Title of Invention

LATENT HEAT STORAGE MATERIAL

Abstract The invention concerns a latent heat storage material in the form of a composite material consisting of a phase-change material to store latent heat and graphite flakes incorporated within it to improve the thermal conductivity- The graphite flakes are characterised by a high aspect ratio and a high anisotropy of thermal conductivity- The volume content of graphite flakes in the latent heat storage material according to the invention is between 10 and 40 %. The composite material can be obtained by mixing the components or infiltrating a bed containing graphite flakes with a liquid phase-change material. The graphite flakes are preferably aligned during mixing with the phase-change material by shaking or tamping, etc., so that the thermal conductivity in the direction that is favourable for the individual application is maximised.
Full Text

Latent heat storage material
Description
The invention concerns a latent heat storage material in the form of a composite material consisting of at least one phase-change material in which flake-like graphite particles consisting of natural graphite or synthetic graphite having a high aspect ratio and high anisotropy of thermal conductivity are incorporated in order to increase the thermal conductivity, and processes for its production.
Phase-change materials are suitable for storing heat energy in the form of latent heat. Phase-change materials are understood to be materials that undergo a phase transition when heat is supplied or removed, e.g. a transition from the solid to the liquid phase (melting) or from the liquid to the solid phase (solidification) or a transition between a low-temperature and high-temperature modification. If heat is supplied to or removed from a phase-change material, its temperature on reaching the phase transition point remains constant until the material is completely transformed. The heat supplied or removed during the phase transition, which causes no temperature change in the material, is known as latent heat-Disadvantageous to the practical application of phase-change materials as heat storage units is the low thermal conductivity of these materials. As a consequence, the charging and discharging of the heat storage units is a relatively slow process.
> The charging and discharging time for latent heat storage units can be reduced if the phase-change material is incorporated into a matrix consisting of a

material having high thermal conductivity. For example, DE-A 196 30 073 proposed that a porous matrix consisting of graphite be impregnated in vacuo with a "solid-liquid" phase-change material in the liquid phase. Impregnation can be performed by means of immersion, vacuum or vacuum-pressure processes.
US-A1 2002 0016505 proposed adding an auxiliary agent having a high thermal conductivity to the phase-change material, for example metal or graphite powder. In Example 2 of this specification especially it is stated that 2 g of the phase-change material didodecyl ammonium chloride are ground together with 2 g of synthetic graphite KS6 and press-moulded to form a moulded article. The advantages of this procedure reside in the variable moulding by means of cost-effective, industrially applicable moulding processes, e.g. granulation or extrusion, and the possibility of processing solid phase-change materials and phase-change materials with solid additives, e.g. nucleating agents. Alternatively, use as a bed in a latent heat storage container provided with heat exchanger profiles is possible.
In contrast to the graphite matrix from DE-A 196 30 073 impregnated with the phase-change material, in the mixtures described in US-Al 2002 0016505 the particles of the heat-conducting auxiliary agent do not form a conductive framework incorporating the phase-change material. In the latter case the thermal conductivity is thus necessarily lower. A considerable disadvantage in the use of metal chips or synthetic graphite powder as heat-conducting admixtures lies in the fact that relatively high proportions of the heat-conducting auxiliary agent are needed for a significant increase in the thermal conductivity of the latent heat storage material (cf. the example above from US-Al 2002 00 16

505). The energy density of the latent heat storage unit is reduced as a consequence.
The production of latent heat storage units from composite materials consisting of phase-change materials that pass from the solid to the liquid phase on changing phase, such as e.g. paraffin, a styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer encapsulating the phase-change material and thus stabilising it in its form and a small proportion of expanded graphite as heat-conducting auxiliary agent is known from a publication by Min Xiao et al., Energy Conversion and Management Volume 43 (2002) pages 103 to 108. The composition of the composite material was given as follows: 80 parts by mass of paraffin, 20 parts by mass of copolymer and 3 to 5 parts by mass of expanded graphite. The actual proportion by mass of the heat-storing material is therefore only just under 80 %. The dimensionally stabilising material contributes little to heat conduction and nothing to latent heat storage.
Latent heat storage materials with the addition of expanded graphite as a heat-conducting auxiliary agent are known from EP 1 416 027 A. It was established that even with relatively small volume contents (5 % or more) of expanded graphite, a significant increase in thermal conductivity is obtained. The addition of a dimensionally stabilising material was not necessary. The advantages of this latent heat storage material with an addition of expanded graphite in comparison to a latent heat storage material with an equal volume content of synthetic graphite can be attributed to the special features of the nature, structure and morphology of the expanded graphite.
The crystal structure of the expanded graphite corresponds much more closely to the ideal graphite

