in a
zone moving through the interface; _ This may ensure that the gas transport may
proceed from the zone to an outer surface during the moving of the rone. The deformation may also be realised at least partially by plastically deforming the
gas-removal layer by an external force such as via a vacuum in a vacuum enclosure or
by a press. The deformation rate of the gas-removal layer is particularly high when a
decrease of the viscosity of the third resin is combined with an external force.
In a preferred embodiment, the deforming of the gas-removal layer takes place
gradually starting away from a gas exit and ending near or at a gas exit. This
procedure is advantageous as it reduces the risk that gas may become entrapped
inside the gas-removal layer as the layer is deformed and the open volume is
removed. This may for example be realised by heating the interface inhomogeneously
thereby providing a heated zone moving through the interface. In the heated zone, and
optionally behind it, the viscosity and/or the mechanical pressure is sufficient to deform
the gas-removal layer, whereas the part of the interface In front of the heated zone is
only affected to a limited extent. The gas transportation network is hence open in front
of the heated zone and the gas may be very efficiently removed from the interface.
The thickness of the deformed gas-removal layer after complete consolidation and/or
curing is typically in the order of 100um to 500um and preferably in the order of 200pm
to 300um, however, layers having much greater thickness such as 1 to 2mm may also
be feasible- The thick layers may for example be useful when relatively rigid members
are connected, particularly if the members do not fit very well together. The thin layers
are particularly feasible when at least one of the members to be connected is relatively
soft and hence may comply closely with the other member.
The viscosity of the third resin is important to the inventive concept. The viscosity at
room temperature should be sufficiently high to ensure, that the individual third resin
volumes possess sufficient mechanical strength to sustain gas permeability (i.e.
keeping the gas transportation network open) under vacuum, preferably at least for a
period of time in the order of minutes. This will typically correspond to the third resin

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being solid or semi-solid at room temperature. During consolidation, the viscosity will
usually be lowered. This may for example be realised by heating. It is important, that
the connection is consolidated, i.e. the gas is removed, before the curing has finished.
Preferably, the consolidation is substantially finished before the main curing takes
place. In a preferred embodiment, the gas-removal layer is heated gradually in the
interface between the first End the second member to realise the desired deformation
and consolidation in the gas-removal layer by gradually heating the interface. As the
temperature is raised, the viscosity of the third resin will usually decrease until the
curing reaction dominates and the viscosity increases again. In a preferred
embodiment using an epoxy-based third resin, the lowest viscosity is realised at about
80 to 90°C and the minimum viscosity is in the order of 10,000 to 1,000,000 cP such
as about 100,000 cP. However, both higher and lower viscosity values may be
desirable in some cases.
In a preferred embodiment, the third resin wets at least some of the surrounding
material such as the first and the second member and the elements of these during
the deformation of said gas-removal layer. This is preferable since if the third resin
wets surrounding material, a stronger binding to this material is obtained.
In a preferred embodiment, extra resin is provided to the interface between the first
member and the second member. The extra resin may in a preferred embodiment be
proved with the gas-removal layer, i.e. on the same time as the gas-removal layer is
provided, in a particularly preferred embodiment, the extra resin may be an integrated
part of the gas-removal layer such as a part of the structure making up a gas
transportation network. It is particularly important to provide extra resin, if the members
are not completely wet by their respective resins, as wetting of the fibres are needed to
realise the maximum mechanical strength of the final composite structure.
In another preferred embodiment, excess resin is removed from the interface and/or
nearby parts of the members during the deformation of the gas-removal layer.
Generally speaking, the resin is not as strong as the fibre-reinforced members and if
too much resin is present near the interface, removal of excess resin may increase the
mechanical performance of the interface and hence of the final connection. The
excess resin may for example be removed through the gas-removal layer if the resin
melted as a part of the consolidation process.

