Title of Invention

"A MOBILE DEVICE FOR TRANSMITTING WIRELESS SIGNAL AND METHOD FOR AMPLIFYING THE SAME"

Abstract A method and apparatus for regulating Tx power in a multi-rate mobile device transmitter containing signal dependent gain stages. A data rate and signal format indicator signal corresponding to the transmitted signal, and a desired reference power signal are fed to a mapper that outputs a calibration value based on the desired reference power level at the antenna. The calibration value controls the power amplifier gain characteristics in real time.
Full Text TECHNICAL FIELD
The present invention relates to a mobile device for transmitting wireless signal and method for amplifying the same.
BACKGROUND ART
Many wireless communications standards require accurate regulation of transmitted power depending not only on the radio link, but also on data rates and signal formats (i.e., coding and modulation methods). As an example, cdma2000 has defined requirements for accurate transmitted (Tx) power control, such as open loop and closed loop power control in the reverse link. The relative power requirements are also defined for each of the various code channels (e.g., pilot, FCH: fundamental channel; SCH: supplemental channel; DCCH: dedicated control channel; etc.) according to their data rates and signal formats. Further information concerriing cdma2000 on transmitted power requirements can be foimd in section 2.1.2 of IS-2000-2, which is incorporated herein by reference. Nor are such requirements only linuted to cdma2000. Many other communications standards also have similar requirements, such as 3GPP UMTS, 3GPP2 IxEVDO. To meet these requirements, accurate calibration and compensation methods must be implemented for such impairments as AGC control characteristic nonlinearity. This nonlinearity is a gain control characteristic which appears as a nonlinearity in the AGC amplifier gain as a function of the control voltage input to the AGC amplifier.
A further source of variation is signal dependent gain variation (signal power level dependent gain variation and signal distribution dependent gain variation), which has heretofore not been compensated for. Signal dependent gain variation is mainly due to the non-purely Class-A nature of an amplifier, or nonlinearity of other devices such as mixers. Most significantly, such signal dependent gain variation is observed in the power
amplifiers (PA), which require high power efficiency. In order to achieve high power efficiency, many PAs in the market utilize a self-bias design for the wireless mobile devices, in which the amount of bias is dependent on the input signal strength (instantaneous value or its envelope magnitude or both). Thus, a change of input level varies the gain. Changes in either data rate or signal format result in variation of the signal distribution (e.g., peak to average power ratio). Such changes also typically alter the effective gains in such amplifiers.
It is, therefore, desirable to provide a method and apparatus that compensates for signal dependent gain variations.
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to obviate or mitigate at least one disadvantage of previous methods and apparatus that regulate the required Tx power, particularly m a mobile device. It is further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for regulating Tx power in a tremsmitter that contains stage(s) whose gain is dependent on signal variations.
In a first aspect of the present invention there is provided a mobile device for transmitting a wireless signal. The mobile device comprises a frame generator, a reference power source, a wireless transmitter and an amplifier controller. The frame generator generates a signal having a data rate and signal format The reference power source generates a desired reference power level. The wireless transmitter has an amplifier with at least one stage that manifests a signal dependent gain, the amplifier receives the generated signal and amplifies the received signal in accordance with a received amplifier control signal to compensate for the at least one stage that manifests the signal dependent gain. The amplifier controller receives from the frame generator the data rate and signal format associated with the generated signal, receives the desired reference power level from the reference power source, maps the desired reference power level, the data rate and signal format to an amplifier control signal value in accordance with known nonlinearities associated with the at least one stage that manifests the signal dependent gain, and for generating tlie amplifier control signal in accordance with the mapped amplifier control signal value.
In a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of amplifying a generated signal, in a mobile device having an amplifier with at least one stage that manifests a signal dependent gain, an amplifier controller, and a reference power source. The method comprises receiving a data rate and signal format signal associated with the generated signal; determining a desired degree of amplification in accordance with the data rate and signal format signal, and the desired reference power level, and nonlinearities associated with the known signal dependent gain; mapping the determined degree of amplification to an amplifier control signal value; generating an amplifier control signal in accordance with the mapped amplifier control signal value; and amplifying the generated signal in accordance with the generated amplifier control signal to compensate for the at least one stage that manifests the signal dependent gain.
