Title of Invention

MOVING PICTURE CODING METHOD AND MOVING PICTURE DECODING METHOD

Abstract A moving picture coding apparatus 1 includes a counter unit 102 which counts the number of pictures following an intra coded picture; and a motion estimation unit 101 which compares respectively only reference pictures which are the intra coded picture or the following pictures, selected from among a reference picture Revel, a reference picture Ref2 and a reference picture Ref3 stored in memories 408--'410, with a picture signal Vin, and determines the reference picture whose inter picture differential value is smallest.
Full Text

DESCRIPTION
MOVING PICTURE CODING METHOD AND MOVING PICTURE DECODING METHOD
Technical Field
The present invention relates to a moving picture coding method, a moving picture coding apparatus, a moving picture decoding method and a moving picture decoding apparatus for coding or decoding a moving picture signal with reference to a plurality of coded pictures or decoded pictures, and to a recording medium which stores a program for executing such coding or decoding in the form of software.
Background Art
In the age of multimedia which integrally handles audio, video and other information such as pixel values, existing information media, i.e., newspapers, magazines, televisions, radios, telephones and other means through which information is conveyed to people, have recently come to be included in the scope of multimedia. Generally, multimedia refers to something that is represented by associating not only characters, but also graphics, voices, and especially pictures and the like together, but in order to include the aforementioned existing information media in the scope of multimedia, it appears as a prerequisite to represent such information in digital form.
However, when calculating the amount of information contained in each of the aforementioned information media as the amount of digital information, while the amount of information per character is 1~2 bytes, the amount of information to be required for voice is 64Kbits or over per second (telephone quality), and loom bits or over per second for moving pictures (current television reception quality), and it is not realistic for the aforementioned

information media to handle such an enormous amount of information as it is in digital form. For example, although video phones are already in the actual use via Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) which offers a transmission speed of 64KbpS l.5Mbps, it is not practical to transmit video information shot by television cameras directly through ISDN.
Against this backdrop, information compression techniques have become required, and moving picture compression techniques compliant with H.261 and H.263 standards recommended by ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union -Telecommunication Standardization Sector) are employed for video phones, for example. Moreover, according to information compression techniques compliant with the MPEG-1 standard, it is possible to store picture information in an ordinary music CD (compact disc) together with sound information.
Here, MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) is an international standard on digital compression of moving picture signals, and MPEG-1 is a standard for compressing television signal information approximately into one hundredth so that moving picture signals can be transmitted at a rate of 1.5Mbps. Furthermore, since transmission speed within the scope of the MPEG-1 standard is limited primarily to about 1.5Mbps, MPEG-2, which was standardized with a view to satisfy requirements for further improved picture quality, allows data transmission of moving picture signals at a rate of 2'^15Mbps.
Furthermore, MPEG-4 which provides a higher compression ratio has been standardized by the working group (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) which was engaged in the standardization of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. Not only is it possible to perform a highly efficient coding at a low bit rate, MPEG-4 employs a powerful technique for error resilience which lessens the degradation of picture quality to be judged from a subjective standpoint, even

when a transmission channel error occurs. Also, ITU-T has started work for standardization of H.26L as a next-generation picture coding method.
MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 have allowed substantial improvement of compression ratio using inter predictive picture coding (hereinafter referred to as inter picture coding) for coding or decoding a differential value between a current picture to be coded or decoded and a reference picture (a picture signal of a picture which has been coded or decoded most recently) with reference to the reference picture (See, for example, ISO/IEC 13818-2 "INTERNATIONAL STANDARD Information technology -Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Video", December 15, 2000, p. 7, Intro. 4.1.1).
In addition, compression of the amount of information can be realized by reducing redundancies in the temporal and spatial directions. In the inter predictive picture coding which aims at reducing the temporal redundancies, a predictive picture is created with reference to previously coded or decoded pictures (reference pictures) and the differential value between the resulting predictive picture and a current picture to be coded is coded. Here, a picture is a term representing one sheet of an Image, and specifically, a picture means a frame in a progressive Image and a frame or a field in an Interlace image.
As of September, 2001, the proposed H.26L standard allows not only reference only to a picture which has been coded or decoded immediately before a current picture to be coded or decoded, but also reference to an arbitrary picture selected, as a reference picture, from a plurality of pictures which have been coded or decoded prior to the current picture.
Fig. 1 shows an illustration of a concept of a conventional moving picture coding method and a moving picture decoding method. Fig. 1 Is an example in which an arbitrary picture is

selected as a reference picture from 3 pictures preceding a current picture to be coded or decoded. In Fig. 1, pictures are ordered in display order, and the display time of the picture at the far left is earliest. The pictures are also coded in this order from the left. Therefore, in a bit stream, the pictures are also ordered in the order of Picture Ji, Picture J2, Picture J3 and Picture J4. When a current picture to be coded or decoded is Picture J4, it is possible to select one of these Picture Ji, Picture J2 and Picture J3 as a reference picture, and when a current picture to be coded or decoded is Picture J5, it is possible to select one of these Picture h, Picture J3 and Picture J4 as a reference picture.
Fig. 2 is a block diagram showing the structure of a conventional moving picture coding apparatus.
A moving picture coding apparatus 4 is an apparatus for compressing and coding an inputted picture signal Vin so as to output a coded picture signal Sir in the form of a bit stream transformed by variable length coding or the like, and is comprised of a motion estimation unit 401, a selection unit 402, a picture signal subtraction unit 403, a coding unit 404, a decoding unit 405, an addition unit 406, a selection unit 407 and memories 408~410.
The motion estimation unit 401 reads out previously coded reference pictures which are stored in the memories 408'-410 respectively and compare them with the inputted picture signal Vin so as to determine motion information MV indicating the reference picture Ref whose inter picture differential value (error energy) is smaller and the pixel location for making the inter picture differential value smaller. The reference picture Ref and the pixel location for making the error energy smallest is usually determined, but recently a method has been used for determining the motion information MV not just for making the error energy smallest but for making the error energy smaller and making the compression ratio larger. Note that the information of the reference picture Ref

and the pixel location is hereinafter referred to as motion information MV collectively. The selection unit 402 outputs the reference picture selected from among a reference picture Refl, a reference picture Ref2 and a reference picture Ref3 which are stored in the memories 408- 410, based on a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm that is a switching instruction signal. The subtraction unit 403 calculates a differential picture signal Dif between a picture signal Vin and a reference picture Ref.
The coding unit 404 codes the differential picture signal Dif and the motion information MV that is the information for identifying a reference picture. The decoding unit 405 decodes coded data Coded which has been coded by the coding unit 404 to obtain a reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif. The addition unit 406 adds the reference picture Ref and the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif. The selection unit 407 outputs the inputted decoded picture signal Recon to any of the memories 408^410 as a decoded picture signal Reel, a decoded picture signal Rec2 or a decoded picture signal RecB, so as to enable the decoded picture signal to be referred to for coding the following pictures.
Next, the operation of the moving picture coding apparatus structured as above will be explained.
The picture signal Vin Is inputted to the picture signal subtraction unit 403 and the motion estimation unit 401. The motion estimation unit 401 reads out the reference picture Refl, the reference picture Ref2 and the reference picture Ref3 which are previously decoded pictures stored in the memories 408^410, compares them with the inputted picture signal Vin so as to determine a reference picture whose inter picture frontal value is smallest, and outputs the motion information MV that is the information for identifying the reference picture and the pixel location to be referred to.