layer plane structure than the structure in the more isotropic particles of most synthetic graphites, which is why the thermal conductivity of the expanded graphite is higher-Other characteristics of the expanded graphite are the low bulk density and high aspect ratio of the particles. As is known, for particles with a low packing density and high aspect ratio the percolation threshold, i.e. the critical volume content of these particles in a composite material for the formation of continuous conductivity paths, is lower than for more densely packed particles having a lower aspect ratio and the same chemical composition. The conductivity is thus significantly increased by even relatively small volume contents of expanded graphite.
Moulded articles can be produced from the latent heat storage material by means of extrusion, injection moulding or press-moulding methods. Alternatively, a loosely packed bed of the latent heat storage material can be introduced into a container provided with heat exchanger profiles for the purposes of heat storage.
The production of expanded graphite and products made from expanded graphite is known inter alia from US-A 3 404 061. Graphite intercalation compounds or graphite salts, e.g. graphite hydrogen sulfate or graphite nitrate, are heated rapidly in order to produce expanded graphite. The expanded graphite that is produced in this way consists of relatively bulky, worm-or concertina-shaped aggregates. The bulk density of expanded graphite ranges from 2 to 20 g/1, preferably from 2 to 7 g/1. As a result of the bulkiness of the particles and the low bulk density, the conveying and metering of particles of expanded graphite and the incorporation of expanded graphite into latent heat

storage materials present some technical difficulties. Furthermore, the cost of producing expanded graphite,
due to the large number of process steps that are needed and the use of energy and chemicals, is relatively high.
The object of the present invention is therefore to provide a latent heat storage material having a heat-conducting auxiliary agent which has advantageous properties similar to those of expanded graphite but not its disadvantages during production and processing. A further object of the invention is to provide processes for the production of latent heat storage materials according to the invention and heat storage units in which the latent heat storage materials according to the invention are used.
The object is achieved in that the latent heat storage material is formed as a composite material consisting of a phase-change material containing incorporated graphite as a heat-storing auxiliary agent, wherein the graphite acting as the heat-conducting auxiliary agent contains flakes of natural graphite or/and a synthetic graphite having a high anisotropy of thermal conductivity and a high aspect ratio.
Other features, details and advantages of the invention emerge from the following detailed description of the
invention and the embodiment examples.
In accordance with the present invention a composite material having a higher thermal conductivity than the pure phase-change material is obtained by adding a graphite material to the phase-change material as a heat-conducting auxiliary agent which contains particles having a layer plane structure which is very close to the ideal crystal lattice structure of graphite. The ideal graphite structure consists of layer planes lying

in parallel and equidistantly on top of one another with a hexagonal arrangement of the carbon atoms. Only weak bonding forces act between the individual layer planes. As a result of this anisotropic structure of the graphite, numerous properties of this material are direction-dependent, for example the thermal and electrical conductivity in the layer planes is substantially higher than it is in the direction perpendicular to the layer planes. In the graphites that are used in the present invention as the heat-conducting auxiliary agent, the thermal conductivities in the various crystallographic directions differ by a factor of at least 50.
The graphite that is suitable for the present invention consists of crystallites that are aligned to one another and consist of individual layer planes with hexagonally arranged carbon atoms. These crystallites are in the form of flat platelets, scales or flakes. For the purposes of generalisation, the term flakes is used below. The average particle diameter of the graphite flakes that are suitable for the present invention is at least 30 ]im and preferably no more than 3 mm.
Such flake-like particles display a high aspect ratio, i.e. their extent in the particle plane (length or
diameter) is substantially greater than their extent perpendicular to the particle plane (thickness). The aspect ratio of a graphite flake is the quotient of the length or diameter and thickness. Typical values lie in the range from 10:1 to 100:1. As a comparison: the aspect ratio of a spherical particle is 1, since its extent is the same in all spatial directions.
As a result of the anisotropic structure, the thermal conductivity in the flakes is greater in the direction
with the larger particle extent, in other words in the