In a third aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of amplifying a generated signal, in a mobile device having an amplifier with at least one stage that manifests a signal dependent gain, an amplifier controller, and a reference power source. The method comprises receiving a data rate and signal format signal associated with the generated signal; select a mapping from an array of mappings, the mapping reflecting known nonlinearities associated with the signal dependent gain, in accordance with the data rate and signal format signal; determining an amplifier control signal value using the selected mapping in accordance with a reference power level received from the reference power source; generating an amplifier control signal in accordance wiih the mapped amplifier control signal value; and amplifying the generated signal in accordance with the generated amplifier control signal to compensate for the at least one stage that manifests the signal dependent gain.
Other aspects and features of the present invention will become apparent to those ordincirily skilled in the art upon review of the following description of specific embodiments of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying figures.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Embodiments of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the attached Figures, wherein:
Fig. I is a block diagram of a first embodiment of a transmitter system according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a block diagram of a second embodiment of a transmitter system according to the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a block diagram of a third embodiment of a transmitter system according to the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a flowchart illustrating a method according to an embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is a flowchart illustrating a further method according to an embodiment of the present invention; and
Fig. 6 is a flowchart illustrating a method of an alternate embodiment of the
present invention.
BEST MODE OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Generally, the present invention provides a method and apparatus for regulating transmitted (Tx) power, particularly m a mobile device. The present invention provides a method and apparatus for regulating Tx power in a mobile device transmitter supporting multiple data rates and signal formats, and containing signal dependent gain stage(s). Throughout the specification, signal formats refer to coding and modulation methods.
In many power amplifiers, a self-bias design is implemented for efficiency. The self-bias introduces a non-linearity in the amplifier. This non-linearity is signal dependent, and alters the gain characteristic of the amplifier at different signal levels, and with different signal distributions caused by change of data rates and signal formats. Thus, the mapping between a desired reference power level and the control signal value used to generate the required amplification to realize the desired Tx power can vary with the data rate and signal format of the signal to be amplified, as well as with the signal level tliat is input to the amplifying stage that manifests such nonlinearity. These non-linearities are amplifier specific, and arise as a result of both amplifier design, and the specific manufacturing process, thus the non-linearities of two different amplifiers manufactured using the same process may not be identical.
For ease of description, throughout the specification, the transmitter is described by a simplified model. Many of the detailed aspects of the transmitter are not directly related to this invention and are well known to those skilled in the art and are thus intentionally omitted. Such elements include I-Q modulation, up-conversion, and filtering. For the purposes of the present discussion, the transmitter is modeled by two blodcs, an AGC amplifier, and an amplifying stage that manifests signal dependent gain variation. The amplifying stage with signal dependent gain variation usually is a power amplifier (PA), but may also include other components such as a mixer. Regardless, the total amount of signal dependent gain variation is modeled as a gain incremental AG.
The cdma2000 standard is used as the example for the description of the prsesently preferred embodiments, however, the present invention can be applied to other conununication standards, including 3GPP UMTS and 3GPP2 IxEVDO, as will be well understood by those of skill in the art. To this end, "reference power", as used herein, refers to the particular part of the power in the total transmitted power that the wireless communication standard directly specifies. For example, in IS-2000-2, for RCl and RC2 (RC stands for "radio configuration"), the reference power in this specification means the total gated on power; for RC3 and above, the reference power means the portion of the power in the pilot channel. All other parts of the total power (if any) are regulated relative to the reference power (e.g., the power in FCH at data rate 9600 bps is +3.75 dB relative to the reference power by default in IS-2000-2).
As illustrated in Figure 1, a frame generator 100, such as a data encoder and modulator, generates a signal, s, which is transmitted to an amplifier 124 in transmitter 120. In series with AGC amplifier 124 is the ampHfier stage manifesting gain incremoital AG 126. Amplifier 124 is controlled by amplifier controller 105 to mitigate the nonlinearities of gain incronental AG 126.
The transmitted signal is gain adjusted by the AGC amplifier 124 in accordance with a control signal y, and then provided to the amplifying stage 126 that manifests the signal dependent gain variation AG 126, whose value is dependent on the input signal level, input signal data rate, and input signal format. For simplicity, the following description ignores sources of gain variation such as temperature, frequency, and battery voltage related gain variations. Instead, the focus is on AG itself and an aspect that is