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In a preferred embodiment, the gas transportation network is mainly formed by the
space between independent three-dimensional volumes of the third resin. Hence, a
transportation network having a very high number of transportation channels are
provided. Due lo the network il is much less likely that gas will be trapped within the
interface without a route to escape. In a more preferred embodiment, the network is
formed substantially by the space between independent three-dimensional volumes of
said third resin, and in another preferred embodiment, the network is formed solely by
the space between independent three-dimensional volumes of said third resin.
The volumes of third resin may take a vast number of shapes such as cylinders,
cones, spheres, cubes, cylinders and cones having a polygonal cross section, irregular
lumps, etc. A person skilled in the art will be able to derive a number of relevant
shapes on the basis of the present invention.. Lines of third resin - particularly if a
network of lines is distributed - may provide for a gas transport in a number of overall
directions. However, a gas-removal layer comprising only parallel lines of third resin is
disadvantageous as it is likely that one or more of the channels are closed off before
all gas has been removed, hence leading to entrapment of gas as no alternative gas-
removal route is present. This type of gas-entrapment is much less likely when
independent volumes of third resin are used, as a number of alternative gas-removal
routes will be present until a late stage of the consolidation and/or curing process.
The individual volumes of third resin may be distributed randomly or in a systematic
method. Examples of systematic methods are trigonal, hexagonal and tetragonal
geometries, straight, curved, open or closed lines and any combination of these. The
size, height and distribution including distance between the individual volumes of third
resin may vary in broad ranges mainly depending on conditions like for example the
rigidity of the members to be connected (e.g. the less rigid the members, the taller the
volumes of third resin and/or the shorter the distance between the individual volumes
of third resin) and the viscosity of the third resin (e.g. the lower the viscosity of third
resin, the taller the volumes of third resin and/or the shorter the distance between the
individual volumes of third resin). If vacuum is applied then the volumes should have
sufficiently structural strength to be able to keep the transportation network open at
least at room temperature. The height of the volumes and the distance between the
individual volumes should ensure that the transportation network is open at the
initiation of the consolidation and/or curing reaction to ensure removal of gas. It may
be possible to derive empirical formulas for establishing the optimum conditions in a

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given situation, however, such conditions may also be derived by systematic and/or
trial-and-error experimental work, which may be performed by a person skilled in the
art
The gas-removal layer may be provided in a number of ways dependent on for
example the degree of automation and the size of the members. In a firsl embodiment,
the gas-removal layer is provided by a method comprising the following steps:
- providing an at least semi-solid third resin, optionally by cooling;
- dividing said third resin to obtain an at least semi-solid third resin granulate;
- distributing said at least semi-solid third resin granulate to form a gas-removal
layer having a gas transportation network, which provides for gas
transportation in a number of overall direction in a plane of said gas-rernoval
layer.
By at least semi-solid is meant semi-solid or solid. By semi-so!id is meant a highly
viscous fluid or a soft solid.
By granulate is meant discrete particles of third resin of any regular or irregular shape
and size,. Granulate shapes may for example be spherical, polygonal, cylindrical, plate-
like, cigar-like, chip-like, semi-spherical or a combination of any of these. However, the
shapes are not limited to these examples and a person skilled in the art will be able to
give more examples of possible shapes. The individual granulate particles may have
similar shape and size, however, this is not a requirement in a preferred embodiment,
a range of shapes and/or sizes of granulate particles are utilised in the preparation of
one connection.
By this embodiment, a very simple method of obtaining a gas-removal layer having a
gas transportation network is provided. The dividing of the third resin may involve any
known technique for dividing a solid or semi-solid third resin, such as for example
cutting, grinding, grating or rubbing. Alternatively, the granulate may be formed as an
integrated part of the formulation of the third resin such as e.g. forming of granulate
particles from a liquid prior to solidification.
If the third resin is sticky at room temperature it may advantageously be stored at
reduced temperature. When the third resin heats to room temperature, the sticky

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nature of such a third resin may then help to fix the connection in position until the
curing of the interface.
The dividing and the distributing of the third resin may easily be automated for
example by robotics and this embodiment may hence be easy snd fast to
manufacture.
In a second embodiment, the gas-removal layer is provided by a method comprising
the following steps:
- providing a liquid third resin, optionally by heating;
- distributing said liquid third resin to form a gas-removal layer having a gas
transportation network, which provides for gas transportation in a number of
overall directions in a plane of said gas-removal layer;
- optionally cooling and/or reacting said third resin to an at least semi-solid state.
By applying the third resin in a liquid state, it is easier to control the size and/or the
distribution of the third resin to realise the desired gas-removal layer. The third resin
may for example be applied as dots, areas, lines, etc. The distribution may be random
or organised.
If the third resin is liquid at room temperature and the chosen method involves
providing a vacuum on the interface, it is preferred to apply the vacuum on the
interface while the third resin is in an at least semi-solid state to prevent premature
deformation of the gas transportation network.
In a preferred embodiment of the above methods for providing a gas-removal layer,
the third resin is distributed directly in the interface between said first member and said
second member. In a more preferred embodiment, the third resin is distributed directly
on at least one of said first and second members before connecting said first and
second member. This method is particularly suited for a fully automated process, for
example by robotics.
In another preferred embodiment of the above methods for providing a gas-removal
layer, the third resin is provided on a support, which is later introduced into the
interface. This may be advantageous, if the gas-removal layer is prepared in advance
to or at another location than the connection of the members. The parts for the

