Title of Invention

METHOD AND MACHINE FOR DYEING TEXTILES USING ULTRASONIC DYEING TECHNIQUE

Abstract Conventionally dyeing of textile substrate is an energy intensive process. It requires huge amounts of energy as well as time to accomplish the process. The temperature requirement for cotton and other natural fibre fabric is near boil (90 - 95ºC) whereas the synthetic fibre fabrics often require a very high temperature (130ºC) and pressure with longer dyeing times. These drawbacks of the existing dyeing process have been addressed time and again with development in newer technologies, however most of the techniques have not been successful. This invention relates to application of the ultrasound technology in dyeing of fabrics by design and development of a dyeing machine incorporating the ulrasound generating devices. This invention relates to suitable modification in the existing open width dyeing to incorporate the ultrasonic waves generating transducers. These transducers convert energy into mechanical energy. This gives rise to cavitation effect. The cavitation effects are found to be most efficient at low temperatures of 50 - 55ºC. These shock waves releasing high localized energy hits upon the dye particles and also impinges on the fabric surface thereby breaking up the dye particles and opening up the fabric surface, acceleration in dyeing process and opening up of the fibre structure at the same time. Therefore, the exhaustion of dye from the dyebath is also improved as more and more amount of dye gets reacted/fixed on the surface of the fabric. To summarise, the important features of the developed machines includes energy conservation i.e., low temperature dyeing, reduction on dyeing time, improved exhaustion and fixation of dyes, reduction in load on effluent.
Full Text THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART II - SEC 3 (ii)]
FORM 2
THE PATENT ACT 1970
(39 OF 1970)
&
The Patents Rules, 2003
PROVISIONAL / COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
(see section 10 and rule 13)
1. TITLE OF INVENTION
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOW ENERGY ULTRASONIC DYEING MACHINE
2. APPLICANTS)
(a) NAME: The Synthetic and Art Silk Mills' Association (SASMIRA)
(b) NATIONALITY: INDIAN
(c) ADDRESS: SASMIRA, SASMIRA MARG WORLI, MUMBAI - 400 030
3. PREAMBLE TO THE DESCRIPTION:
COMPLETE
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed:
The invention relates to design and development of dyeing machine, which is based on a novel technology. The development pertains to conservation in energy and time for open width dyeing of natural and synthetic fibre fabrics. The dyeing is facilitated at a low temperature with the aid of ultrasound technology.

4. DESCRIPTION (Description shall start from next page)
a) Origin of Invention:
Conventionally dyeing of textile substrate is an energy intensive process. It requires huge amounts of energy as well as time to accomplish the process. The temperature requirement for cotton and other natural fibre fabric is near boil (90 - 95°C) whereas the synthetic fibre fabrics often require a very high temperature (130°C) and pressure with longer dyeing times. Even with this lengthy time of dyeing, the exhaustion levels obtained are not very satisfactory.
These drawbacks of the existing dyeing process have been addressed time and again with development in newer technologies viz., dyeing in presence of infra-red rays, dyeing in supercritical carbon dioxide, modification in dyeing recipe (redox system) in order to conserve energy as well as to reduce dyeing time. Few of the technologies, which have been reported at laboratory scale, are listed below:
> Low temperature dyeing (at boil) is been carried out in presence of carriers. However, many of the carriers in use are found to be non eco-friendly.
> Dyeing in presence of Infrared rays. No commercialisation adopting this technology has been reported so far.
> Low temperature dyeing in presence of Ultra-violet rays. No commercialisation adopting this technology has been reported so far. Moreover, prolonged exposure to UV-rays can also be harmful to human beings.
> Dyeing in presence of super critical carbon dioxide. This technology is expensive and moreover, this technology cannot be incorporated in the existing dyeing machine.
Another approach reported in literature is the application of ultrasonic waves in textile processing. However, the actual commercialization of this technology has not