flake plane, than in the direction with the smaller particle extent.
Natural graphites in particular display a marked layer plane structure and orientation of the crystallites. The special properties vary, however, between the individual geological deposits. In the case of synthetic graphites produced by graphitisation of carbon materials obtained by liquid-phase or solid-phase pyrolysis, the anisotropy is usually less strongly pronounced, and the shape of the particles is closer to the spherical form. However, there are also some types of synthetic graphite which display a marked anisotropy, e.g. Timrex® SFG from Timcal Ltd (Bodio, Switzerland).
With a suitable processing mode the alignment of the graphite particles is also retained in composite materials containing such graphite particles, so the anisotropy of the graphite can be utilised in the use of the corresponding composite material. In the present invention the composite materials consist of graphite particles and phase-change materials, which should have a high thermal conductivity in the desired direction of heat transfer. This can be achieved by aligning the graphite flakes when mixing them with the phase-change material by shaking, tamping or other suitable means, so that the thermal conductivity in the direction that is favourable for the individual application is maximised. The thermal conductivity of the latent heat storage material in one spatial direction is preferably at least twice as high as that in a perpendicular spatial direction.
A further deciding criterion for the choice of suitable graphite materials is the bulk density. On the one hand, the bulk density should not be as low as in expanded graphite, in order to avoid the problems in

conveying, metering, processing and incorporating the graphite material that are associated with a low bulk density. On the other hand, in a graphite with a low bulk density a larger proportion of pores and cavities is available in which the phase-change material can be incorporated, allowing composite materials having a higher volume content of phase-change material to be produced. Natural graphites and anisotropic synthetic graphites having a bulk density of between 250 g/1 and 700 g/1 are suitable for the present invention.
The volume-related graphite content in the composite materials according to the invention consisting of phase-change material and anisotropic graphite is 10 to 40 %, preferably 15 to 30 %. For composite materials having a phase-change material that passes to the liquid phase on changing phase, the composition of the composite material is preferably conformed to the bulk density of the graphite that is used. This means that the volume content of pores and cavities in the graphite in the form of a loosely packed bed is determined from a comparison between the bulk density and the theoretical density of the graphite (2.25 g/cm ) , and then a volume content of phase-change material is added that is calculated so that the pores and cavities are almost completely filled. With a composition adjusted in this way, separation processes, in particular settling of the graphite, when the phase-change material is in the liquid state, can be largely avoided. If the graphite content is lower, the liquid phase-change material and the graphite separate and the graphite particles settle on the bottom of the vessel. The higher the graphite content, the higher the viscosity of the mixture.
The intimate mixing of phase-change material and graphite is achieved by using suitable mixing methods,

for example stirring, mixing in a powder mixer, kneading or granulation.
Phase-change materials having a solid-liquid phase transition are preferably mixed in the liquid state with the flake-containing graphite, for example by stirring the graphite into the liquid phase-change material or by infiltration of the liquid phase-change material into a graphite bed containing graphite flakes. Infiltration can be supported by vacuum or pressure. The possibility of producing the composite material consisting of graphite and phase-change material by infiltration of the phase-change material into a loosely packed bed of graphite is a decisive advantage of the present invention in comparison to the use of expanded graphite. As a result of the very low bulk density it is technically extremely difficult to infiltrate loosely packed beds of expanded graphite with a liquid, because high foaming occurs and the expanded particles float. Moreover, the mechanical stability of particles of expanded graphite is so low that when a bed is covered with a layer of the liquid phase-change material prior to infiltration, both the structure of the bed and the individual particles are destroyed.
In order to be able to infiltrate expanded graphite with a liquid phase-change material, it must first be pre-compressed. It is known from DE-A 196 30 073, for example, that a porous matrix consisting of expanded graphite must be pre-compressed to a density of at least 75 g/1 for impregnation with a phase-change material in the liquid phase.
The composite materials according to the invention consisting of graphite and phase-change materials can be particularly advantageously produced by means of compounding processes known from plastics technology for