tightly coupled with AG: the AGC control characteristic, which is the gain of the AGC amplifier 124 in dB as a function of the control voltage of the voltage-controlled AGC amplifier 124. As used herein and throughout the specification, a "reference signal" or a "reference data rate and signal format" means a data rate and signal format, often arbitrarily chosen, that is used for calibration procedures.
Frame generator 100 genrates the encoded and modulated signal fi:ames to be transmitted at one of a plurality of supported data rates. The data rate may vary over time. The total power of the output signal, s, containing the encoded and modulated signal frames, produced by the frame goierator is normalized to the same mean power level for all data rates, and the relative power of the individual code channels are also accurately regulated by digital means to the desired values. A data rate and signal format indicator signal, r, is also generated simultaneously by the frame generator. In one ranbodiment, a delay block "x" 114 is employed to ensure time alignmait of signal s and the amplifio-controller signal y. One skilled in the art will apreciate that the delay block "x" 114 may not physically exist as a delay unit in an implementation, so long as the alignmoit of signal s and the corresponding amplifier control signal is maintained. The transmitted signal s, after delay alignment and digital to analog conversion at D/Al 116, is fed to the transmitter 120. Signal s is gain adjusted by AGC amplifier 124 and is affected by signal dependent gain, AG 126, before it is transmitted.
On a second data path, data rate and signal format indicator r, is provided by frame generator 100 and is received by a first miapper 106 in amplifier controlletr- 105. First mapper 106 contains a mapping from the data rate and signal format r to a gain adjustment amount d(r) that is generated through a calibration process to ensure that the nonlinearities of signal depend devices, reference power level p is derived fix)m both the open loop and closed-loop power control system. This derivation of reference power level p is well understood in the art. Both d(r) and p are provided to a second mapper 110, preferably after being combined by an adder 112. With proper calibration of first mapper 106, the value resulting fi-om the additive combination of d(r) and p is related to the desired degree of amplification for signal s. This value is provided to the second mapper 110 to map to an amplifier control signal y. The mapping table values in the second mapper 110 are determined by calibration procedures that reflect implementation specific information about AGC amplifier 124, signal depeaident gain variation 126 and other elements of transmitter 120. The amplifier control signal y is provided to a control input of amplifier 124, and is preferably aligned with signal s in time at the output of AGC amplifier 124.
Signal s and amplifier control signal y are preferably converted from digital signals to analog representations of the digital signals by digital-to-analog converters 116 and 118, respectively. The analog representation of amplifier control y may also be low-pass-filtered by LPF 122, to smooth the control of amplifier 124. AGC amplifer 124 then amplifies the analog representation of signal s in accordance with smoothed amplifier control signal y', the analog representation of y, or a filtered version there of The result of the amplification is that signal s is amplified in a maimer that compensates for the signal dependent gain AG 126.
The method to calibrate the first mapper 106 and the second mapper 110 moping table values will now be described. Using a reference signal generated by the frame generator 100 with a reference data rate and signal format, the second mapper 110 output value y is calibrated by the system of the presently illustrated embodiment as follows. For a reference data rate and signal format rref the value d(rrcf) is defined as 0 dB, for each given value p, the second mapper 110 adjusts output value y corresponding to p so that the transmitted reference power measured at the antenna is the expected value p. Note that the manner in which the value y is detomined already compensates both the nonlinear relationships in the transmitter, i.e., the gain in dB of amplifier 124 as a fimction of the value of the amplifier control signal y, and variation in the AG 126 as a fimction of the input signal level, where the input signal for calibration is the selected reference data rate and signal format. For example, choosing RCl in IS-2000-2 as the referaice signal, the
reference power is the total gated on transmitted power. The calibrated value y stored in the second mapper results in the expected total transmitted power p at antenna for any value of p generated by the reference power source 108.
The output of the first maper 106, d(r), is preferably calibrated as follows: for each data rate and signal format r that the mobile device supports, and for a pre-selected value of p, the value d(r) is adjusted so that the transmitted output reference power measured at the antenna for data rate r is p. Note the manner in which the value d(r) is determined results in d(r) being composed of two parts. The first part accounts for the difference in dB in total transmitted power between r and rref, given the same reference power, where r and Tref are the curroit and the reference data rates and signal formats, respectively. This part usually can be pre-calculated according to standard. The second part compensates for the gain difference in AG 126, between data rates and signal formats r and fref, which is caused by the signal distribution change between r and rref. This second part usually cannot be pre-calculated and has to be calibrated, if significant Whenever the data rate and signal format changes, the impropriate gain adjustment d(r) is applied at the same time because the two paths are delay aligned, as has been described above. In the above calibration, it is assumed that the gain variation in dB caused by data rate and signal fonnat change is nearly independent of that caused by signal level change, which is true in a large range of operation of interest.