been reported so far, nationally or internationally. This invention relates to application of the ultrasound technology in dyeing of fabrics by design and development of a dyeing machine incorporating the ultrasound generating devices. Ultrasonic waves are high frequency waves (20 kHz to 500 MHz), which are above human hearing and are practically harmless to human beings.
This invention relates to suitable modification in the existing open width dyeing to incorporate the ultrasonic waves generating transducers. These transducers convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. This gives rise to cavitation effect, which in turn releases localised high energy shock waves in the liquid medium in the dye bath. The cavitation effects are found to be most efficient at low temperatures of 50 - 55°C. These shock waves releasing high localized energy hits upon the dye particles and also impinges on the fabric surface thereby breaking up the dye particles and opening up the fabric surface at the same time. This leads to acceleration in dyeing process at low temperature. As the fiber structure is opened up by expulsion of entrapped air, penetration of dye in the interstices is improved. Therefore, the exhaustion of dye from the dyebath is also improved as more and more amount of dye gets reacted/fixed on the surface of the fabric.
The following problems encountered in the dyeing of textile substrates are overcome by this invention.
> High energy requirements (high temperature and pressure)
> Longer dyeing time
> Lower exhaustion level of dye baths
> Higher loads on effluent
b) Objectives
The salient objectives of the invention are as follows:
> To invent the dyeing machine for dyeing of natural and synthetic fibre fabrics in presence of ultrasonic waves on a commercial scale.

> To invent suitable ultrasonic transducers for retrofitting in the dyeing machines to achieve low temperature ultrasonic dyeing.
> To invent uniform open width dyeing of various fabric substrates at lower temperatures of about 50 - 55 °C.
> To study the dyeing behaviour of various dyes at low temperature in presence of ultrasound and to ascertain reproducibility of dyeing.
> To determine the dye bath exhaustion levels and fastness properties of the dyed samples and
> To determine the load on the effluent generated thereof.
In short, the invention aims at conserving energy, time and obtaining improved dyeing of fabrics with use of a novel dyeing machine.
The important features of the developed machines includes
> energy conservation i.e., low temperature dyeing
> reduction on dyeing time
> improved exhaustion and fixation of dyes
> reduction in load on effluent
c) Novel features of the invention :
The novel features of the invention are listed as:
> Ultrasonic transducers: There are basically two types of ultrasonic resonators
viz., the bonded resonators and recently developed tube resonators. Several
studies have been reported with bonded type ultrasonic resonators, where in the
effect of ultrasonic waves generated is localised. Moreover, these are attached to
the outer wall of the dye vat containing the dye liquor. The waves generated are
transmitted inside the medium indirectly.
This invention on the other hand uses ultrasonic transducers of tube resonator type,
which is a long tube housing the resonators and this is totally immersed in the liquid

medium inside the machine. The effect of the waves is, therefore, spread across the dyeing medium directly. Two such tube resonators have been incorporated in the machine each from either side to give uniform cavitation throughout the dye bath thereby, facilitating uniform dyeing.
> Use of oil heating: The conventional heating of the liquor in the jigger dyeing machine is attained with the help of steam. The perforated steam pipe is housed inside the machine, which transfers the heat to the medium through steam. However, normally lot of steam is lost to the surroundings enroute transmission leading to higher recurring on the boiler producing steam. This invention replaces the traditional heating by oil heating. Three electrical heaters are housed in the machine, which are oil fired and transfer the heat uniformly to the dye bath. This proves advantageous in terms of reduced heat loses to the surroundings.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION:
The conventional dyeing of cotton and synthetic blends on an open width dyeing machine consumes a large amount of energy and time (in terms of steam and time required for exhaustion of dye on fabric). Moreover, dyeing of synthetics, in open width form, requires specialized machines, which can attain temperatures of around 140°C, again leading to consumption of a huge amount of energy. Thus, the process does not remain cost effective.
Ultrasonic energy has been attempted so far only on laboratory scale for various wet process in textiles viz., washing, desizing, scouring and dyeing of natural as well as synthetic fibre fabrics. It is based on the principle of cavitation. The basic principle, generation of waves, applications in general and textiles in particular and the basic design of the ultrasonic transducer is as given below:

Basic Principle of Ultrasound:
In a solid, both longitudinal and transverse waves can be transmitted whereas in gas and liquids only longitudinal waves can be transmitted. In liquids, longitudinal vibrations of molecules generate compression and rarefaction, i.e., areas of high pressure and low local pressure. The latter gives rise to cavities or bubbles, which expand and finally during the compression phase, collapse violently generating shock waves. The phenomena of bubble formation and collapse (known as cavitation) is generally considered responsible for most of ultrasonic's physical and chemical effects observed in solid/liquid or, liquid/liquid systems.
Generation of Ultrasonic Waves:
Ultrasonic waves can be generated in a great variety of ways. Most generally known are the different configurations of whistles, hooters and sirens as well as piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers. The working mechanisms of sirens and whistles allow an optimal transfer of the ultrasonic sound to the ambient air. In the case of magnetostrictive and/or peizo-electric transducer of ultrasonic waves, the generators as such will only produce low oscillation amplitudes, which are difficult to transfer to gases. The occurrence of cavities depends upon several factors such as the frequency and intensity of waves, temperature and vapour pressure of liquids.
General Uses of Ultrasound:
Ultrasonic intensity is the measure of the available energy, per unit volume of the sample or material. Applications of ultrasonic can be, thus, divided into two categories: low intensity and high intensity. In the low intensity applications, input power levels are low enough that there is never any change in the state of the medium. Typical examples are the nondestructive testing of materials and measurement of elastic properties of materials. High intensity applications, wherein phase changes, have more severe effect on the medium, are generally important for wet processes. In most chemical reactions, reaction rate is found to increase with intensity.