At the same time, the motion estimation unit 401 outputs a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm that is a switching instruction signal so that the selection unit 402 can select a reference picture corresponding to the motion information MV and output it as a reference picture Ref. Note that since a scene change or the like causes a loss of correlation between the pictures, the compression ratio of an inter coded picture could decline more than an intra coded picture (or an intra picture) which can be reconstructed only with a coded picture signal of a picture to be coded. In this case, the motion estimation unit 401 indicates the intra picture coding by the motion information MV and outputs a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm for outputting a reference picture Ref4 which always outputs a value 0 as a reference picture Ref. Note that the value of the reference picture Ref4 does not always need to be 0 and may be an average value 128 in the case of a luminance signal or an RGB color signal whose value is 0~255, for example.
Also, in order to prevent error propagation or enable reproduction to start from a picture at some midpoint in a coded picture signal, a picture in every predetermined number of pictures needs to be intra coded so as to be reconstructed only with a coded picture signal of a picture to be coded. So, the motion estimation unit 401 can switch into the intra picture coding forcibly according to the instruction of an intra picture coding instruction signal Reset given from outside.
On the other hand, the subtraction unit 403 calculates the difference between this picture signal Vin and the reference picture Ref selected by the selection unit 402, and outputs the differential picture signal Dif to the coding unit 404. Next, the coding unit 404 codes the differential picture signal Dif and the motion information MV outputted from the motion estimation unit 401, and outputs the coded picture signal Str and the coded data Coded. Here, the

coded data Coded is data necessary for reconstructing a picture, and the coded picture signal Str is a bit stream of the coded data Coded transformed by variable length coding or the like.
The decoding unit 405 decodes the coded data Coded and outputs the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif to the addition unit 406. The addition unit 406 adds the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif and the reference picture Ref selected by the selection unit 402, and outputs the decoded picture signal Recon to the selection unit 407. The selection unit 407 outputs the decoded picture signal Recon to any of the memories 408^^410 as a decoded picture signal Reel, a decoded picture signal Rec2 or a decoded picture signal Rec3 so that the decoded picture signal Recon can be referred to as a reference picture for coding the following pictures. In this example, the selection unit 407 switches the memories so that the picture which has been stored in any of these memories at the earliest time is overwritten by a new decoded picture signal Recon.
Fig. 3 is a block diagram showing the structure of a conventional moving picture decoding apparatus.
A moving picture decoding apparatus 5 is an apparatus for decoding a coded picture signal Str which has been coded by the moving picture coding apparatus 4.
A decoding unit 501 decodes the inputted coded picture signal Str and outputs a reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif and motion information MV. A motion reconstruction unit 502 decodes the motion information MV and outputs a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm. Operations of a selection unit 503, a selection unit 505 and memories 506^508 are same as those of the selection unit 402, the selection unit 407 and the memories 408^410 of the moving picture coding apparatus 4 as shown in Fig. 2. The addition unit 504 adds the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif and the reference picture Ref to

output a decoded picture signal Vout (which corresponds to a decoded picture signal Recon in Fig. 2).
Note that in the above-mentioned moving picture coding apparatus 4 and the moving picture decoding apparatus 5, motion compensation units not shown in the figures are provided on the output sides of the selection unit 402 and the selection unit 503, respectively, and perform motion compensation for generating pixel values with pixel location precision in decimal degree which are pixel values with 1/2 pixel location precision or the like for interpolating the pixel values of the reference picture outputted from the memory.
By the way, in the above-mentioned conventional moving picture coding apparatus and moving picture decoding apparatus, it is not distinguished at all whether the reference picture is an intra coded picture or one of inter coded pictures following the intra coded picture. For example, in the illustration of Fig. 1 explaining the concept of the conventional moving picture coding method and moving picture decoding method. Picture Jz is an intra coded picture and Picture Ji, Picture Js^ Picture J4 and Picture J5 are inter coded pictures, but Picture Ji can be referred to as a reference picture for Picture J4. If Picture J4 refers to Picture Ji as a reference picture, it means that Picture J4 refers to, as a reference picture, the picture preceding the intra coded Picture J2.
However, when starting reproduction from a picture at some midpoint, for example, when starting decoding and reproduction from the intra coded Picture J2 at a midpoint in a coded picture signal, the decoding of Picture J4 requires reference to the decoded Picture Ji. Therefore, a problem occurs that the pictures following Picture J4 cannot be correctly decoded.
Also, for example, if a stream error occurs at a midpoint in a coded picture signal and Picture Ji cannot be correctly decoded due to the error, a problem occurs that the pictures following Picture J4

cannot be correctly decoded because the decoding of Picture J4 requires reference to Picture Ji, although the intra coded Picture J2 can be correctly decoded.
And so, the present invention has been conceived in view of the above-mentioned circumstances, and aims at providing a moving picture coding method, a moving picture decoding method and the like for making it possible to start reproduction from an intra coded picture at a midpoint in a coded picture signal and thus reproduce the pictures following the intra coded picture without error even if a stream error may occur.
Disclosure of Invention
The moving picture coding method according to the present invention is a method for coding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method comprising: a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, one of an intra coded picture and pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; a coding step for reading out the determined reference picture from the memory, calculating a differential picture signal that is a difference between the read-out reference picture and a picture to be coded, and coding the calculated differential picture signal; and a storing step for decoding the coded differential picture signal, adding the decoded differential picture signal with a picture signal of the reference picture, and storing a resulting picture in the memory.
Also, the moving picture coding method according to the present invention is a method for coding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method comprising: a specifying step for specifying an intra coded picture of a plurality of pictures stored in a memory as a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture; and a

coding step for coding a signal indicating the picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture so that a picture to be coded following the picture specified in the specifying step refers only to said specified picture or pictures which have been coded following said specified picture.
In addition, the moving picture coding method according to the present invention is a method for coding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method comprising: a specifying step for specifying an Intra coded picture of a plurality of pictures stored in a memory as a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture; a step for deleting a picture which has been coded prior to the picture specified in the specifying step; and a coding step for coding a signal indicating that the picture which has been coded prior to the picture specified in the specifying step is deleted so that a picture to be coded following said specified picture refers only to said specified picture or pictures which have been coded following said specified picture.
Further, the moving picture decoding method according tt) the present invention is a method for decoding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding method comprising: a decoding step for decoding an inputted coded picture signal; a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, one of an intra decoded picture and pictures which have been decoded following the Intra decoded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; and a storing step for reading out the determined reference picture from the memory, adding a picture signal of the read-out reference picture with a decoded differential picture signal of a picture to be decoded, and outputting a resulting picture to the outside and storing the resulting picture in the memory.
Also, the moving picture decoding method according to the

present invention is a method for decoding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding method comprising: a decoding step for decoding a signal indicating a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture which is to be referred to for decoding a picture to be decoded; and a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, only the picture which is an anchor and intra decoded or one of pictures which have been decoded following said picture, when decoding a picture following said picture.
In addition, the moving picture decoding method according to the present invention is a method for decoding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding method comprising: a decoding step for decoding a signal indicating a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture which is referred to for decoding a picture to be decoded; a step for deleting a picture which has been decoded prior to the picture which is an anchor and intra decoded; and a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, only the picture which is an anchor and intra decoded or one of pictures which have been decoded following said picture, when decoding a picture following said picture.
The moving picture coding apparatus according to the present invention is a moving picture coding apparatus for coding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding apparatus comprising: a determination unit operable to determine, as a reference picture, one of an intra coded picture and pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; a coding unit operable to read out the determined reference picture from the memory, calculate a differential picture signal that is a difference between the read-out reference picture and a picture to be coded, and code the calculated differential picture signal; and a

storage unit operable to decode the coded differential picture signal, add the decoded differential picture signal with a picture signal of the reference picture, and store a resulting picture in the memory.
Also, the moving picture decoding apparatus according to the present invention is a moving picture decoding apparatus for decoding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding apparatus comprising: a decoding unit operable to decode an inputted coded picture signal; a determination unit operable to determine, as a reference picture, one of an intra decoded picture and pictures which have been decoded following the intra decoded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; and a storage unit operable to read out the determined reference picture from the memory, add a picture signal of the read-out reference picture with a decoded differential picture signal of a picture to be decoded, and output a resulting picture to the outside and store the resulting picture in the memory.
Further, the present invention can be realized as a program for causing a computer to execute the steps in the above-mentioned moving picture coding method and the moving picture decoding method, or as stream data which is coded by the above-mentioned moving picture coding method, so as to be distributed via a recording medium such as a CD-ROM or a transmission medium such as a communication network.
For example, it is assumed that the pictures are coded in the order of Picture Ji, Picture 22, Picture Ja, Picture J4 and Picture J5, Picture J2 is an intra coded picture and Picture Ji, Picture J3, Picture J4 and Picture J5 are inter coded pictures. Specifically, their order in a bit stream is Picture Ji, Picture J2/ Picture J3, Picture J4 and Picture J5.
In this case, in the moving picture coding method and the