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connection may then be prepared at a central facility, whereas the actual formation of
the connection may take place at the site of the final application of the composite
structure.
This may for example be realised by the following steps:
- providing a support in connection with said third resin to enhance handling of
said gas-removal layer
- optionally heal said gas-removal layer to provide for a stronger binding
between said support and said third resin;
said support is a sheet-like member mainly comprising a resin and/or a fibrous
material, like for example a woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a semi-preg, a
web or sheet of resin and/or fibres, a^ejl, a release paper, etc.
The optional heating to provide a stronger binding is particularly relevant if the third
resin is unsticky at room temperature. In many cases, the sticky nature of the third
resin will be sufficient to hold the cover sheet connected to the gas-removal layer. It is
preferred but not required that the support is flexible as this may facilitate the
adjustment of the shape of the gas-removal layer to the shape of the interface.
In a preferred embodiment, the support consists of a resin, which may or may not have
the same composition as the third or any other of the resins. This embodiment is
advantageous in that it does not introduce fibrous material into the interface during
establishing of the connection. The support resin is preferably shaped as a sheet or as
a web. By web is meant lines of resin forming an at least two-dimensional network.
By veil is for example meant a non-woven, open, gas permeable web_pf randomly
distributed carbon fibres held together by an organic binder. An example of a relevant
veil is a carbon veil.
The support material may or may not be separated from the gas-removal layer when
the aas-removal layer is applied.
In a third embodiment for providing a gas-removal layer, the gas-removal layer is
provided by a casting technique preferably comprising the following steps:
- providing a mould, said mould does not stick significantly to the third resin;

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- casting a gas-removal layer having a gas transportation network, which
provides for gas transportation in a number of overall directions in a plane of
said gas-removal layer, and
- optionally providing a support to enhance handling of said gas-removal layer,
said support is a sheet-like member mainly comprising a resin and/or a fibrous
material, like for example a woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a semi-
preg, a web or sheet of resin and/or fibres, a veil, a release paper, etc.
Examples of relevant moulds are silicons or coated metal moulds. An easy way to
prepare a mould is to prepare a positive image of the desired gas-removat layer and
subsequent make a cast using a silicons material. When the silicone is cured, the
silicone may be used as a mould. Other ways to prepare moulds and other types of
moulds are known in the art and gas-removal layers prepared by such moulds are
hence within the scope of the invention.
The production of cast gas-removal layers may advantageously be automated as well
as preparing of a connection using a cast gas-removal layer for connecting two
members,.
In a preferred embodiment, the mould provides for formation of a network between the
parts making up the gas transportation network- This may for example be formed as a
web or as a continuous or non-continuous sheet, however, the web or the non-
continuous sheet is preferred.
Alternatively, a support equivalent to that described above may be applied prior to or
after the casting. In a preferred embodiment, an open web of fibres is applied to the
mould prior to the casting and hence a very strong connection between the fibres and
the cast third resin may be realised. The open web may for example be a veil, a woven
or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a semi-preg, fibre tows or tow-pregs.
Any of the above embodiments for providing a gas-removal layer may further comprise
the step of providing a cover sheet on the gas-removal layer to form a sandwich gas-
removal layer for enhanced handling. The cover sheet may for example by a sheet-like
member mainly comprising a resin and/or a fibrous material, like for example a woven
or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a semi-preg, a web or sheet of resin and/or fibres, a
veil or a release paper.