There are many industrial applications of ultrasound, including in the fields of biology/ biochemistry, engineering, geology/geography and medicine where, the application ranges from using high frequency sound to "see" an unborn baby to destruction of stones and cancerous cells inside the body. The application in chemistry is mainly for physical measurements and also as a method of improving reaction rates and/or product yields.
Ultrasonic Applications in Textiles:
Theoretically, the effects of ultrasound on textile substrates and polymers have started after the introduction of synthetic materials and their blends to the industry. These include application in mechanical processes (weaving, finishing and making-up for cutting and welding woven, nonwoven and knitted fabrics) and wet processes (sizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, etc.). Ultrasonic equipment for cutting and welding has gained increased acceptance in all sectors of the international textile industry from weaving, through finishing to the making up operation.
Basic Design of the Invention:
The developmental work is the modification of the existing machine design in order to incorporate the ultrasonic generating element at suitable location to achieve low temperature dyeing. The dyeing Machine has dimensions of W x D x H :: 2100 x 1524 x l950 mm. with three different sections as i) fabric dyeing, ii) machine control panel, iii) ultrasonic generator and iv) tube resonator.
The invention mainly consists of the following sub systems:
1. Dyeing section
2. The machine control panel
3. Ultrasonic generator section
4. Tube resonator

The dyeing section is responsible for dyeing operation where fabric dyeing is carried out. The ultrasonic generator provides power to both the tube resonator with required efficiency. Tube resonators are placed in dyeing section at both ends and are the main source of ultrasonic wave emitter in dye bath.
SUB SYSTEM -1
1. Dyeing Section
It is consists of the following:
1. Dyeing Tank/Vat
2. Heater
3. Fabric Take-up and Let-off Device
4. Fabric Guide Roller
5. Rocker Device
6. Hood
7. Water Inlet and Drainage
8. Temperature sensor
9. Float valve
2. Control Panel
1. Circuit Diagram
1. Machine control panel
1.1 Dyeing Tank
Dyeing tank of a capacity of 250 litres and is made from stainless steel. Tank material is resistant to the corrosive actions of dyeing auxiliaries. Dyeing tank houses electrical heaters, fabric guide rollers, rocker device, temperature sensor, float valve. In order to incorporate heaters and transducers the shape and size of dyeing tank is modified (see fig.l).

1.2 Heater
Heater is basically used for heating the dye liquor to the desired dyeing temperature. Conventional mode of heat supply to dye bath liquor is the steam heating. Steam generated from boiler house is transmitted up to the dye jigger through transmitting pipes, which is suppose to be wrapped with heat insulating materials to minimise heat losses to the surrounding during its transmission. This steam inlet pipe is connected to the dye bath with a valve so as and when the operator requires he can operate and use the steam in dye bath for attaining the desired temperature. This necessitates the need of boiler house and its proper maintenance for its efficient and economical operation. There is also a large amount of steam losses due to leakage in piping and insufficient insulation.
In order to overcome these practical difficulties, we had gone for the electrical type heaters. Machine consists of three electrical coil heater filled with thermo fluid. These heaters are placed at the bottom of the dyeing tank, which is always immersed in dye liquor during dyeing operations (see fig.l). Each heater rating is 5 KW thus the total load due to heater is 15 KW.
1.3 Fabric Take-up and Let-off Device
For open width dyeing operation fabric is first wound on to the fabric roller in open width form i.e. it is in open form, from one selvedge to other selvedge. In this way fabric is wound on to the roller, layer by layer. During dyeing fabric is simultaneously wound and unwound on these rollers. One such operation of winding and unwinding is called a cycle (end). These take-up and let-off rollers are made up of ebonite (S.S. rollers are also available). These rollers rotate at a speed of 40 - 50 rpm. These rollers are driven through gears, which are suitably placed in oil filled box called gearbox. These rollers are of 60 and running throughout width of the machine. Generally dye jiggers are nomenclated on the basis of their working width. Designed and developed