the production of compounds, e.g. kneading or granulation. Compounding by means of an extruder, for example a twin-screw extruder, is particularly preferred. The advantage of this process lies in the fact that the phase-change material is melted. Through the continuous incorporation of the graphite into the liquid phase, a greater homogeneity can be achieved than in a powder mixing process.
In comparison to the use known from the prior art of expanded graphite as the heat-conducting auxiliary agent for phase-change materials, the problems associated with conveying, metering, processing and incorporating materials having a low bulk density are avoided with the present invention. A further substantial advantage of the present invention lies in the fact that natural graphite can be used directly. By contrast, in order to produce expanded graphite from natural graphite, graphite salts must first be produced by treatment with concentrated acids and then expanded by exposure to high temperatures. The present invention enables the chemicals and heat energy needed for the production of expanded graphite to be saved, so that the latent heat storage material obtained is not only less expensive but also displays a more advantageous ecological balance.
In an advantageous further development of the present invention, mixtures containing graphite flakes and expanded graphite are added to the phase-change material as the heat-conducting auxiliary agent. By choosing the ratio of graphite flakes to expanded graphite, the person skilled in the art can specifically adjust the bulk density of the graphite in order to achieve as high a thermal conductivity as possible combined with the lowest possible graphite content in the latent heat storage material and the best possible processability of the graphite blend.

All phase-change materials that are inert in respect of graphite in the working temperature range can be used in the latent heat storage materials according to the invention. The process according to the invention for the production of latent heat storage units allows the use of various types of phase-change materials- The phase change can consist both in a transition between the liquid and solid phase and in a transition between various solid phases. The phase transition temperatures of the phase-change materials that are suitable for the latent heat storage material according to the invention are in the range from -100°C to +500°C. At phase transition temperatures above 500°C, increased care must therefore be taken to protect the graphite against oxidative attack from ambient oxygen.
Suitable phase-change materials are for example paraffins, sugar alcohols, gas hydrates, water, aqueous solutions of salts, salt hydrates, mixtures of salt hydrates, salts (particularly chlorides and nitrates) and eutectic blends of salts, alkali metal hydroxides and mixtures of several of the aforementioned phase-change materials, for example mixtures of salts and alkali metal hydroxides or of paraffins and salt hydrates. Typical salt hydrates that are suitable as a phase-change material are calcium chloride hexahydrate and sodium acetate trihydrate.
The choice of phase-change material is made according to the temperature range in which the latent heat storage
unit is used.
Auxiliary substances, e.g. nucleating agents, are added to the phase-change material if necessary, in order to
prevent supercooling during the solidification process. The volume content of nucleating agent in the latent

heat storage material should not exceed 2 %, since the volume content of nucleating agent is at the expense of the volume content of heat-storing phase-change material- Nucleating agents that significantly reduce supercooling of the phase-change material even in a low concentration are therefore needed. Suitable nucleating agents are substances that display a similar crystal structure and a similar melting point to the phase-change material that is used, for example tetrasodium diphosphate decahydrate for the phase-change material sodium acetate trihydrate.
The latent heat storage materials according to the invention can be used as a bed or as a moulded article.
Various moulding processes known inter alia from plastics technology are suitable for producing moulded articles containing the latent heat storage material according to the invention, for example press-moulding, extrusion and injection moulding. A high anisotropy of thermal conductivity is typical of these moulded articles, since the graphite flakes orient themselves perpendicular to the press-moulding direction or parallel to the injection or extrusion direction. The moulded articles are used either directly as heat storage units or as a component of a heat storage device.
In a press-moulded sheet made from the heat storage material according to the invention, the thermal conductivity parallel to the sheet plane is therefore higher than it is perpendicular to the sheet plane. The same applies to injection-moulded sheets if the injection point or injection points are located on one or more edges of the sheet. If, however, a moulded > article is to be produced in which the thermal
conductivity perpendicular to the plane is greater than that in the plane, this can be achieved by cutting the

article from a block of the latent heat storage material in which the graphite flakes are aligned, so that the cut surface and hence the plane of the cut-off article runs perpendicular to the orientation of the graphite flakes in the block. For example, the desired article can be sawn or sliced from a press-moulded block of the latent heat storage material of appropriate dimensions perpendicular to the press-moulding direction or from an extruded strand of appropriate dimensions perpendicular to the extrusion direction. A block in which the graphite flakes are aligned can also be produced by-infiltrating a bed containing graphite flakes, in which the flakes have been aligned by shaking, with a liquid phase-change material and then allowing this to solidify. Articles can likewise be cut from a block of this type in such a way that the cut plane is perpendicular to the orientation of the graphite flakes,
The anisotropy of thermal conductivity can be utilised in the structural design of the latent heat storage unit by preferably arranging the moulded article made from the latent heat storage material in such a way that the extent with the higher thermal conductivity lies in the direction of the desired heat transfer, in other words is oriented towards a heat exchanger profile or an object whose temperature is to be controlled.
For applications in which this is not feasible, a bed consisting of the latent heat storage material according to the invention can alternatively be used, which is introduced into an environmentally isolated container provided with heat exchanger profiles. For this variant of the heat storage unit the latent heat storage material is provided as a powdered mixture or as free-flowing granules.

If the phase-change material is in the liquid state, the flake-like graphite particles can be arranged in such a bed by tamping or shaking so that they are substantially horizontal. If vertical heat exchanger tubes are passed through a bed with graphite flakes oriented in this way, the graphite flakes oriented perpendicular to the heat exchanger tubes, i.e. directed away from the tubes, allow an effective supply of the heat from the heat exchanger tubes into the interior of the heat storage material or an effective removal of the heat from the interior of the heat storage material to the tubes. Such a horizontal arrangement in the bed can be achieved more easily with the flake-like particles of the anisotropic graphite used according to the invention than with the bulky particles of expanded graphite.
The latent heat storage material can also be produced directly in the container by filling this with a bed of flake-like graphite, aligning the graphite flakes horizontally by shaking or tamping and then infiltrating them with the liquid phase-change material, wherein the infiltration can be supported with pressure or vacuum. With expanded graphite as the heat-conducting auxiliary agent, this method would not be usable because of the difficulties involved in infiltrating a bed of expanded graphite, as already described.
The latent heat storage materials according to the invention can be used in latent heat storage units, for example for the temperature control and air conditioning of rooms, buildings and motor vehicles, for example for the transport of heat-sensitive goods, for cooling electronic components or for storing heat, in particular solar energy or process heat produced in industrial processes.

The invention is explained below by reference to
examples.
Example 1
In order to produce composite materials consisting of graphite and phase-change material in which the volume-related graphite content corresponds to the volume fraction of the particular graphite in the graphite bed, the following procedure was used: First of all the bulk density or compacted bulk density of the graphite to be used was determined. A bed of the graphite was then produced in a beaker. The graphite flakes are substantially oriented horizontally here. The graphite bed is then covered with a layer of the liquid phase-change material. The phase-change material is metered in such a way here that its volume content corresponds to the pore volume in the graphite bed. Under the influence of gravity the phase-change material flows into the pores in the graphite bed and fills them. This process can be made easier or accelerated by evacuation (vacuum infiltration) , the application of an external gas pressure (pressure infiltration) or a combination of both procedures (vacuum-pressure infiltration). Following solidification of the phase-change material a solid composite is formed, which can be removed from the beaker after partial melting of the surface, e.g. in a water bath.
As a consequence of the orientation of the graphite flakes, the composite consisting of graphite and phase-change material displays a higher thermal conductivity in the direction that was horizontal during infiltration ("horizontal thermal conductivity") than perpendicular to that direction ("vertical thermal conductivity"). By shaking the graphite bed before infiltration, the orientation and the volume content of the graphite in the heat storage material can be additionally increased.

Latent heat storage composites were produced using this procedure from the graphites listed in Table 1 and the phase-change material paraffin RT54 (Rubitherm, Germany), which displays a solidification point of 54°C. Samples were taken from the cooled graphite-paraffin composites, on which the horizontal thermal conductivity with the paraffin in the solidified state was determined.
As a result of the differing bulk densities or compacted bulk densities, the composite materials produced in this way display diverging graphite contents. In order nevertheless to be able to compare the heat-conducting properties of the various composites, the thermal conductivity was divided by the volume fraction of graphite in the composite. This value characterises the effectiveness of the type of graphite used in each case in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity achieved. The results are summarised in Table 2. It was found that based on the volume content in the paraffin-graphite composite, natural graphites or anisotropic synthetic graphites result in a significantly higher increase in the thermal conductivity of the composite than isotropic synthetic graphites.



isotropic synthetic graphite (KS 150) respectively with approximately the same graphite content were produced by the method described in Example 1. The horizontal thermal conductivity was determined when the paraffin had solidified. Despite the somewhat lower graphite content, the composite with natural graphite displayed a substantially higher thermal conductivity than the comparative sample with isotropic synthetic graphite (see Table 3).

Example 3
In order to investigate the influence of the phase-change material on the thermal conductivity of the composite, composite materials consisting of natural graphite TFL 898 and the phase-change materials RT54 (Rubitherm, Germany) or sodium acetate trihydrate (NaAc * 3 H2O, Silbermann, Germany) were produced by the method described in Example 1. The horizontal thermal conductivities of the composite materials and of the pure phase-change materials are shown in Table 4. The higher thermal conductivity of the pure NaAc * 3 H20 in comparison to the pure RT54 also leads to a higher conductivity in the NaAc * 3H2O-graphite composite-


Example 4
Table 5 shows the horizontal thermal conductivity of composites consisting of natural graphite (TFL 898) and the paraffin RT54 with various graphite contents. The composites were produced in the same way as in Example 1. A higher graphite content leads to a higher thermal conductivity.

Example 5
In order to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conductivity in graphite-containing latent heat storage materials, composites were produced from the phase-change material paraffin RT54 and natural graphites (Stratmin 5098, Luoyang 599) and isotropic synthetic graphite (KS 150) respectively by the method described in Example 1. In order to improve the orientation of the flakes the bed of Luoyang 599 was shaken before infiltration with paraffin. The thermal conductivity in the horizontal and vertical direction was measured in all composite materials. The anisotropy factor A was determined from the quotient of these two values. The

results are summarised in Table 6, The composites with natural graphite-as the heat-conducting auxiliary agent display significantly higher thermal conductivities in the horizontal direction and anisotropy factors than the composite containing isotropic synthetic graphite. The comparison between the two composite materials containing natural graphite shows that the composite with horizontally oriented graphite particles displays a lower vertical thermal conductivity on the one hand but a substantially higher horizontal thermal conductivity on the other. This leads to a markedly higher anisotropy factor.




Claims
1. Latent heat storage material containing a phase-
change material having incorporated particles of
graphite,
characterised in that
at least a part of the graphite is made up of flakes having a high anisotropy of thermal conductivity and a high aspect ratio and consisting of at least one of the materials natural graphite and anisotropic synthetic graphite.
2. Latent heat storage material according to claim 1,
characterised in that
the thermal conductivity of the graphite particles in the various crystallographic directions differs by a factor of at least 50.
3. Latent heat storage material according to claim 1
or 2, characterised in that
the aspect ratio of the graphite flakes is at least 1:10.
4. Latent heat storage material according to one of
the preceding claims, characterised in that
the average particle diameter dso of the graphite flakes is at least 30 pm.
5. Latent heat storage material according to one of
the preceding claims, characterised in that
the bulk density of the graphite flakes is between 250 g/1 and 700 g/1.
6. Latent heat storage material according to one of
the preceding claims, characterised in that

the volume content of the graphite flakes in the latent heat storage material is between 10 and 40 %.
Latent heat storage material according to one of
the preceding claims, characterised in that
the thermal conductivity of the latent heat storage
material in one spatial direction is at least twice
as high as that in a perpendicular spatial
direction.
Latent heat storage material according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that graphite flakes and particles of expanded graphite are incorporated in the phase-change material.
Latent heat storage material according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the latent heat storage material contains at least one phase-change material having a melting point in the range from -100°C to +500°C from the group comprising paraffins, sugar alcohols, gas hydrates, water, aqueous solutions of salts, salt hydrates, mixtures of salt hydrates, salts and eutectic blends of salts, alkali metal hydroxides and mixtures of several of the aforementioned phase-change materials.
Latent heat storage material according to claim 9, characterised in that the latent heat storage
material contains the phase-change material sodium acetate trihydrate.
Latent heat storage material according to claim 9, characterised in that the latent heat storage material contains the phase-change material calcium chloride hexahydrate.