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The cover sheet may or may not be of the same type as the optional support Such a
sandwich gas-removal layer is well suited for shipping and/or storing, as the risk of
stacked sandwich gas-removal layers sticking together is reduced compared to the
gas-removal layers without the cover sheet Furthermore, some of ths chemical
substances in resins are hazardous and a cover sheet may reduce the amount of
direct contact
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the gas-removal layer is provided as an
integrated part of at least one of said first and second members. The gas-remova!
layer may for example advantageously be provided on the member as a part of the
preparation of the member. This may save time and equipment for the connection
procedure.
In another aspect, the invention provides a gas-removal layer, which comprises a
support supporting a third resin, the third resin has a gas transportation network and
said gas transportation network provides for gas transportation in a number of overall
directions in a plane of said gas-removal layer. Such a gas-removal layer is particularly
suited for removal of gas from the interface between two members to be connected as
discussed hereinbefore. In a preferred embodiment, the gas-removal layer is flexible to
ensure that it may conform to the members to be connected.
in a preferred embodiment, the gas transportation network is mainly formed by the
space between independent three-dimensional volumes of the third resin as this is a
very simple and yet highly functional design as discussed hereinbefore.
The support member is preferably a sheet-like member mainly comprising a resin
and/or a fibrous material, like for example a woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a
serni-preg, a web or sheet of resin and/or fibres, a veil or a release paper. In a
preferred embodiment, the support member consists of resin and the support member
may hence be applied to a connection without introducing fibrous material.
In a preferred embodiment of the gas-removal layer, the gas-removal layer further
comprises a cover sheet The cover sheet may or may not be of the same type as the
support member. A cover sheet enhances the handleability of the gas-removal layer
and particularly the storage and shipping properties are enhanced, as the layers with

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
16
cover sheets are less prone to stick together even if they have been placed directly on
top of each other.
!n another aspect of the present invention, a small amount of dry or partially
impregnated Fibres or fibre-tows are integrated into a gas-removal layer as described
hereinbefore to form a combined gas-removal layer. The fibres may hence provide for
a limited gas transportation, however, the gas transportation via the gas transportation
network formed by independent third resin volumes should be dominant and the fibre
content should be below about 25 weight-% and preferably below about 10 weight-%.
In a preferred embodiment, the fibres are mainly oriented in the preferred gas-removal
direction or directions. Examples of relevant fibres are the fibres mentioned
hereinbefore in relation to first type fibres and second type fibres, however, it is
preferred to use glass fibre and/or carbon fibres.
If one or both of the members to be connected comprises conductive material such as
carbon fibres, there is a risk that flashover between the members may take place,
unless the potential on the two sides of the interface is equalised. It is therefore highly
desirable to provide an electrical conductive connection, which will ensure potential
equalising across the interface. In a preferred embodiment, a potential equaliser is
integrated with the gas-removal layer. The electrical connection may for example be
realised via electrically conductive fibres, such as carbon fibres, or a metal, however, it
is preferred that the potential equaliser comprises carbon fibres.
The electrical connection between the members will typically go around the gas-
removal layer or through the gas-removal layer. An example of an electrical
connection going around the gas-removal layer is a tow or tow-preg comprising carbon
fibres wound around the gas-removal layer, e.g. in a helix pattern or equivalent, prior
to providing the gas-removal layer in the interface. An electrical connection going
through the gas-removal layer may for example comprise carbon fibres and/or metal
pieces stitched or in another way applied through the gas-removal layer. Experimental
results have shown that an electrical connection through the gas-removal layer may
also be realised by using a carbon veil as support and/or cover sheet An electrical
connection is easiest provided in relation to the gas-removal layer when the gas-
removal layer comprises a support and/or a cover sheet. It should be observed ihat
the electrical connection does not need to be established until during the curing of the
structure. In case of the gas-removal layer, it should hence be considered that the gas-

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
17
removal layer is highly deformed during the consolidation and/or curing of the
interface, where the distance between the members is reduced and the connection
may often relatively easy be established during this.
The gas-rernoval layers according to the present invention is particularly useful for
removal of gas from an interface between a first member and a second member during
preparation of a connection between the members, as it has been described
previously. Particularly, the gas-removal layer is useful when at least one of the
members is non-rigid.
The gas-removal layer and the method according to the present invention are
particularly useful for preparing of a wind turbine blade and particularly a spar for a
wind turbine blade and a shell for a wind turbine blade as these composite structures
are very long parts, which may advantageously be prepared in smaller sections that
are later combined. Furthermore, these composite structures are load-bearing, and
good mechanical quality and reproducibility, which are some of the advantages of the
present invention, are detrimental to the performance of the final structures.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to particularly
preferred embodiments as well as the drawings, in which
Fig. 1 shows two members and a gas-removal layer,
Fig. 2 shows a gas-removal layer,
Fig. 3 shows a member with an integrated gas-removal layer,
Fig. 4 shows a mould and a cast gas-removal layer, and
Fig. 5 shows a mould for castinq of a gas-removal layer with a support web.