machine have a working width of 60 , with this machine any kind of fabric within 60 width can be dyed.
1.4 Fabric Guide Roller
Fabric guide rollers are stainless steel cylindrical rollers of running throughout the width of machine (see fig. 1). There are two such rollers, which are negatively driven through the fabric pull exerted on it during winding and unwinding cycle. The main functions of these rollers are to facilitate smooth winding and unwinding of fabric along with path diversion.
1.5 Rocker Device
Fabric is guided over rocker device as shown in (see fig. 1). The basic function of the rocker is to keep the fabric under proper tension, thereby preventing creases in the fabric. The creases are the most common fault leading to dyeing irregularities. The rocker is mounted on the rocker shaft, which oscillates due to the winding and unwinding tension of the fabric on the rollers. This is also made up of stainless steel material.
1.6 Hood
The hood is basically the cover of the machine, which is an optional part of the machine. It is mainly used to prevent heat losses to the surroundings during dyeing. The other function of the hood is to prevent untimely oxidation during dyeing especially with vat dyes. In this invention the hood also aids to minimise the sound produced due to ultrasound vibrations (see fig. 2). It is made up of stainless steel with glass windows for uninterrupted functioning of the machine. The windows are also fitted with appropriate wipers.
1.7 Water inlet and drainage
This invention relates to batch dyeing of fabric. The machine needs to filled and drained from time to time throughout the dyeing process steps. For this there is a

water inlet and outlet system. Both these systems are appropriately supported by stop gap valves Another pipe is attached to the outlet hose (at the bottom of the tank) for draining the residual dye bath liquor.
1.8 Temperature sensor
The temperature sensor senses the temperature inside the dye bath. It is always immersed in the dye liquor for sensing the actual temperature of the dye bath. It works in conjunction with the thermostat control by sensing the temperature in the bath and signals the thermostat to regulate the temperature accordingly by switching the heater on or off.
1.9 Float valve
A float valve is placed inside the tank of the machine. This controls the amount of water inlet in the tank. It is made up of stainless steel.
2. Control Panel
2.1. Circuit Diagram
The circuit diagram of the control panel is as given in Fig. 3
2.2. Machine control panel
The machine control panel houses the following switches
2.2.1 The machine on and off switch
2.2.2 The temperature indicator switch with digital display
2.2.3 The temperature setting switch - coarse and fine tuning
2.2.4 The roller forward motion switch
2.2.5 The roller reverse motion switch
2.2.6 The roller stop switch

3. The ultrasound generator section
The basic principle and design of an ultrasonic instrument is as follows: The high frequency energy for the process is created in an ultrasonic generator. The frequency of application lies between 20 and 40 kHz. The electronic vibration created by generator is transmitted to the ultrasound head by a shielded wire and converted into mechanical vibrations by ceramic piezo ring. The ceramic rings are fitted into a metal body, which enhances the vibrations. To put the ultrasound into effect, a close contact between the sonotrode and the textile goods is necessary. Thus, the vibrations are transmitted to the material and dye bath.
The invention relates to modifying the existing commercial dyeing machine by way of incorporating these ultrasonic transducers. The generator is a micro processor controlled IGBT based with a power of 1000/2000 rms./peak, it generates a frequency
Of 30+/-3 KHz.
The ultrasonic generator controls the operation of the tube resonators emitting the ultrasonic waves. It houses the individual tube resonator on and off switch and power level indicator (0-100 %). The machine is normally operated at a power level of 50 %. Any malfunctioning of the tube resonators is also indicated on this generator, with the help of glowing LED.
4. Ultrasonic tube resonators
Tube resonator is the main element which delivers the ultrasonic waves in to the dye bath. The resonator is in the form of tube with a tube length of 752 mm (see Fig. 4). The resonator diameter is 48 mm. The resonator is made upofSS-316L material. Two such tube resonators are fitted in the machine as shown in figure 4.
5. CLAIMS Claims should start with the preamble -
Preamble
The invention relates to design and development of dyeing machine, which is based on a novel technology. The development pertains to conservation in energy and time for open