In instances where signal level and signal distribution caused gain variations are dependent, an alternative embodiment as shown in Figure 2 can be used to compensate for the dependent gain variations. Refering to Fig. 2, the first mapper 106 is an array of mappers. The data rate and signal format indicator r is used to select a member mapper within the array. Each monber mapper of the array selected in accordance with r receives the desired reference power level p from reference power source 108 and maps it to a corresponding output value d(r, p) in accordance with the values of p and r. Following the mapping of p and r to d(r,p), and after d(r,p) is additively combined with p fi'om reference power source 108 at an adder 112, the combined signal is provided to second mapper 110, which maps the sum of d(r,p) and p to an amplifier control signal y- Other aspects of this embodiment preferably remain the same as in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1.
The method to calibrate the second mapper 110 also remains the same as described hereinabove for the embodiment of Figure 1. In this instance, the adjustment amount d(r, p) stored in the mapper 106 is calibrated for each data rate and signal format r respectively so that, for each value of the desired reference power level p input to the first mapper 106, the required reference power p is achieved at the antenna.
Alternatively in a fiirther embodiment, as shown in Figure 3, the first and second mappers, 106 and 110, and the adder 112 are removed and replaced by an array mapper 111 with two inputs. The first input is the data rate and signal format indicator r provided by the frame generator 100; the second input is the desired reference power p provided by the reference power source 108. The input r selects a member mapper in the array mapper 111 that maps the input p to an output of amplifier control signal y. Other aspects remain the same as in the embodiments in Fig. 1 or Fig. 2. Each of the member mapper contains a mapping table that is calibrated for the corresponding r to get correct reference power value p at the antenna for any value p provided by the reference power source 108.
Figure 4 illustrates a method according to an embodiment of the present invention. In step 200 the data rate and signal format of the generated signal s are received. The desired degree of amplification is determined in accordance with the data rate and signal format of the received signal, the reference power level and pre-calibrated values determined in accordance with the nonlinear characteristics of the amplifiers in step 202. This desired degree of amplification is subsequently mapped to an amplifier control signal value in step 203. The mapping of the desired degree of amplification to the amplifier control signal value is preferably performed in accordance with pre-calibrated values reflecting characteristics of the amplifiers and transmitter system. In step 204, an amplifier control signal is generated in accordance witii the mapping of step 203.
Figure 5 illustrates another method according to an embodiment of the present invention. As before, in step 200 the data rate and signal format of the generated signal are received. Step 202, the determination of the desired degree of amplification, is achieved by first selecting a member mapping table in accordance with the determined data rate and signal fonnat as shown in step 208. And then, at step 209, receive the desired reference power level and map it to a pre-calibrated gain adjustment value that reflects the non-linear signal dependent gain characteristics of the amplifiers corresponding to the
determined data rate and signal format In step 210 the degree of amplification is determined in accordance with both the pie-calibrated gain adjustment value and the reference power level. In step 203, the determined desired degree of amplilification is mapped to an amplifier control signal value. In step 204, an amplifier control signal is generated in accordance with the mapping of step 203.
For the embodiment employing array mapper 111, diere is the exemplary method illustrated in Figure 6. In step 200, the data rate and signal format of the generated signal are received. Along with the desired reference power level, these values are used, in step 202a, to select one of an array of maps which account for the nonlinearities of the amplifier, much as the degree of amplification was previously determined using the same inputs. The selected mapping is used in step 203a to map the reference power level to an amplifier control signal value. The amplifier control signal value is used in step 204 to generate the amplifier control signal.
The above-described embodiments of the present invention are intended to be examples only. Alterations, modifications and variations may be effected to the particular embodiments by those of skill in the art without departing from the scope of the invention, which is defined solely by the claims appended hereto.
INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY
The present invention provides advantages in the field of power regulation in mobile devices