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
18
All the figures are highly schematic and not necessarily to scale, and they show only
parts which are necessary in order to elucidate the invention, other parts being omitted
or merely suggested.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In Fig. I, the first member 2 and the second membsr 4 to be connected are shown.
The interface angle a is the angle between the face, which wilt be the interface 6
between the first and the second member when connected, and a side of the first
member 2. In Fig. 1, a is drawn with an angle considerably smaller than 90°. If a is
decreased, the area of the interface 8 is increased, which will usually lead to a
stronger connection if the interface is free from gas voids. In a preferred embodiment,
a is less than about 10° but an even better connection may by obtained when the
angle is less than about 2°. If the members comprise fibres, which are very stiff such
as carbon fibres, a may in some cases advantageously be as low as 0.5° to 1 ° or even
lower. This is particularly advantageous when the members are reinforced by
unidirectional fibres via the connection. The low a angles may then allow for side-by-
side connection between the fibres of the first and the second members, which are
preferable compared to end-to-end connection realised with larger a angles.
A gas-removal layer 6 is shown between the members 2, 4, The gas-removal layer
has a number of independent third resin volumes 12 forming a gas transportation
network and a support 10. The main task of the support 10 is to fix the relative
positioning of the independent third resin volumes. The number of third resin volumes
12 has been reduced for reasons of clarity. Typical values with regard to size of the
independent third resin volumes are height of about 1 to 3 mm with a diameter of
about 4 to 6 mm and separated by about 10 mm between the centres. However, the
size and separation may vary considerably dependent on viscosity of the third resin
and the properties of the members (e.g. rigidity). The height may for example vary
between about 0.1 mrn to 5 cm or even more, the separation may for example van,'
between about 1 mm to 20 cm or even more and the diameter may for example vary'
between about I mm to 5 cm or even more. The geometrical shape of the independent
third resin volumes may in principle be any shape as long as it allows for formation of
a gas transportation network, however, simple geometrical shapes such as spheres,
semi-spheres, cylinders, cones, cubes or truncated geometrical shapes are preferred-

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
19
The size and separation of the individual independent third resin volumes may be the
same for all the third resin volumes or it may vary. For example the height of the third
resin volumes are larger near the gas exit in a preferred embodiment.
in Fig. I, it is indicated that the connection will lead to a linear extension of the first
member. Other types of feasible connections are for example T-connections (i.e.
where a member is connected substantially orthogonally to another member), L-
connections (i.e. where a member is connected substantially orthogonally to another
member near or at the end), Y-connections (i.e. where two or more members are
connected at an angle different from 90°), face-to-face (i.e. where two main surfaces of
the members are connected). A person skilled in the art will based on these examples
be able to derive other feasible applications of the method according to the invention,.
In Fig. 2, a gas-removal layer 6 with a cover sheet 14 is shown. The cover sheet may
for example be a release paper or comprise a fibrous and/or a resinous material.
Typically, the main task of the cover sheet is to enhance handling of the gas-removal
layer. However, the cover sheet may serve other purposes such as for example allow
for stacking of gas-removal layers during transportation and/or storage or protecting
the independent third resin volumes from damage (e.g, mechanical, chemical, thermal,
etc.). The cover sheet may or may not be removed prior to the formation of the
connection.
In a preferred embodiment particularly suitable for connecting electrically conductive
members or members comprising electrically conductive fibres, the support 10 and the
cover sheet 14 comprise an open web of conductive fibrous material. The web may for
example be a carbon veil or another material possessing equivalent relevant
properties.
In Fig. 3, a first member 2 with an integrated gas-removal layer 6 is shown. In a
preferred embodiment, the independent third resin volumes 12 of the gas-removal
layer 6 are distributed on an interfacing part of the member as one of the final steps of
the member preparation. This may save considerable amounts of time and equipment
in preparing the connection as equipment being able to distribute the independent third
resin volumes 12 is often used during the manufacturing of the members. The member
2 with integrated gas-removal layer 6 as shown in Fig. 3 may be connected to a
member with or without an integrated gas-removal layer. In a preferred embodiment