7. ABSTRACT OF THE INVENTION (to be given along with complete specification on separate page)
Abstract
Conventionally dyeing of textile substrate is an energy intensive process. It requires huge amounts of energy as well as time to accomplish the process. The temperature requirement for cotton and other natural fibre fabric is near boil (90 - 95 °C) whereas the synthetic fibre fabrics often require a very high temperature (130°C) and pressure with longer dyeing times. These drawbacks of the existing dyeing process have been addressed time and again with development in newer technologies, however most of the techniques have not been successful.
This invention relates to application of the ultrasound technology in dyeing of fabrics by design and development of a dyeing machine incorporating the ultrasound generating devices. This invention relates to suitable modification in the existing open width dyeing to incorporate the ultrasonic waves generating transducers. These transducers convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. This gives rise to cavitation effect. The cavitation effects are found to be most efficient at low temperatures of 50 - 55°C. These shock waves releasing high localized energy hits upon the dye particles and also impinges on the fabric surface thereby breaking up the dye particles and opening up the fabric surface, acceleration in dyeing process and opening up of the fibre structure at the same time. Therefore, the exhaustion of dye from the dyebath is also improved as more and more amount of dye gets reacted/fixed on the surface of the fabric.
To summarise, the important features of the developed machines includes
> energy conservation i.e., low temperature dyeing
> reduction on dyeing time
> improved exhaustion and fixation of dyes
> reduction in load on effluent

width dyeing of natural and synthetic fibre fabrics. The dyeing is facilitated at a low temperature with the aid of ultrasound technology
We Claim:
> Invention of Ultrasonic Transducers for textile applications
> Invention of Ultrasonic Dyeing machine for low temperature dyeing machine.
> Invention of Novel technique of dyeing facilitating dyeing at lower temperatures
> Energy conservation in textile wet processing
> Elimination of steam heating used in conventional dyeing machine
6. DATE AND SIGNATURE (to be given at the end of last page of specification)
Dated this 17th day of. May. .2007.

To
The Controller of Patents
The Patent Office, Mumbai.

Documents:

933-MUM-2007-ABSTRACT(10-2-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-abstract(amended)-(9-12-2009).pdf

933-mum-2007-abstract(granted)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-abstract.doc

933-mum-2007-abstract.pdf

933-MUM-2007-CANCELLED PAGES(9-12-2009).pdf

933-MUM-2007-CLAIMS(AMENDED)-(10-2-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-CLAIMS(AMENDED)-(9-12-2009).pdf

933-MUM-2007-CLAIMS(AMENDED)-(9-3-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-claims(granted)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-claims.doc

933-mum-2007-claims.pdf

933-MUM-2007-CORRESPONDENCE (27-1-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-CORRESPONDENCE(13-8-2008).pdf

933-MUM-2007-CORRESPONDENCE(9-3-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-correspondence(ipo)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-correspondence(ipo)-(31-12-2008).pdf

933-mum-2007-description (complete).pdf

933-mum-2007-description(granted)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-DRAWING(10-2-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-drawing(18-5-2007).pdf

933-mum-2007-drawing(9-12-2009).pdf

933-mum-2007-drawing(amended)-(9-12-2009).pdf

933-mum-2007-drawing(granted)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-FORM 1(10-2-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-FORM 1(13-8-2008).pdf

933-mum-2007-form 1(18-5-2007).pdf

933-mum-2007-form 2(granted)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-FORM 2(TITLE PAGE(10-2-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-FORM 2(TITLE PAGE)-(9-12-2009).pdf

933-mum-2007-form 2(title page)-(complete)-(18-5-2007).pdf

933-mum-2007-form 2(title page)-(granted)-(21-3-2011).pdf

933-mum-2007-form-1.pdf

933-mum-2007-form-18.pdf

933-mum-2007-form-2.doc

933-mum-2007-form-2.pdf

933-mum-2007-form-3.pdf

933-mum-2007-form-5.pdf

933-mum-2007-form-9.pdf

933-MUM-2007-MARKED COPY(10-2-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-PRIORITY DOUCUMENT(13-8-2008).pdf

933-MUM-2007-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT(9-12-2009).pdf

933-MUM-2007-REPLY TO HEARING(10-2-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-SPECIFICATION(AMENDED)-(10-2-2011).pdf

933-MUM-2007-SPECIFICATION(AMENDED)-(9-12-2009).pdf

abstract1.jpg


Patent Number 246913
Indian Patent Application Number 933/MUM/2007
PG Journal Number 12/2011
Publication Date 25-Mar-2011
Grant Date 21-Mar-2011
Date of Filing 18-May-2007
Name of Patentee THE SYNTHETIC AND ART SILK MILL'S ASSOCIATION (SASMIRA)
Applicant Address SASMIRA, SASMIRA MARG, WORLI, MUMBAI
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 BARDHAN MANAS KANTI SASMIRA, SASMIRA MARG, WORLI, MUMBAI 400030
2 MATHUR MANISHA RAMESHCHANDRA SASMIRA, SASMIRA MARG, WORLI, MUMBAI 400030
PCT International Classification Number D06B13/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA