Title of Invention

AN IMPROVED PROCESS FOR THE POPPING OF COARSE CEREAL GRAINS

Abstract This invention relates to an improved process for the popping of coarse cereal grains. Sorghum and millet grains are consumed in many forms and preparation of snack products is one such form. The process eliminates the critical moisture content adjustments which is very important to achieve the maximum expansion volume, which also depends on the variety. The process further enhances the popping quality of sorghum and millet grains with good popping quality by increasing the expansion volume further. Novelty and inventive steps of this invention lie in the fact that the process developed utilizes simple steaming of the grains and immediate popping of the grains in hot sand/salt. Sorghum or millet grains with no popping ability can be popped and also grains with good popping ability can yield even higher expansion volume.
Full Text This invention relates to an improved process for the popping of coarse cereal grains.
Sorghum and millet grains are consumed in many forms and preparation of snack products is one such form. Popped sorghum grains are a popular snack product in certain parts of India, especially in central India (Murty et al, 1988). The simple technique of popping turns the grain into an acceptable light snack form (Singh and Srivatsava, 1993). The most familiar type of popped grain is popcorn made from a special type of maize (Zea mays L. ), but in India and Africa, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is popped, may be ground into flour, and porridge made from such flour is easily digestible, ideal for children and elderly people. Popping is also proposed as a way of improving the feed efficiency of grains in livestock feeding.
For commercial production of popcorn, a high expansion volume is desirable. Popping volume, defined, as volume per unit of weight of a sample, is an important factor in the popcorn industry since commercial buyers, purchase it by weight and sell by bulk volume. Further more, popcorn texture (tenderness and crispness) is positively correlated with popping volume (Rooney and Serna -Saldivar, 1987). Expansion volume depends on the variety, moisture content, kernel size, undamaged pericarp, thickness of the pericarp. Each bubble of the endosperm foam represents an individual starch granule of the vitreous endosperm which, during the explosive the explosive popping process, becomes gelatinized and then inflated by internal steam pressure. The heat then dries this foam to a brittle structure. Popped sorghum has reduced hulls, does not clog spaces between teeth and causes less noise, when eaten as compared to popcorn, its flavor and its nutritive value compares well with popcorn (Singh & Srivatsava, 1993).
Literature survey reveals that studies show large variations among sorghum genotypes for popping quality (Murty et al, 1982). Varietal variations observed in popping quality of other grains have been ascribed to kernel structure, amount and distribution of protein, starch composition and differences in processing conditions (Srinivas and Desikachar, 1973). Grain moisture plays an

important role during popping of sorghum and pearl millet. Several studies have been undertaken to adjust the grain moisture level to achieve maximum popping percentage. Wide variations exist in the literature with reference to the optimum moisture content needed to achieve the maximum expansion volume. Presently no process is available with which one can pop sorghum to the maximum extent, irrespective of the varieties and physical variations.
Relevant references that classify the production of popped sorghum and millet grains are given below.
Reference may be made to Singh and Srivatsava, 1993 (Singh, M. and Srivatsava, S. 1993, JFST VOL. 30. 296-297). Where in grains were tempered to different moisture levels of 12%, 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% and popped. The results revealed that popped grain percentage differed and genotypes exhibited significant differences in popping at different moisture levels. Drawback of this study is that moisture levels need to be adjusted according to the genotypes since some of the varieties showed highest number of popped grain at particular moisture levels and adjustment of moisture did not enhance the popping quality.
Reference may be made to yet another similar study by Thorat et al., (Thorat S.S, Satwader. P.N, Kulkarni, D.N., Choudhari, S.D. and Ingle, V.M.) paper presented at the national symposium on sorghum. In this study 19 cultivars were adjusted to different moisture levels of 15, 18, 21 and 24% and popped. The genotypes differed in their popping volume and popping %. Some of the genotypes had the maximum expansion volume at 15% while some at 18% moisture levels. Hence, the main drawback of the study is the critical adjustment of moisture levels. The main drawback will be when bulk quantities of sorghum grains have to be popped and critical moisture adjustment may not be feasible.
Reference may be made to yet another study Arora and Srivastava,1998. (Arora, A and Srivastava, S. Beverage and Food world vol. 21, 1998) where in different cultivars were tested for their popping quality. In this study no additional moisture was added to the grains and the grains were popped as such. Popped volume (ml) depended on the type of endosperm texture and grain hardness.