moving picture decoding method according to the present invention, the following pictures can be selected as reference pictures for inter picture coding and decoding: Picture J2, Picture J3 and Picture J4 can be referred to for coding Picture J5, for example; and Picture J2 and Picture J3 can only be referred to for coding Picture J4 because Picture Ji preceding the intra coded Picture J2 is disabled for reference.
Brief Description of Drawings
Fig. 1 is an illustration of a concept of a conventional moving picture coding method and moving picture decoding method.
Fig, 2 is a block diagram showing a structure of a conventional moving picture coding apparatus.
Fig. 3 is a block diagram showing a structure of a conventional moving picture decoding apparatus.
Fig. 4 is a block diagram showing a structure of a moving picture coding apparatus of a first embodiment according to the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a flowchart showing operation of a motion estimation unit in the above embodiment.
Fig. 6 Is an illustration showing pictures which can be selected as reference pictures for coding pictures in the above embodiment.
Fig. 7 is a block diagram showing another example of the moving picture coding apparatus of the first embodiment according to the present invention.
Fig. 8 is a block diagram showing a structure of a moving picture decoding apparatus of the first embodiment according to the present invention.
Fig. 9 is a flowchart - showing operation of a motion reconstruction unit In the above embodiment.
Fig. 10 is an illustration explaining selection of reference

pictures used for decoding by methods 1 --' 3 in the above embodiment, and A is an illustration of reference pictures used for decoding, and B is an illustration showing picture location relation.
Fig. 11 is a block diagram showing a structure of a moving picture decoding apparatus of a second embodiment according to the present invention.
Fig. 12 is a flowchart showing operation of a motion reconstruction unit in the above embodiment.
Fig. 13 is an illustration of a recording medium for storing a program for realizing the moving picture coding method and the moving picture decoding method of the above-mentioned first embodiment and the second embodiment by a computer system. A is an illustration showing an example of a physical format of a flexible disk that is the recording medium main body, B is an illustration showing the front view of the appearance of the flexible disk, the cross-sectional view thereof and the flexible disk, and C is an illustration showing the structure for recording and reproducing the above program on the flexible disk FD.
Fig. 14 is a block diagram showing an overall configuration of a content providing system which realizes content distribution services.
Fig. 15 is a diagram showing an example of a mobile phone.
Fig. 16 is a block diagram showing an internal structure of the mobile phone.
Fig. 17 Is a block diagram showing an overall configuration of a digital broadcasting system.
Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention
The embodiments of the present invention will be explained below with reference to Fig. 4r-Fig. 17. (First Embodiment) Fig. 4 is a block diagram showing a structure of a moving

picture coding apparatus of a first embodiment according to the present invention. Note that the same signs are assigned to the devices which operate in the same manner as the units of the conventional moving picture coding apparatus 4 as shown In Fig. 2.
A moving picture coding apparatus 1 is an apparatus that compresses and codes an inputted picture signal Vin, transforms It Into a bit stream by variable length coding or the like and outputs the resulting coded picture signal Str, and is comprised of a motion estimation unit 101, the selection unit 402, the picture signal subtraction unit 403, the coding unit 404, the decoding unit 405, the addition unit 406, the selection unit 407, the memories 408^ 410 and a counter unit 102.
When receiving the instruction of intra picture coding by an intra picture coding instruction signal Reset inputted from outside, the counter unit 102 start counting the number of pictures following an intra coded picture, and notifies the motion estimation unit 101 of the counting result as the number of potential reference pictures (pictures which can be referred to) Num.
The motion estimation unit 101 compares a picture signal Vin with only reference pictures which have been previously coded and decoded intra coded picture and the following pictures from among the reference picture Refl, the reference picture Ref2 and the reference picture Ref3 which are stored in the memories 408 ~410, respectively, based on the number of potential reference pictures, and determines motion information MV indicating the reference picture Ref whose inter picture differential value (error energy) is smaller and the pixel location for making the inter picture differential value smaller. Note that the reference picture Ref and the pixel location for making the error energy smallest is usually determined, but the motion information MV may be determined for not just for making the error energy smallest, but for making the error energy smaller and making the compression

ratio larger. A reference picture instruction signal RefFrm is outputted to the selection unit 402 in order to indicate the reference picture Ref.
The selection unit 402 outputs the reference picture Ref selected from among the reference picture Refl, the reference picture Ref2 and the reference picture Ref3 which are stored in the memories 408 ~ 410, based on a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm that is a switching instruction signal.
The subtraction unit 403 calculates a differential picture signal Dif between the picture signal Vin and the reference picture Ref. The coding unit 404 codes the differential picture signal Dif and the motion information MV that is the information for identifying a reference picture, and outputs a coded picture signal Str and coded data Coded. Here, the coded data Coded is the data necessary for reconstructing a picture (data obtained by coding the motion information MV and the differential picture signal Dif), and the coded picture signal Str is a bit stream obtained by further transforming the coded data Coded by variable length coding or the like.
The decoding unit 405 decodes coded data Coded to obtain a reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif. The addition unit 406 adds the reference picture Ref and the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif. The selection unit 407 outputs the inputted decoded picture signal Recon to any of the memories 408^410 as a decoded picture signal Reel, a decoded picture signal Rec2 or a decoded picture signal Rec3, so that the decoded picture signal Recon can be referred to as a reference picture for coding the following pictures. In the present embodiment, the selection unit 407 switches the memories so that the decoded picture signal stored in the memory at the earliest time is overwritten by a new decoded picture signal Recon.
Next^ the operation of the moving picture coding apparatus

structured as above will be explained.
Fig. 5 is a flowchart showing the operation of the motion estimation unit 101.
The picture signal Vin is inputted to the picture signal subtraction unit 403 and the motion estimation unit 101.
Upon receipt of the picture signal Vin, the motion estimation unit 101 reads out the reference picture Refl stored in the memory
408 (Step SI). Next; the motion estimation unit 101 judges
whether or not this reference picture Refl is an intra coded picture
or one of the following pictures. Specifically, it judges using an
equation (A), for example, based on the picture number specific to
each picture and the number of potential reference pictures which
is notified from the counter unit 102 (Step S2). Here, the picture
number is an ID number assigned to a coded picture and has the
following feature.
Specifically, the picture number of a picture signal Vin is larger by 1 than the picture number of a picture which has been stored most recently among the pictures which have been stored in the memories 408^410 and are to be reference pictures.
Picture number of a reference picture
^ Picture number of Picture signal Vin - Number of
potential reference pictures Num (A)
As a result, when the above equation (A) is satisfied, the motion estimation unit 101 calculates the differential value between the picture signal Vin and the reference picture Refl because the reference picture Refl is an intra coded picture or the following picture (Step S3), while it does not calculate the differential value when the equation (A) is not satisfied.
Next, the motion estimation unit 101 performs the processing for the above-mentioned reference picture Refl respectively for the reference picture Ref2 stored in the memory
409 and the reference picture Ref3 stored in the memory 410 in the

same manner (Step Sl~Step S3).
Next, the motion estimation unit 101 determines a reference picture whose inter picture differential value is smallest from among the reference pictures whose differential values have been calculated as above (Step S4). Then, the motion estimation unit 101 outputs the information for identifying the determined reference picture as motion information MV, and, at the same time, outputs a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm that is a switching instruction signal so that the selection unit 402 can select the determined reference picture to output it as a reference picture Ref (Step S5).
Note that a reference picture whose inter picture differential value Is smallest may be determined In Step S4 after the reference pictures whose differential values have been calculated in Step S3 so as to repeat Step SI, Step S2, Step S3 and Step S4 for the memories 408~410 respectively.
On the other hand, upon receipt of the picture signal VIn, the subtraction unit 403 calculates a difference between this picture signal VIn and the reference picture Ref selected by the selection unit 402, and outputs a differential picture signal DIf to the coding unit 404. Next, the coding unit 404 codes the differential picture signal Dif and the motion information MV outputted from the motion estimation unit 101 to output a coded picture signal Str and coded data Coded.
The decoding unit 405 decodes the coded data Coded and outputs the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif to the addition unit 406. The addition unit 406 adds the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif and the reference picture Ref selected by the selection unit 402, and outputs the decoded picture signal Recon to the selection unit 407. The selection unit 407 outputs the decoded picture signal Recon to any of the memories 408~410 as a decoded picture signal Reel, a decoded picture

signal Rec2 or a decoded picture signal Rec3 so as to enable the decoded picture signal Recon to be referred to for coding the following pictures.
Fig. 6 is an illustration showing pictures which can be selected as reference pictures for coding pictures. As is the case of Fig. 1, Picture J2 is an intra coded picture, and Picture Ji, Picture J3/ Picture J4 and Picture J5 are inter coded pictures. The coding order in a bit stream is Picture Ji, Picture J2, Picture J3, Picture J4 and Picture J5.
As mentioned above, when inter picture coding is performed under the operation of the moving picture coding apparatus 1, for example, when Picture Js is coded as shown in Fig. 6, Picture J2, Picture J3 and Picture J4 can be selected as reference pictures. Also, when Picture J4 is coded, only Picture J2 and Picture J3 can be referred to because Picture Ji preceding the intra coded Picture J2 Is disabled for coding.
As described above, since pictures are coded using only an intra coded picture and pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture as reference pictures, reproduction can be started from the intra coded picture at some midpoint of a coded picture signal. Also, even if an error occurs in a stream, a coded picture signal Str, that is, a stream which can be reproduced without error following the intra coded picture, can be generated.
In order to start reproduction at some midpoint of a picture signal recorded on a DVD or a hard disk, a mechanism for the midpoint reproduction is required, so Reset is instructed at the picture from which reproduction is to be started. This Reset instruction may be determined and made by an operator when coding pictures, or at every predetermined picture cycle or time lapse.
Note that each picture has the information on whether the picture is intra coded or inter coded as auxiliary information. So,

a signal, indicating that the intra coded picture which has been explained in the above first embodiment is specified by an intra picture coding Instruction signal Reset, may also be coded (Fig. 7). Specifically, if this is the intra coded picture specified by this intra picture coding instruction signal Reset, it may be designed so that pictures stored in a memory prior to this specified picture are not referred to.
Or, it means here that pictures stored in a memory prior to an intra coded picture are not referred to, with the intra coded picture set as the anchor picture, but the pictures stored in the memory prior to the intra coded picture may be deleted from the memory, with the intra coded picture set as the anchor picture.
In addition, an intra picture coding instruction signal Reset, which indicates that pictures stored in a memory prior to an intra coded picture are not referred to, is coded here, but in order to delete the pictures stored prior to the intra coded picture from the memory, a control command other than this intra picture coding instruction signal Reset may be coded.
Fig. 8 is a block diagram showing the structure of a moving picture decoding apparatus of the first embodiment according to the present invention. Note that the same signs are assigned to the units which operate in the same manner as the units in the conventional moving picture decoding apparatus 5 as shown in Fig. 3.
The moving picture decoding apparatus 2 is an apparatus for decoding a coded picture signal Str which is coded by the moving picture coding apparatus as shown in the above first embodiment, and is comprised of a decoding unit 201, a motion reconstruction unit 202, the selection unit 503, the addition unit 504, the selection unit 505, the memories 506'-50S, and a counter unit 203.
The decoding unit 201 decodes the inputted coded picture

signal Str, and outputs a reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif, motion information MV and an intra picture coding instruction signal Reset. Upon receipt of the instruction of intra picture coding by the intra picture coding instruction signal Reset, the counter unit 203 starts counting the number of pictures following an intra coded picture, and notifies the motion reconstruction unit 202 of the result as the number of potential reference pictures Num.
The motion reconstruction unit 202 decodes the motion information MV, judges based on the number of potential reference pictures whether a reference picture indicated by this motion information MV is a picture which can be referred to or not, and determines the reference picture.
The selection unit 503 selects one picture from among the reference picture Refl, the reference picture Ref2 and the reference picture Ref3 stored in the memories 506^^508 based on a reference picture Instruction signal RefFrm that is a switching instruction signal, and outputs the picture as a reference picture Ref. The addition unit 504 adds the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif and the reference picture Ref to output a decoded picture signal Voutl (which corresponds to a decoded picture signal Recon in Fig. 4).
The selection unit 505 outputs the inputted decoded picture signal Voutl to any of the memories 506^508 as the decoded picture signal Reel, the decoded picture signal Rec2 or the decoded picture signal Rec3 in order to enable the decoded picture signal Voutl to be referred to as a reference picture when decoding the following pictures. In the present embodiment, the selection unit 505 switches the memories so that a picture which has been stored in any of these memories at the earliest time is overwritten by a new decoded picture signal Recon.
Next, the operation of the moving picture decoding

apparatus structured as mentioned above will be explained.
Fig. 9 is a flowchart showing the operation of the motion reconstruction unit 202.
The coded picture signal Str is inputted to the decoding unit 201. The decoding unit 201 decodes the inputted coded picture signal Str and outputs a reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif and motion information MV. Also, when the inputted coded picture signal Str is an intra coded picture, the decoding unit 201 outputs an intra picture coding instruction signal Reset.
Upon receipt of the intra picture coding instruction signal Reset from the decoding unit 201, the counter unit 203 starts calculating the number of pictures following the intra coded picture, and notifies the motion reconstruction unit 202 of the result as the number of potential reference pictures Num.
Upon receipt of the motion information MV and the number of potential reference pictures Num, the motion reconstruction unit
202 identifies the reference picture which has been referred to for coding based on the motion information I^V that is the information for identifying a reference picture (Step Sll). Next, the motion reconstruction unit 202 judges whether or not this reference picture is an intra decoded picture or one of the following pictures. Specifically, it judges using an equation (B), for example, based on the picture number specific to each picture and the number of potential reference pictures which is notified from the counter unit
203 (Step S12).
Picture number of a reference picture
^ Picture number of coded picture signal Str - Number of
potential reference pictures Num (B)
As a result, since the reference picture is an intra decoded picture or one of the following pictures when the above equation (B) is satisfied, the motion reconstruction unit 202 selects the reference picture identified based on the motion Information MV as

a reference picture used for decoding (Step S13).
On the other hand, when the equation (B) is not be satisfied,
the reference picture is an intra decoded picture. Basically,
pictures must have been coded with reference only to an intra
coded picture or the following pictures. Therefore, the reference
picture necessary for decoding which has been identified based on
the motion information MV should be an intra decoded picture or
one of pictures which have been decoded following the intra
decoded picture and obtained based on the number of potential
reference pictures Num. However, there is a possibility that a
picture which has been decoded prior to the intra decoded picture
is referred to, that Is, the above equation (B) is not be satisfied,
due to a transmission error or the like. So, the motion
reconstruction unit 202 selects a reference picture used for decoding according to any of the following methods 1'^ 3 for predetermining the reference picture in the case when the equation (B) is not be satisfied (Step S14).
Fig. 10 is an illustration explaining selection of a reference picture used for decoding by methods I'^S, and A Is an illustration of a reference picture used for decoding, and B is an illustration showing picture location relation. This example shows the decoding of Picture P4, and Picture P2 is an Intra decoded picture and the other Picture Pi, Picture P3 and Picture P4 are Inter decoded pictures. In both the display order and decoding start (location in a stream) order, these pictures are ordered, from earliest to latest, in the order of Picture Pi, Picture P2, Picture P3 and Picture P4.
(Method 1)
A reference picture (Picture Pi) identified based on the motion information MV is selected as a reference picture to be used for decoding as it Is. In this case, even if a picture preceding an intra coded picture has been referred to for coding due to error, the picture can be properly decoded if only Picture Pi has been decoded

properly.
(Method 2)
An intra decoded picture (Picture Pz) is selected as a reference picture to be used for decoding. In this case, since the intra decoded picture is a picture which has been decoded earliest as a reference picture among potential reference pictures, the intra decoded picture has the strongest correlation with a picture preceding itself among the potential reference pictures, and thus there is a high possibility that the picture quality is not degraded even if the reference picture used for coding is a picture which has been decoded prior to the intra decoded picture.
(Method 3)
A picture which has been decoded most recently (Picture P3) is selected as a reference picture to be used for decoding. Generally, picture signals have stronger correlation with each other if the time interval between them is shorter, and, as a result, there is a very high possibility that the picture which has been decoded most recently is to be a reference picture. Therefore, the most recently decoded picture with the strongest correlation is most likely to be a proper reference picture if a wrong reference picture is identified based on the motion information MV, and thus there is a high possibility that the picture quality is not degraded.
Note that any one of these methods 1~3 may be used, or a combination of two or more methods may be used. As an example of such a combination, when in the method 1, the reference picture (Picture Pi) identified based on the motion information MV cannot be selected as a reference picture to be used for decoding as it is, default processing may be performed for selecting the picture decoded most recently, as shown in the method 3, as a reference picture to be used for decoding, for example.
Next, the motion reconstruction unit 202 reads out in sequence the reference picture Refl, reference picture Ref2 and

reference picture Ref3 stored in the memories 506- 508, and judges whether they are the reference pictures selected as mentioned above or not (Step S15 in Fig. 9). In other words, it identifies the memory storing the selected reference picture among the memories 506^508. Then, the motion reconstruction unit 202 outputs a reference picture instruction signal RefFrm that is a switching instruction signal so that the selection unit 503 can select for outputting the identified reference picture Refl, reference picture Ref2 or reference picture RefS as a reference picture Ref (Step S16 in Fig. 9).
The addition unit 504 adds the reference picture Ref and the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif outputted from the decoding unit 201, and outputs a decoded picture signal Voutl (which corresponds to a decoded picture signal Recon in Fig. 4) to the selection unit 505. The selection unit 505 outputs the inputted decoded picture signal Voutl to any of the memories 506 ^^508 as a decoded picture signal Reel, decoded picture signal Rec2 or decoded picture signal Rec3, so as to enable the decoded picture signal Voutl to be referred to as a reference picture when decoding the following pictures.
As described above, a coded picture signal Str which has been coded with reference only to an intra decoded picture or pictures following the intra decoded picture as reference pictures can be properly decoded to obtain a decoded picture signal Voutl, and thus reproduction can be started from the intra coded picture at some midpoint of a coded picture signal. Also, even if an error occurs in a stream, pictures following the intra coded picture can be reproduced without error.
Note that in the present embodiment, the methods 1-^3 are predetermined for selecting a reference picture to be used by the motion reconstruction unit 202 for decoding, but the present invention is not limited to these methods. These three methods or

two of them may be dynamically switched according to the situation, in such a way that, for example, the method 3 is used when the picture number identified based on motion information MV is quite different from the potential reference picture numbers, the method 1 is used when the picture identified based on the motion information MV is stored in a memory and can be referred to, and the method 2 is used in other cases.
Also, each picture has the information on whether the picture is to be intra decoded or inter decoded as auxiliary information. So, the coded picture signal Str, including a signal indicating that the Intra coded picture which has been explained in the above first embodiment is specified by an intra picture coding Instruction signal Reset, may be received, and that signal indicating the picture specified by the intra picture coding instruction signal Reset may be decoded. Specifically, if a picture is an intra coded picture specified by this intra picture coding instruction signal Reset, it may be designed so that pictures stored in a memory prior to this specified picture are not referred to.
Or, it means here that pictures stored in a memory prior to an intra coded picture are not referred to, with the intra decoded picture set as the anchor picture, but pictures stored in a memory prior to the Intra decoded picture may be deleted from the memory, with the intra decoded picture set as the anchor picture.
In addition, in order to delete the pictures stored prior to the intra coded picture from the memory, it may be designed so as to receive a coded picture signal Str Including a control command other than this intra picture coding Instruction signal Reset, decode this control command, judge whether or not this control command is received along with the signal indicating the picture specified by the intra picture coding Instruction signal Reset, and perform error control.
(Second Embodiment)

Next, a moving picture decoding apparatus of a second embodiment of the present invention will be explained.
Fig. 11 is a block diagram showing the structure of the moving picture decoding apparatus of the second embodiment according to the present invention. Note that the same signs are assigned to the units which operate in the same manner as those of the moving picture decoding apparatus 2 as shown in Fig. 8
A moving picture decoding apparatus 3 includes a selection unit 301 in addition to the units of the moving picture decoding apparatus 2 as shown in Fig. 8, and it is different from the first embodiment in its operation in the case where a reference picture identified by motion information MV is a picture which has been decoded prior to an intra decoded picture due to transmission error or the like.
The selection unit 301 outputs either a decoded picture signal Recon outputted from the addition unit 504 or a reference picture Ref outputted from the selection unit 503 as a decoded picture signal Vout2, based on an error notice signal Err notified from a motion reconstruction unit 302.
Next, the operation of the moving picture decoding apparatus structured as mentioned above will be explained, but the explanation of the portions same as the above first embodiment will be omitted.
Fig. 12 Is a flowchart showing the operation of the motion reconstruction unit 302.
The operation in Steps 521^522 as shown in Fig. 12 is same as the operation in Steps S11^S12 as shown in Fig. 9. Next, as a result of judging whether the identified reference picture is an intra decoded picture or one of the following pictures or not, if the above equation (B) is not satisfied, that is, the reference picture is a picture which has been decoded prior to the intra decoded picture, the motion reconstruction unit 302 sends an error notice signal Err

to the selection unit 301 to notify it of an error. The motion reconstruction unit 302 also selects the picture decoded most recently as a reference picture and a decoded picture signal (Step S23). In other words, when receiving the error notice signal Err, the selection unit 301 outputs a reference picture Ref as a decoded picture signal Vout2, so selecting the picture decoded most recently as a reference picture means selecting the picture decoded most recently as a decoded picture signal.
On the other hand, when the above equation (B) is satisfied as a result of the above judgment, the reference picture is an intra decoded picture or one of the following pictures, so the motion reconstruction unit 302 selects, in the same manner as the above first embodiment, a reference picture identified based on the motion information MV as a reference picture used for decoding (Step S24).
The operation in the next Steps S25~S26 as shown in Fig. 12 is same as the operation in the Steps S15~S16 as shown in Fig. 9.
Next, the addition unit 504 adds the reference picture Ref and the reconstructed differential picture signal RecDif outputted from the decoding unit 201 to output a decoded picture signal Recon. When the error notice signal Err Is not notified from the motion reconstruction unit 302, the selection unit 301 outputs the decoded picture signal Recon outputted from the addition unit 504 as a decoded picture signal Vout2, and when the error notice signal Err is notified, it outputs the reference picture Ref outputted from the selection unit 503 as a decoded picture signal vout2. In sum, when the error notice signal Err is notified, it outputs the picture decoded most recently as it is as a decoded picture signal Vout2.
The selection unit 505 outputs the inputted decoded picture signal Vout2 to any of the memories 506^508 as a decoded picture signal Reel, a decoded picture signal Rec2 or a decoded picture

signal Rec3 so as to enable the decoded picture signal VoutZ to be referred to as a reference picture when decoding the following pictures.
As described above, even if a picture preceding an intra decoded picture is referred to due to a transmission error or the like, a reference picture Ref that is the picture decoded most recently with the strongest pixel correlation is outputted as a decoded picture signal Vout2, so the influence on picture degradation due to such an error can be minimized.
Note that in each of the above embodiments, the maximum of 3 coded pictures can be referred to because the number of memories is 3, but the present invention is not limited to that number, but coding and decoding can be performed with reference to more coded pictures with the increase of the number of memories.
Also, in each of the above embodiments, motion compensation units not shown in the figures are respectively provided on the output sides of the selection unit 402 and the selection unit 503 of the moving picture coding apparatus 1 and the moving picture decoding apparatuses 2 and 3, for performing motion compensation, that is, compensation of pixel motion between pictures.
In addition, in each of the above embodiments, reference pictures are limited for inter picture coding, so that any pictures which have been coded prior to an intra coded picture, if any, are not referred to as reference pictures, but the present invention is not limited to that. For example, it is also possible not to limit reference pictures so that any pictures decoded prior to an intra coded picture are not referred to as reference pictures. In other words, it is possible to provide another type of an intra coded picture so that the pictures coded prior to the intra coded picture can be referred to as reference pictures, as Is the case of a