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
20
(not shown), the a cover sheet and/or a support is further provided with the integrated
gas-removal layer for example to enhance handling and/or potential equalising
between the members to bs connected.
In Fig. 4, an example of a mould 20 for casting of gas-removal fevers are shown. In
Fig. 4A, the mould 20 is obsen/ed from a topside perspective. A number of
depressions 22 are visible in the inner mould surface 26. The mould may be rigid or
flexible and preferably the inner mould surface 26 should not stick to the third resin of
the gas-removal layer. In Fig. 4B, the cast gas-removal layer 6 is observed. The gas-
removal layer may for example be prepared by distributing a third resin such as an
epoxy resin into the depressions 22 in the mould 20 shown in Fig. 4A by gravity or with
the use of a suitable tool such as a spatula or a filling knife. In a preferred
embodiment, the third resin will substantially only be present in the depressions. Then
the support is placed on the mould in contact to the third resin and after solidification of
the third resin (e.g. by cooling) the gas-removal layer may be removed. If a flexible
mould is used, the mould may be bent to enhance release of the gas-removal layer.
The depressions 22 in Fig. 4A are hence forming the independent third resin volumes
12. The independent third resin volumes 12 are held together by a support layer 10,
which for instance may be a carbon veil or another suitable material as discussed
elsewhere. In Fig.. 4C, a cross section through some depressions 22 of the mould 20 is
shown. The depressions 22 of the mould 20 shown in Fig. 4A are distributed in rows,
however, most other types of distributions are feasible including regular patterns like
hexagonal, trigonal, tetragonal and irregular patterns. It is, however, required that the
relationship between the shape, size and distribution of the independent third resin
volumes provides for the formation of a gas transportation network that is open at least
on the initiation of the gas-removal process. In Fig. 4D, a cross section of the gas-
rernoval layer 6 is shown. It is observed that the independent third resin volumes 10
are held together by the support 12.
In Fig. 5, a mould 20 with a third resin indicated by hatched areas is shown. The mould
is suitable for preparing a gas-removal layer having a support web 30 for connecting
the independent third resin volumes 12. In Fig. 5A, a top view of the mould 20 is
shown. The independent third resin volumes 12 are cylindrical depressions 22 (but any
other castable geometry or combination of geometries is feasible such as e.g. inverted
cones, semi-spheres, cubes, etc.) into the inner mould surface 26. The support web 30
for holding the independent third resin volumes 12 together is prepared in channels

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
21
between the third resin volumes 12 but other castabie geometries are feasible. It
should be noted that the support web 30 is within the scope of the support element
mentioned hereinbefore. In Fig. 5B, a cross section along the line B-B in Fig. 5A is
shown. The support web 30 for connecting (he independent third resin volumes is
observed as relativsly narrow depressions into the inner mould surface 26. In Fig. 5C,
a cross section along the line C-C in Fig. 5A is shown. The independent third resin
volumes 12 are observed without any connection between them in this cross section.
In Fig. 5D, a cross section along the line D-D in Fig. 5A is shown. Here, both the
independent third resin volumes 12 and the web 30 for connecting the independent
third resin volumes are observed.
In a preferred embodiment, a mould for casting of a gas-removal layer, such moulds
as those shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, comprises:
- an inner mould surface, and
- a number of depressions in the mould surface resembling the desired independent
third resin volumes to be cast
The mould may be rigid with an easy release surface and/or coating or flexible with
non-sticking surface, however, it is preferred that the mould is flexible and more
preferably the mould is made from a silicone-based material or a material having
similar properties.
The mould may further comprise a number of channels connecting at least two of the
depressions.
Such a flexible mould for casting of a gas-removal layer may for example be prepared
by a method comprising the steps of:
- preparing a positive, three-dimensional surface of the desired structure;
- providing a silicone-based resin or a material having similar properties on the three-
dimensional surface,
- curing the silicone-based resin, and
- removing the silicone-based resin after curing of the silicone-based resin, whereby
the flexible mould is provided.
This method and the mould are easy to use and provide moulds of suitable design
flexibility and strength for the production of gas-removal layers by casting.

WO 2004/078462 PCT/EP2003/005630
22
TABLE FOR IDENTIFICATION
2 First member
4 Second member
6 Gas-removal layer
8 Interface between first member and second member
10 Support
a Interface angle
12 independent third resin volume
14 Cover sheet
20 Mould
22 Depression
26 Mould surface
28 Outer mould surface
30 Support web

13-04-2005 EP0305630
CLAIMS (amended) PCT/EP 03/05630
1. A method for=Hinctionaijy-connecting a first member, comprising first type fibres
and a first resin, and a second member, comprising second type fibres and a
second resin, comprising the steps of:
- providing said first member;
- providing said second member adjacent to said first member;
- providing a gas-removal layer in at least a part of an interface between said
first member and said second member, said gas-removal layer allows for gas
transport in a number of overall directions in a plane of said gas-removal
layer, said gas-removal layer comprises a third resin, and a gas
transportation network is mainly formed by the space between independent
three-dimensional volumes of said third resin,
removing gas from said interface between said first member and said second
member via said gas-removal layer;
- deforming said gas-removal layer;
consolidating and/or curing said interface; and
- optionally co-consolidating and/or co-curing said first member and/or said
second member.
2,, A method according_te claim 1, further comprising the step of:
providing a vacuum enclosure encompassing said interface and optionally
said first member and/or said second member, preferably said vacuum
enclosure is flexible to enhance consolidation-
3. A method accordtngjBs any of the claims 1 to 2, wherein the deforming of said
gas-removal layer involves temporarily decreasing the viscosity of said third
resin, preferably by heating.
4. A method according to'any ot the claims 1 to 3, furthe^comprising the step of:
said third resin wetting at least some of the surrounding material during the
deforming of said gas-removal layer.
AMENDED SHEET