We Claim:
1. A mobile device for transmitting wireless signal, the said mobile device
comprising:
a frame generator (100) for generating a signal (s) having a data rate and signal format;
a reference pov/er source (108) for generating a desired reference power level (p);
a wireless transmitter (120) having an amplifier (124) with at least one stage (126) that manifests a signal dependent gain (AG), the amplifier (124) for receiving the generated signal (s) and for amplifying the received signal (s) in accordance with a received amplifier control signal (y) to compensate for the at least one stage (126) that manifests the signal dependent gain (AG); and an amplifier controller (105) for receiving from the frame generator (100) the data rate and signal format (r) associated with the generated signal (s), for receiving the desired reference power level (p) from the reference power source (108), for mapping the desired reference power level (p), the data rate and signal format (r) to an amplifier control signal value in accordance with known nonlinearities associated with the at least one stage (126) that manifests the signal dependent gain (AG), and for generating the amplifier control signal (y) in accordance with the mapped amplifier control signal value.
2. The mobile device as claimed in claim 14 wherein the amplifier controller (105) comprises a mapper (106, 100) for mapping the desired reference power level (p), the data rate and signal format (r) associated with the generated signal and known non-linearities associated with the at least one amplifier stage (126) that manifests the signal dependent gain (AG) to a degree of amplification and for mapping the degree of amplification to the amplifier control signal value.
3. The mobile device as claimed in claims 1 or 2 comprising a delay buffer (114) for receiving and holding the generated signal (s) from the frame generator (100) and for providing the received signal (s) to the amplifier (124) when the amplifier controller (105) generates the amplifier control signal (y) corresponding to the held signal.
4. The mobile device as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 16 comprising:
a first digital to analog converter (116) for receiving the buffered signal (s) from the delay buffer (114) , for converting the buffered signal (s) to an analog representation, and for providing the analog representation to the transmitter (120); and
a second digital to analog converter (118) for receiving from the amplifier controller (105) the amplifier control signal (y), for converting the amplifier control signal (y) to an analog representation, and for providing the analog representation of the amplifier control signal (y) to the amplifier (124).
5. The mobile device as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 4, wherein the
amplifier controller (105) comprises:
a first mapper (106) for receiving from the frame generator (100) the data rate and signal format (r), for mapping the data rate and signal format (r) to a gain adjustment value (d(r)) in accordance with pre-calibrated values; and
a second mapper (110) for receiving the gain adjustment value (d(r)) from the first mapper (106), for receiving the desired reference power level (p) from the reference power source (108), and for mapping the desired reference power level (p) and the gain adjustment value (d(r)) to the amplifier control signal value in accordance with the known nonlinearities.
6. The mobile device system as claimed in claim 18, wherein the amplifier controller (105) comprises an adder (112) for adding the gain adjustment value (d(r)) from the first mapper (106) and the desired reference power level (p) from the reference power source (108), and for providing the resulting signal to the second mapper (110).
7. The mobile device as claimed in claim 18 or claim 6, wherein the first mapper (106) comprises a lookup table with pre-calibrated entries reflecting the nonlinearities in the transmitter (120) for deternnirung the gain adjustment value in accordance with the data rate and signal format indicator signal (r), and the second mapper (110) comprises a lookup table with pre-calibrated entries reflecting the nonlinearities in the transmitter (120) to deternnine the amplifier control signal value in accordance with the desired reference power level (p) and the gain adjustment value (d(r)).
8. The mobile device as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 6, wherein the amplifier controller (105) comprises a lookup table for determining a degree of amplification in accordance with the desired reference power level (p), the data rate and the signal format (r) associated with generated signal and the known non-linearities of the transmitter (120).
9. A method of amplifying a generated signal (s), in a mobile device having an amplifier (124) with at least one stage (126) that manifests a signal dependent gain (AG), an amplifier controller (105), and a reference power source (108), said amplifier controller performing the steps of:
receiving a data rate and signal format signal (r) associated with the
generated signal (s);
determining a desired degree of amplification in accordance with
the data rate and signal format signal (r), and the desired reference
power level (p), and nonlinearities associated with the known signal
dependent gain (AG);
mapping the determined degree of amplification to an amplifier
control signal value;
generating an amplifier control signal (y) in accordance with the
mapped amplifier control signal value; and
amplifying the generated signal (s) in accordance with the generated
amplifier control signal (y) to compensate for the at least one stage
(126) that manifests the signal dependent gain (AG).
10. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein the step of determining the degree of amplification comprises performing a table lookup in accordance with the data rate and signal format (r) signal, the desired reference power level (p), and the nonlinearities associated with the signal dependent gain (AG).
11. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein the step of determining the degree of amplification comprises selecting one of a plurality of lookup tables with pre-calibrated entries reflecting non-linearities in the amplifier (124), in accordance with the data rate and signal format signal (r), performing a table lookup in accordance with the desired reference power level (p), and the desired reference power level (p).
12. The method as claimed in any one of claims 22 to 11,comprising the
step of filtering the generated amplifier control signal (y), prior to the
step of amplifying, to prevent rapid changes in the degree of
amplification.
13. A wireless communication system comprising at least one mobile
device according to any one of claims 1 to 8.