traditional method, and use both types of intra coded pictures according to need. In this case, the information for distinguishing two types of intra coded pictures can be stored in header information or the like in a coded picture signal Str, for example.
Further, in each of the above embodiments, the counter unit 102 or 203 may count in picture display order, not in picture coding or decoding order.
(Third Embodiment)
In addition, if a program for realizing the structure of the picture coding method or the picture decoding method as shown in each of the above-mentioned embodiments is recorded on a storage medium such as a flexible disk, it becomes possible to perform the processing as shown in each of the above embodiments easily in an independent computer system.
Fig. 13 is an illustration showing the implementation by a computer system using a flexible disk which stores the picture coding method or the picture decoding method in the above-mentioned first and second embodiments.
Fig. 13B shows the front view and the cross-sectional view of the appearance of a flexible disk, and the flexible disk, and Fig. 13A shows an example of a physical format of a flexible disk as a recording medium itself. A flexible disk FD is contained in a case F, a plurality of tracks Tr are formed concentrically on the surface of the disk in the radius direction from the periphery, and each track is divided into 16 sectors Se in the angular direction. Therefore, as for the.flexible disk storing the above-mentioned program, the picture coding method and the picture decoding method as the above program are recorded in an area allocated for it on the flexible disk FD.
fig. 13C shows the structure for recording and reproducing the program on and from the flexible disk FD. For recording the program on the flexible disk FD, the computer system Cs writes the

picture coding method or the picture decoding method as the program on the flexible disk FD via a flexible disk drive FDD. For constructing the above picture coding method and the picture decoding method in the computer system by the program recorded on the flexible disk, the program is read out from the flexible disk FD via the flexible disk drive FDD and transferred to the computer system.
Note that the above explanation is made on the assumption that a recording medium is a flexible disk, but the same processing can also be performed using an optical disk. In addition, the recording medium is not limited to these, but any other mediums such as an IC card and a ROM cassette can be used in the same manner if a program can be recorded on them.
Further, the applications of the moving picture coding method and the moving picture decoding methods as shown in the above embodiments and a system using them will be explained here.
Fig. 14 Is a block diagram showing the overall configuration of a content providing system exlOO for realizing content distribution service. The area for providing communication service Is divided Into cells of desired size, and base stations exl07 - exllO which are fixed wireless stations are placed in respective cells.
This content providing system exlOO Is connected to various devices such as a computer exlll, a PDA (personal digital assistant) exll2, a camera exll3, a mobile phone exll4 and a camera-equipped mobile phone exll5 via the Internet exlOl, an Internet service provider exl02, a telephone network exl04 and base stations exl07'-'exll0, for example.
However, the content providing system exlOO is not limited to the combination as shown In Fig. 14, and may be connected to a combination of any of them. Also, each device may be connected

directly to the telephone network exl04, not through the base stations exl07~exll0 which are the fixed wireless stations.
The camera exll3 is a device such as a digital video camera capable of shooting moving pictures. The mobile phone may be any of a mobile phone of a PDC (Personal Digital Communications) system, a CDMA (Code Division (Multiple Access) sisters, a W-CDMA (Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access) system or a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) system, a PHS (Personal Handy phone System) and the like.
Also, a streaming server exl03 is connected to the camera exll3 via the base station exl09 and the telephone network exl04, which enables live distribution or the like using the camera ells based on the coded data transmitted from the user. Either the camera exll3 or the server for transmitting the data may code the data shot by the camera. Also, the moving picture data shot by a camera exll6 may be transmitted to the streaming server exl03 via the computer exlll. The camera exll6 is a device such as a digital camera capable of shooting still and moving pictures. In this case, either the camera exll6 or the computer exlll may code the moving picture data. An LSI exll7 included in the computer exlll or the camera exll6 performs coding processing. Note that software for coding and decoding pictures may. be integrated into any type of a storage medium (such as a CD-ROM, a flexible disk and a hard disk) that is a recording medium which can be read by the computer exlll or the like. Furthermore, the camera-equipped mobile phone exll5 may transmit the moving picture data. This moving picture data is the data coded by the LSI included in the mobile phone exll5.
In this content providing system exlOO, contents (such as a music live video) shot by users using the camera exll3, the camera exll6 or the like are coded in the same manner as the above embodiments and transmitted to the streaming server

exl03, while the streaming server exl03 makes stream distribution of the above content data to the clients at their request. The clients include the computer exlll, the PDA exll2, the camera exll3, the mobile phone exll4 and so on capable of decoding the above-mentioned coded data. The content providing system exlOO is a system in which, the clients can thus receive and reproduce the coded data, and further can receive, decode and reproduce the data in real time so as to realize personal broadcasting.
When each device in this system performs coding or decoding, the moving picture coding apparatus or the moving picture decoding apparatus as shown in each of the above-mentioned embodiments may be used.
A mobile phone will be explained as an example thereof.
Fig. 15 is a diagram showing a mobile phone exll5 which uses the moving picture coding method and the moving picture decoding method as explained in the above embodiments. The mobile phone exll5 has an antenna ex201 for sending and receiving radio waves between the base station exllO, a camera unit ex203 such as a CCD camera capable of shooting video and still pictures, a display unit ex202 such as a liquid crystal display for displaying the data obtained by decoding video shot by the camera unit ex203, video received by the antenna ex201, or the like, a main body including a set of operation key s ex204, a voice output unit ex208 such as a speaker for outputting voices, a voice input unit ex205 such as a microphone for inputting voices, a storage medium ex207 for storing coded or decoded data, such as data of moving or still pictures shot by the camera, and data of text, moving pictures or still pictures of received e-mails, and a slot unit 6x206 for attaching the storage medium ex207 into the mobile phone exll5. The storage medium ex207 includes a flash memory element, a kind of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and

Programmable Read Only Memory) that is an electrically erasable and rewritable nonvolatile memory, in a plastic case such as an SD card.
Further, the mobile phone exll5 will be explained with reference to Fig. 16. In the mobile phone exll5, a main control unit ex311 for overall controlling each unit of the display unit ex202 and the main body including operation keys ex204 is connected to a power supply circuit unit ex310, an operation input control unit ex304, a picture coding unit ex312, a camera interface unit ex303, an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) control unit ex302, a picture decoding unit ex309, a multiplex/demultiplexed unit ex308, a record/reproduce unit ex307, a modem circuit unit ex306 and a voice processing unit ex305 to each other via a synchronous bus ex313.
When a call-end key or a power key is turned ON by a user's operation, the power supply circuit unit ex310 supplies respective units with power from a battery pack so as to activate the camera-equipped digital mobile phone exll5 for a ready state.
In the mobile phone exll5, under the control of the main control unit ex311 including a CPU, ROM, RAM and the like, the voice processing unit ex305 converts the voice signals received by the voice input unit ex205 in conversation mode into digital voice data, the modem circuit unit ex306 performs spread spectrum processing of the digital voice data, and the send/receive circuit unit ex301 performs digital-to-analog conversion and frequency transformation of the data, so as to transmit the result via the antenna ex201. Also, In the mobile phone exllS, the data received by the antenna ex201 in conversation mode is amplified and performed of frequency transformation and analog-to-digital conversion, the modem circuit unit ex306 performs inverse spread spectrum processing of the data, and the voice processing unit ex305 converts it into analog voice data, so as to output the result

via the voice output unit ex208.
Furthermore, when transmitting an e-mail in data communication mode, the text data of the e-mail inputted by operating the operation keys ex204 on the main body is sent out to the main control unit ex311 via the operation input control unit ex304. In the main control unit ex311, after the modem circuit unit ex306 performs spread spectrum processing of the text data and the send/receive circuit unit ex301 performs digital-to-analog conversion and frequency transformation of it, the result is transmitted to the base station exllO via the antenna ex201.
When picture data is transmitted in data communication mode, the picture data shot by the camera unit ex203 is provided to the picture coding unit ex312 via the camera interface unit ex303. When the picture data is not transmitted, the picture data shot by the camera unit ex203 can also be displayed directly on the display unit 202 via the camera interface unit ex303 and the LCD control unit ex302.
The picture coding unit ex312, including the picture coding apparatus explained in the present invention, compress and codes the picture data provided from the camera unit ex203 by the coding method used for the picture coding apparatus as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments so as to transform it into coded picture data, and sends it out to the multiplex/demultiplex unit ex308. At this time, the mobile phone exll5 sends out the voices received by the voice input unit ex205 during picture pickup by the camera unit ex203 to the multiplex/demultiplex unit ex308 as digital voice data via the voice processing unit ex305.
The multiplex/demultiplex unit ex308 multiplexes the coded picture data provided from the picture coding unit ex312 and the voice data provided from the voice processing unit ex305 by a predetermined method, the modem circuit unit ex306 performs spread spectrum processing of the resulting multiplexed data, and

the send/receive circuit unit ex301 performs digital-to-analog conversion and frequency transformation of the result for transmitting via the antenna ex201.
As for receiving data of a moving picture file which is linked to a Website or the like in data communication mode, the modem circuit unit ex306 performs inverse spread spectrum processing of the data received from the base station exllO via the antenna ex201, and sends out the resulting multiplexed data to the multiplex/demultiplex unit ex308.
In order to decode the multiplexed data received via the antenna ex201, the multiplex/demultiplex unit ex308 demultiplexes the multiplexed data into a coded bit stream of picture data and a coded bit stream of voice data, and provides the coded picture data to the picture decoding unit ex309 and the voice data to the voice processing unit ex305 respectively via the synchronous bus ex313.
Next, the picture decoding unit ex309, including the picture decoding apparatus explained in the present invention, decodes the coded bit stream of the picture data by the decoding method paired with the coding method as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments, so as to generate reproduced moving picture data, and provides this data to the display unit ex202 via the LCD control unit ex302, and thus moving picture data included in a moving picture file linked to a Website, for instance, is displayed. At the same time, the voice processing unit ex305 converts the voice data into analog voice data, and provides this data to the voice output unit ex208, and thus voice data included in a moving picture file linked to a Website, for instance, is reproduced.
The present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned system. Ground-based or satellite digital broadcasting has been in the news lately, and at least either the picture coding apparatus or the picture decoding apparatus in the above-mentioned

embodiments can be incorporated into such a digital broadcasting system as shown in Fig. 17. Yore specifically, a coded bit stream of video information is transmitted from a broadcast station ex409 to or communicated with a broadcast satellite ex410 via radio waves. Upon receipt of it, the broadcast satellite ex410 transmits radio waves for broadcasting, a home antenna ex406 with a satellite broadcast reception function receives the radio waves, and an apparatus such as a television (receiver) ex401 or a set top box (STB) ex407 decodes the coded bit stream for reproduction. The picture decoding apparatus as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments can be implemented in the reproducing apparatus ex403 for reading a coded bit stream recorded on a storage medium ex402 such as a CD and DVD that Is a recording medium and decoding it. In this case, the reproduced video signals are displayed on a monitor ex404. It is also conceived to implement the picture decoding apparatus in the set top box ex407 connected to a cable ex405 for a cable television or the antenna ex406 for satellite and/or ground-based broadcasting so as to reproduce them on a monitor ex408 of the television ex401. The picture decoding apparatus may be incorporated into the television, not in the set top box. Or, a car ex412 having an antenna ex411 can receive signals from the satellite ex410, the base station exl07 or the like for reproducing moving pictures on a display apparatus such as a car navigation device ex413 or the like in the car ex412. Furthermore, the picture coding apparatus as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments can code picture signals for recording them on a recording medium. As a concrete example, there is a recorder ex420 such as a DVD recorder for recording picture signals on a DVD disk ex421 and a disk recorder for recording them on a hard disk. They can also be recorded on an SD card ex422. If the recorder ex420 includes the picture decoding apparatus as shown in the above-mentioned

embodiments, the picture signals recorded on tine DVD disk ex421 or the SD card ex422 can be reproduced for display on the monitor ex408.
Note that as the structure of the car navigation device ex413, the structure without the camera unit ex203, the camera interface unit ex303 and the picture coding unit ex312, out of the units as shown in Fig. 16, Is conceivable. The same applies to the computer exlll, the television (receiver) ex401 and others.
In addition, three types of implementations can be conceived for a terminal such as the above-mentioned mobile phone exll4; a sending/receiving terminal equipped with both an encoder and a decoder, a sending terminal equipped with an encoder only, and a receiving terminal equipped with a decoder only.
As described above, it is possible to use the moving picture coding method or the moving picture decoding method as shown in the above embodiments in any of above-mentioned devices and systems, and thus the effects explained in the above embodiments can be obtained.
In addition, the moving picture coding method and the moving picture decoding method as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments are effective when stream data recorded on a storage medium such as a DVD, an SD card and a memory is reproduced at some midpoint of the data.
As is obvious from the above explanation, the moving picture coding method according to the present invention is a method for coding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method comprising: a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, one of an intra coded picture and pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; a coding step for reading out the determined reference

picture from the memory, calculating a differential picture signal that is a difference between the read-out reference picture and a picture to be coded, and coding the calculated differential picture signal; and a storing step for decoding the coded differential picture signal, adding the decoded differential picture signal with a picture signal of the reference picture, and storing a resulting picture in the memory.
Accordingly, since coding is not performed with reference to pictures preceding an intra coded picture as reference pictures, reproduction can be started from the intra coded picture at a midpoint of a coded picture signal. Also, a coded picture signal, that is a stream of pictures which can be reproduced without an error following the intra coded picture even if a stream error occurs, can be generated. As mentioned above, the present invention has strong advantages in midpoint reproduction which is important for storage mediums and error resilience for transmission which is important for wireless and cable transmission.
Also, the moving picture decoding method according to the present invention is a method for decoding a moving picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding method comprising: a decoding step for decoding an inputted coded picture signal; a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, one of an intra decoded picture and pictures which have been decoded following the intra decoded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; and a storing step for reading out the determined reference picture from the memory, adding a picture signal of the read-out reference picture with a decoded differential picture signal of a picture to be decoded, and outputting a resulting picture to the outside and storing the resulting picture in the memory.
Accordingly, a coded picture signal, which has been coded with reference only to an intra decoded picture or the following

pictures as reference pictures, can be properly decoded to obtain a decoded picture signal, and thus reproduction can be started from the intra coded picture at some midpoint of the coded picture signal. Also, even if an error occurs in a stream, the stream can be reproduced without an error following the intra coded picture.
Industrial Applicability
As described above, the moving picture coding method and the moving picture decoding method according to the present invention are useful for starting reproduction from some midpoint of a stream data recorded on a storage medium such as a DVD, an SD card and a memory used for a mobile phone, a DVD apparatus, a personal computer or the like.