13-04-2005 EP0305630
2
5. A method according to any of the claims 1 to 4, wherein the deforming of said
gas-removal layer involves an external force, preferably said external force is
provided via a vacuum enclosure and/or a press.
6. A method according to any of the claims 1 to 5, wherein the deforming of said
gas-removal layer takes place gradually starting away from a gas exit and
ending near or at the gas exit to reduce the risk of gas entrapment by heating
the interface inhomogeneousty, thereby providing a heated zone moving through
the interface.
7. A method according to any of the claims 1 to 6, wherein the height and spacing
of said independent three-dimensional volumes are adjusted to ensure that said
gas transportation network is open until a suitable amount of gas has been
removed.
8. A method according to any of the claims 1 to 5 or 7, further comprising the
following steps for providing said gas-removal layer:

- providing an at least semi-solid third resin, optionally by cooling;
- dividing said third resin to obtain an at least semi-solid third resin granulate;
- distributing said at least semi-solid third resin granulate to form a gas-
removal layer having a gas transportation network, which provides for gas
transportation in a number of overall directions in a plane of said gas-
removal layer.
9. A method according tp..asy of the claims 1 to 7, further comprising the following
steps for providing said gas-removal layer:
- providing a liquid third resin, optionally by heating;
- distributing said liquid third resin to form a gas-removal layer having a gas
transportation network, which provides for gas transportation in a number of
overall directions in a plane of said gas-removal layer;
- optionally cooling and/or reacting said third resin to an at least semi-solid
state.
10. A method according, to-^any of the claims 8 to 9, wherein the third resin is
distributed directly in said interface between said first member and said second
AMENDED SHEET

13-04-2005 EP0305630
3
member, preferably the third resin is distributed directly on at least one of said
first and second members before connecting said first and second member.
11. A method according ts> any of the claims 8 to a.TurthePcompnsing the step of:
5 - providing a support in connection with said third resin to enhance handling of
said gas-removal layer, and
- optionally heat said gas-removal layer to provide for a stronger binding
between said support and said third resin;
said support is a sheet-like member mainly comprising a resin and/or a fibrous
10 material, like for example a woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a semi-preg,
a web or sheet of resin and/or fibres, a veil or a release paper,
12- A method according to any of the claims 1 to 7, wherein the gas-removal layer is
provided by the following steps:
15 - providing a mould, preferably said mould does not stick significantly to the
third resin;
- casting a gas-removal layer having a gas transportation network, which
provides for gas transportation in a number of overall directions in a plane of
said gas-removal layer, and
20 ~ optionally providing a support to enhance handling of said gas-removal layer,
said support is a sheet-like member mainly comprising a resin and/or a
fibrous material, like for example a woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a
semi-preg, a web, a veil or a release paper.
25 13. A method according.!** any of the claims 8, 9, 11 or 12, further comprising the
step of providing a cover sheet on the gas-removal iayer to form a sandwich
gas-removal layer for enhanced handling, said cover sheet is a sheet-like
member mainly comprising a resin and/or a fibrous material, like for example a
woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a semi-preg, a web or sheet of resin
30 and/or fibres, a veil or a release paper.
14. A method accordingjoany of the claims 1 to 13 further comprising the step of:
- providing extra resin to said interface between said first member and said
second member, preferably at least some of said extra resin is provided with
AMENDED SHEET