Documents:

1702-delnp-2005-abstract.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-assignment.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-claims..pdf

1702-delnp-2005-complete specification(as files).pdf

1702-delnp-2005-complete specification(granted).pdf

1702-delnp-2005-correspondence-others.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-correspondence-po.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-description (complete).pdf

1702-delnp-2005-drawings.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-form-1.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-form-13.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-form-18.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-form-2.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-form-3.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-form-5.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-gpa.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-101.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-301.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-304.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-401.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-402.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-409.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-pct-416.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-petition-137.pdf

1702-delnp-2005-petition-138.pdf


Patent Number 245859
Indian Patent Application Number 1702/DELNP/2005
PG Journal Number 06/2011
Publication Date 11-Feb-2011
Grant Date 03-Feb-2011
Date of Filing 27-Apr-2005
Name of Patentee RESEARCH IN MOTION LIMITED
Applicant Address 295 PHILLIP STREET, WATERLOO, ONTARIO N2L 2T8, CANADA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 JIN Xin, 508-1129 MEADOWLANDS DRIVE, NEPEAN, ONTARIO K2E 6J6 CANADA.
2 SANGARY Nagula T., 520 BUCKINGHAM BLVD., WATERLOO,ONTARIO N2T 2T9 CANADA.
3 ISLAM M. Khaledul, 27 WINDHURST DR.,NEPEAN, ONTARIO K2G 6G5 CANADA.
4 ZHAO Wen, 27 WYNRIDGE PLACE, KANATA, ONTARIO K2M 2S8, CANADA.
5 KHAN Nasserullah, 248 OLD ABBEY RD, WATERLOO,ONTARIO N2K 2W6 CANADA.
6 CHAN Wen-Yen 38 EDGECROFT TRAIL, THORNHILL, ONTARIO L4J 6N6 CANADA.
7 JIAO Qing Zhong 37 OBERON STREE, NEPEAN,ONTARIO K2H 7X6 CANADA.
PCT International Classification Number H03G 3/30
PCT International Application Number PCT/CA2003/001694
PCT International Filing date 2003-11-04
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 60/423,354 2002-11-04 U.S.A.