CLAIMS
1. A moving picture coding method for coding a moving picture
on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method
comprising:
a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, one of an intra coded picture and pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory;
a coding step for reading out the determined reference picture from the memory, calculating a differential picture signal that is a difference between the read-out reference picture and a picture to be coded, and coding the calculated differential picture signal; and
a storing step for decoding the coded differential picture signal, adding the decoded differential picture signal with a picture signal of the reference picture, and storing a resulting picture in the memory.
2. A moving picture coding method for coding a moving picture
on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method
comprising:
a specifying step for specifying an intra coded picture of a plurality of pictures stored in a memory as a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture; and
a coding step for coding a signal indicating the picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture so that a picture to be coded following the picture specified in the specifying step refers only to said specified picture or pictures which have been coded following said specified picture.
3. A moving picture coding method for coding a moving picture
on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding method

comprising:
a specifying step for specifying an intra coded picture of a plurality of pictures stored in a memory as a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture;
a step for deleting a picture which has been coded prior to the picture specified in the specifying step; and
a coding step for coding a signal indicating that the picture which has been coded prior to the picture specified in the specifying step is deleted so that a picture to be coded following said specified picture refers only to said specified picture or pictures which have been coded following said specified picture.
4. The moving picture coding method according to Claim 1,
wherein in the determining step, the number of pictures
which have been coded following the intra coded picture is counted, and the reference picture is determined based on the counted number.
5. The moving picture coding method according to Claiming 4,
wherein picture numbers indicating coding order are
assigned to the pictures stored in the memory, and
in the determining step, the plurality of pictures stored in the memory are read out, and whether or not the respective read-out pictures are the intra coded picture or pictures which have been coded following said intra coded picture is judged based on whether or not the respective picture numbers for the read-out pictures are a value obtained by subtracting the counted number from a picture number of the picture to be coded or more.
6. The moving picture coding method according to Claim 5,
wherein in the determining step, if the read-out pictures are
the intra coded picture or the pictures which have been coded

following said intra coded picture as a result of the judgment, differences between the read-out pictures and the picture to be coded are respectively calculated, and a picture whose calculated difference is smallest is determined as the reference picture.
7. A moving picture decoding method for decoding a moving
picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding
method comprising;
a decoding step for decoding an inputted coded picture signal;
a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, one of an intra decoded picture and pictures which have been decoded following the intra decoded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; and
a storing step for reading out the determined reference picture from the memory, adding a picture signal of the read-out reference picture with a decoded differential picture signal of a picture to be decoded, and outputting a resulting picture to the outside and storing the resulting picture in the memory.
8. A moving picture decoding method for decoding a moving
picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding
method comprising:
a decoding step for decoding a signal indicating a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture which is to be referred to for decoding a picture to be decoded; and
a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, only the picture which is an anchor and intra decoded or one of pictures which have been decoded, following said picture, when decoding a picture following said picture.

9. A moving picture decoding method for decoding a moving
picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding
method comprising;
a decoding step for decoding a signal indicating a picture which is an anchor for restricting a candidate for a reference picture which is referred to for decoding a picture to be decoded;
a step for deleting a picture which has been decoded prior to the picture which is an anchor and intra decoded; and
a determining step for determining, as a reference picture, only the picture which is an anchor and intra decoded or one of pictures which have been decoded following said picture, when decoding a picture following said picture.
10. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 8 or
Claim 9,
wherein the signal indicating the picture which is an anchor is a signal indicating that said picture is intra coded.
11. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 8 or
Claim 9,
wherein the signal indicating the picture which is an anchor is another signal than a signal indicating whether said picture is intra coded or inter coded.
12. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 7,
wherein the determining step includes:
a judging step for determining a picture which should be a reference picture based on decoded information and judging whether or not the determined picture is the intra decoded picture or one of pictures which have been decoded following said intra decoded picture;
a normal processing step for determining the determined

picture as a reference picture when the determined picture is the intra decoded picture or one of the pictures which have been decoded following said intra decoded picture as a result of the judgment; and
an error processing step for determining a predetermined picture as a reference picture if the determined picture is not the intra decoded picture nor one of the pictures which have been decoded following said intra decoded picture.
13. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 12,
wherein in the judging step, the number of pictures which
have been decoded following the intra decoded picture is counted, and the judgment is made based on the counted number.
14. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 12,
wherein picture numbers are assigned to the pictures stored
in the memory; and
in the judging step, the determined picture stored in the memory is read out, and the judgment is made based on whether a picture number of the read-out picture is a value obtained by subtracting the counted number from a picture number of a picture to be decoded or more.
15. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 12,
wherein in the error processing step, the intra decoded
picture is determined as a reference picture.
16. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 12,
wherein in the error processing step, a picture which has
been decoded most recently is determined as a reference picture.
17. The moving picture decoding method according to Claim 12,

further comprising an error correcting step for reading out a picture which has been decoded most recently from the memory and outputting the read-out picture as it is.
18. A moving picture coding apparatus for coding a moving
picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture coding
apparatus comprising:
a determination unit operable to determine, as a reference picture, one of an intra coded picture and pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory;
a coding unit operable to read out the determined reference picture from the memory, calculate a differential picture signal that is a difference between the read-out reference picture and a picture to be coded, and code the calculated differential picture signal; and
a storage unit operable to decode the coded differential picture signal, add the decoded differential picture signal with a picture signal of the reference picture, and store a resulting picture in the memory.
19. The moving picture coding apparatus according to Claim 18,
further comprising a counter unit operable to count the number of
pictures which have been coded following the intra coded picture,
wherein the determination unit determines the reference picture based on the number counted by the counter unit.
20. A moving picture decoding apparatus for decoding a moving
picture on a picture by picture basis, the moving picture decoding
apparatus comprising:
a decoding unit operable to decode an inputted coded picture signal;

a determination unit operable to determine, as a reference picture, one of an intra decoded picture and pictures which have been decoded following the intra decoded picture, from among a plurality of pictures stored in a memory; and
a storage unit operable to read out the determined reference picture from the memory, add a picture signal of the read-out reference picture with a decoded differential picture signal of a picture to be decoded, and output a resulting picture to the outside and store the resulting picture in the memory.
21. The moving picture decoding apparatus according to Claim
20, further comprising a counter unit operable to count the number
of pictures which have been decoded following the intra decoded
picture,
wherein the determination unit determines the reference picture based on the number counted by the counter unit.
22. A recording medium which stores a program for coding a
moving picture on a picture by picture basis,
wherein the program causes a computer to execute the steps in the moving picture coding method according to Claim 1.
23. A recording medium which stores a program for decoding a
moving picture on a picture by picture basis,
wherein the program causes a computer to execute the steps in the picture decoding method according to Claim 7.
24. A recording medium which stores stream data of a moving
picture which has been coded on a picture by picture basis,
wherein the stream data has been coded by the moving picture coding method Recording to Claim 1.

25. A moving picture coding method substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
26. A recording medium substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.


Documents:

968-chenp-2003 correspondence others 31-07-2009.pdf

968-chenp-2003 form-5 31-07-2009.pdf

968-chenp-2003 form-5.pdf

968-chenp-2003 abstract.pdf

968-chenp-2003 claims 31-07-2009.pdf

968-chenp-2003 claims.pdf

968-chenp-2003 correspondene others.pdf

968-chenp-2003 description(complete).pdf

968-chenp-2003 drawings.pdf

968-chenp-2003 form-1.pdf

968-CHENP-2003 OTHER DOCUMENT 31-07-2009.pdf

968-chenp-2003-abstract.pdf

968-chenp-2003-claims.pdf

968-chenp-2003-correspondnece-others.pdf

968-chenp-2003-description(complete).pdf

968-chenp-2003-drawings.pdf

968-chenp-2003-form 1.pdf

968-chenp-2003-form 13.pdf

968-chenp-2003-form 26.pdf

968-chenp-2003-form 3.pdf

968-chenp-2003-form 5.pdf

968-chenp-2003-pct.pdf


Patent Number 245493
Indian Patent Application Number 968/CHENP/2003
PG Journal Number 04/2011
Publication Date 28-Jan-2011
Grant Date 21-Jan-2011
Date of Filing 18-Jun-2003
Name of Patentee PANASONIC CORPORATION
Applicant Address 1006, OAZA KADOMA, KADOMA-SHI, OSAKA 571-8501.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 KADONO, SHINYA ROOM 204, 7-25, KOUSHIENGUCHI 1-CHOME, NISHINOMIYA-SHI, HYOGO 663-8113
2 KONDO, SATOSHI 7-17 OTOKOYAMASHIEGETSU, YAWATA-SHI, KYOTO 614-8361, JAPAN
3 HAGAI, MAKOTO 22-402 OEDA-MINAMIMACHI, 8-CHOME, MORIGUCHI-SHI, OSAKA 570-0051, JAPAN
PCT International Classification Number H04N 7/32
PCT International Application Number PCT/JP03/10246
PCT International Filing date 2002-10-02
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 2001-319002 2001-10-17 Japan