12. Latent heat storage material according to one of
the preceding claims, characterised in that the
latent heat storage material contains at least one
nucleating agent.
13. Latent heat storage unit containing a latent heat
storage material according to one of claims 1
to 12, characterised in that
the latent heat storage material in the latent heat storage unit is in the form of a loosely packed bed or free-flowing granules.
14. Latent heat storage unit containing a latent heat
storage material according to one of claims 1
to 12, characterised in that
the latent heat storage unit contains a moulded article containing the latent heat storage material.
15. Process for the production of a latent heat storage
material according to one of claims 1 to 12,
characterised in that
the components of the latent heat storage material
are mixed by means of a mixer, extruder or kneader.
16. Process for the production of a latent heat storage
material according to one of claims 1 to 12,
comprising the following steps:
- production of a bed of graphite containing
graphite flakes in a vessel
- covering of the bed with a layer of the liquid
phase-change material
- infiltration of the bed with the liquid phase-
change material
- solidification of the phase-change material

17. Process for the production of a latent heat storage
material according to one of claims 1 to 12 or 16,
characterised in that the graphite flakes are
oriented by shaking or tamping.
18. Process for the production of a latent heat storage
unit containing a latent heat storage material
according to one of claims 1 to 12, comprising the
following steps:

- provision of a heat storage container having heat
exchanger tubes running in a vertical direction
- introduction of a graphite bed containing
graphite flakes into the space between the tubes
- orientation of the graphite flakes by shaking or
tamping
- covering of the graphite bed with a layer of a
liquid phase-change material
- infiltration of the graphite bed with the phase-
change material

19. Process according to claim 16 or 18, characterised
in that a vacuum or overpressure is applied during
infiltration.
20. Process for the production of a latent heat storage
unit according to claim 14,
characterised in that
a moulded article is produced from the latent heat storage material by one of the processes comprising injection moulding, extrusion and press-moulding.
21. Process for the production of a latent heat storage
unit according to claim 14, characterised in that
the moulded article is produced by cutting it from
a block of the latent heat storage material in
which the graphite flakes display an orientation,

the cutting plane being perpendicular to the orientation of the graphite flakes.
22. Use of latent heat storage materials according to one of the preceding claims for the temperature
control and air conditioning of rooms, buildings and motor vehicles, for the transport of heat-sensitive goods, for cooling electronic components or for storing heat, solar energy or process heat produced in industrial processes-


Documents:

0570-che-2005-abstract.pdf

0570-che-2005-claims.pdf

0570-che-2005-correspondnece-others.pdf

0570-che-2005-description(complete).pdf

0570-che-2005-form 1.pdf

0570-che-2005-form 3.pdf

0570-che-2005-form 5.pdf

0570-che-2005-others.pdf

570-CHE-2005 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 19-01-2011.pdf

570-che-2005 form-3 19-01-2011.pdf

570-CHE-2005 OTHER PATENT DOCUMENT 19-01-2011.pdf

570-CHE-2005 CORRESPONDENCE OTHERS 07-05-2010.pdf

570-CHE-2005 AMENDED CLAIMS 31-12-2011.pdf

570-CHE-2005 EXAMINATION REPORT REPLY RECIEVED 31-12-2011.pdf


Patent Number 246685
Indian Patent Application Number 570/CHE/2005
PG Journal Number 11/2011
Publication Date 18-Mar-2011
Grant Date 10-Mar-2011
Date of Filing 13-May-2005
Name of Patentee SGL CARBON AG
Applicant Address RHEINGAUSTRASSE 182, D-65203 WIESBADEN, GERMANY
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 BACHER, JURGEN OFFESENBERGRING 9, D-86637 WERTLINGEN, GERMANY
2 OTTINGER, OSWIN SCHLESIERSTRASSE 17, D-86405 MEITINGEN, GERMANY
3 CHRIST, MARTIN ZUGSPITZSTRASSE 24, D-86517 WEHRINGEN, GERMANY
PCT International Classification Number C09K 5/06
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 04 011 756.6-1218 2004-05-18 EUROPEAN UNION