13-04-2005 EP0305630
4
said gas-removal layer and more preferably at least some of said extra resin
is provided as an integrated part of said gas-removal layer.
15, A method according lo-any of the claims 1 to 13, wherein the gas-removal layer
is provided as an integrated part of at least one of said first and second
members.
16. A method according to any or me claims 1 to 14, furthejxSomprising the step of
providing a potential equaliser between said first member and said second
member, preferably said potential equaliser is integrated with the gas-removal
layer and more preferably said potential equaliser comprises carbon fibres,
17,, A method according to claim 16, wherein an electrical conductive connection is
established during the curing.
18. A gas-removal layer comprising a support supporting a third resin, said third
resin having a gas transportation network and said gas transportation network
provides for gas transportation in a number of overall directions in a plane of
said gas-removal layer, said support is a sheet-like member mainly comprising a
fibrous material, like for example a woven or non-woven fabric, a prepreg, a
semi-preg, a web, a veil or a release paper,
19. A gas-removal layer according to-ciaim 18, wherein said gas transportation
network is mainly formed by the space between independent three-dimensional
volumes of said third resin.
20. A gas-removal layer according to any of the claims 18 to 19, further comprising a
cover sheet to enhance handling..
21 r A mould for casting of a gas-removal layer comprising:
- an inner mould surface,
- a number of depressions in said mould surface resembling the desired
independent third resin volumes to be cast, and
- optionally a number of channels connecting at least two of said depressions,
said mould is flexible and preferably made from silicone-based material.
AMENDED SHEET

13-04-2005 EP0305630
5
22. A method for preparing a flexible mould according to claim 21 for casting of a
gas-removal layer comprising the steps of;
- preparing a positive, three-dimensional surface of the desired structure;
- providing a silicone-based resin on said three-dimensional surface,
- curing said silicone-based resin, and
- removing said silicone-based resin after curing of the silicone-based resin

23. Use of a gas-removal layer according to any of the claims 18 to 20 to remove
gas from an interface between a first member and a second member.
24. Use of a^gas-removal layer according to any of the claims 18 to 20 in a wind
turbine blade, preferably in a spar for a wind turbine blade.
25. Use of a method according to any of the claims 1 to 17 for preparing of a wind
turbine blade, preferably for preparing of a spar or a blade shell for a wind
turbine blade.
26. Use of a mould according to claim 21 or a method according to claim 22 for
preparing a gas-removal layer.
AMENDED SHEET

A method for preparing a more feliable connection between two members (2, 4) is provided. The method involve the
use wd use of a gas removal layers (6), which allows for gas transport in a number of overall directions in a plane of the gas-removal layer.the
gadafj gas removal layer comprises a resin (12) and during consolidation the gas removal layer is deformed to form a collection substantially
hhdcsj free from entrapped gas wids Further more, a gas removal layer is provided as well as a mould for casting of gas removal layers
shgws and a method for preparing such a mould. The method and the gas removal layere provided are particularly useful for manufacturing
gsdxaj of wind turbine blades and spars for such blades.
fry
ga

Documents:

01801-kolnp-2005-abstract.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-claims.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-description complete.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-drawings.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-form 1.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-form 3.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-form 5.pdf

01801-kolnp-2005-international publication.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-(28-09-2012)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-(28-09-2012)-PA.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-(28-09-2012)-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-(29-03-2012)-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-(29-03-2012)-FORM-13.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-ABSTRACT 1.2.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-AMENDED CLAIMS.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-AMENDED PAGES OF SPECIFICATION.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-CANCELLED PAGES.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-CLAIMS 1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE 1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-DESCRIPTION (COMPLETE) 1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-DRAWINGS 1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-FORM 1.1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-FORM 13.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-FORM 2.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-FORM 3.1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-OTHERS 1.1.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-OTHERS.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

1801-KOLNP-2005-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf

abstract-01801-kolnp-2005.jpg


Patent Number 247478
Indian Patent Application Number 1801/KOLNP/2005
PG Journal Number 15/2011
Publication Date 15-Apr-2011
Grant Date 11-Apr-2011
Date of Filing 12-Sep-2005
Name of Patentee VESTAS WIND SYSTEMS A/S
Applicant Address SMED SORENSENS VEJ 5, DK-6950 RINGKOBING
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 HAHN, FRANK A. HOELGAARD KONVALVEJ 6, NO, DK-6950 RINGKOBING
2 BECH, ANTON RYDBJERGVEJ 22, VELLING DK-6950 RINGKOBING
PCT International Classification Number B29C 65/50,70/54
PCT International Application Number PCT/EP2003/005630
PCT International Filing date 2003-05-28
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 PCT/EP2003/04171 2003-04-22 EUROPEAN UNION
2 PCT/EP2003/04167 2003-04-22 EUROPEAN UNION
3 PCT/EP2003/02292 2003-03-06 EUROPEAN UNION
4 PCT/EP2003/02293 2003-03-06 EUROPEAN UNION