Hence this study popping quality depended on the variety with a particular type of endosperm and grain hardness. The main drawback of this study is selection of a particular variety for popping.
Reference may be made to yet another study (Thorat et al., 1989). Thorat, S.S, Satwadhar, P.N, Kulkarni, D.N, Choudhari, S.D JFST 25:361-363), where in 19 cultivars were subjected to popping to assess their popping quality. It was observed that those varieties varied in their physical properties and such variations affected the popping quality. Seed hardness had strong positive relationship with pop yield.
In yet another study by Song et al., 1991 (Song, A., Eckhoff, S.R., Paulses, M. and Litchfield, J.B., Cereal chem. Vol. 68: 464-467) where in different genotypes and different sized kernels were studied for their popping quality. The study revealed that genotypes and kernel sizes significantly affect the popping volume. Drawback of this study is that grading the kernels to obtain medium sized kernels to achieve maximum popping no. and volume and selection of a particular genotype to achieve the maximum popping quality. Another drawback of this study is that differences occurred in the popping volume of fractions of the same genotype. In this study grains were conditioned in an environmental chamber set at 22.2°C and 70% RH for at east 2 weeks before popping. The main drawback is the long conditioning duration at a particular moisture and temperature regime and extra investment needed on an environmental chamber to maintain the particular condition.
Reference may be made to yet another study by Mitzger 1989 (Mitzger, D.D, Hser K.H., Ziegler, K.E. and Bern C.J. 1989 Cereal Chem: 66 247-248). This study was designed to allow determination over a range of moisture content required to achieve maximum popping in maize, in both hot-air popper and in an oil popper. First the samples were adjusted to certain moisture content and later samples were allowed to dry / sprayed with additional moisture to lose / gain moisture. It was observed that for oil popping certain moisture content was necessary and the grains with the same moisture content did not produce pops in hot air. The main drawback of this study is the critical adjustment of moisture.
The main objective of the present invention is to provide an improved process for the popping of coarse cereal grains.
Yet another objective of the investigation is to improve the popping quality of sorghum and millet grains which have poor or no popping quality.
Still another objective is to avoid the incipient moistening of the grains before popping. Critical moisture adjustments which can vary depending on the variety can be avoided.
Still another objective is to improve the popping quality of any variety irrespective of the bran thickness and endosperm quality.
Yet another objective is to avoid the overnight tempering of the grain, thus reducing the time / duration needed to process the grain prior to popping.
Novelty and inventive steps of this invention lie in the fact that the process developed utilizes simple steaming of the grains and immediate popping of the grains in hot sand. Sorghum or millet grains with no popping ability can be popped and also grains with good popping ability can yield even higher expansion volume. The processed grain can be popped without the need to adjust the critical moisture content of the grain which varies depending on the variety. The process enables popping of sorghum and pearl millet grains not suitable for popping to expand and the expansion volume can be comparable to those with good popping quality.
Steps of the process of the present invention are:
(a) Sorghum and millet grains are cleaned to remove the inorganic /organic refractions and size graded using 2mm and 3mm opening sieves
(b) Uniform size graded grains are steamed in an autoclave / other steaming device for 5 to 30 minutes at atmospheric pressure.(c) The steamed grains are spread and popped in hot sand / salt immediately and upto 45 minutes after steaming.
(d) Alternatively, steamed grains can be packed in double polyethylene covers 5 minutes after steaming and stored and popped after 2 or 3 days.
(e) The process is further illustrated by the following examples.
Accordingly an improved process for the popping of coarse cereal grains comprising:
a) size grading the coarse cereal grains by mechanical means to obtain uniform grains,
b) Characterized in that steaming the coarse grains in a chamber for a period ranging 5-30 minutes at temperature ranging from 97 -100°C,
c) spreading the steamed coarse grains and holding it for a period ranging 1-45 minutes in a tight chambers,
d) popping the coarse grain in hot salt/sand in a ratio 1:20 at 220 to 250 °C and separating popped grain from salt/sand by known method to obtain popped grain.
In an embodiment the coarse cereal grains is selected from sorghum, pearl millet, foxtail millet and finger millet and others.
In an another embodiment the steamed grain is popped.
In yet an another embodiment the popping quality of grains is improved.
Example 1
Five different varieties of coarse grains which varied in their popping quality were selected for the study. Sorghum grains (500g) were spread on a wire mesh tray (bed thickness about 2.0 cms) and steamed for different durations 5, 15 and 30 minutes. The steamed grains were spread in a tray and batches of 5 were popped in hot salt / sand (1:20 ratio) at 220°C to 250°C at regular intervals of drying starting from 5 minutes after steaming till 60 minutes after steaming. The popped grains were separated from sand / salt by sieving through a 40 mesh BSS sieve. The volume of popped grains was measured, number of popped grains and unpopped grains was counted and expansion volume obtained.
Popped volume, number of popped grains and expansion volume increased in processed grains considerably when popped immediately or maximum increase in the popping quality was observed when the processed grains were after 10 and 15 minutes after steaming the increase was 2 fold when compared to unprocessed grains and grains whose moisture was adjusted 16% in all the varieties. The improvement was noticeable in the local variety which had very low popped grain percent and expansion volume. The number of popped grains increased from 57% to 90 % and expansion volume from 3.4 times to 9 times.
Popping characteristics of sorghum varieties with or without steam treatment
(Table Remove)
Example 2
500g of sorghum was steamed for 15 minutes in a closed container without pressure by spreading grains on a wire mesh tray. The steamed grains were spread in a trays for 2 to 5 minutes and immediately packed in double
polyethylene bags and stored in room temperature. The steamed, packed grains were popped after 24 and 48 hour in hot sand / salt. Volume of popped grains, unpopped grains and volume expansion estimated.
Improvement in popped volume and expansion volume was observed in processed grains packed in polyethylene bags even after 24 and 48h.
Raw Moisture adjusted to 16% Popped after 24 hour Popped after 48 hour
(Table remove)
Example 3 Pearl millet

Three varieties of Pearl millet grains which differed in their popping quality were selected for the study. Pearl millet grains (500g) were spread on a wire mesh tray (bed thickness about 2.0 cms) and steamed for different durations 5, 15 and 30 minutes. The steamed grains were spread in a tray and batches of 5 were popped in hot salt / sand (1:20 ratio) at 220°C to 250°C at regular intervals of drying starting from 5 minutes after steaming till 60 minutes after steaming.
The popped grains were separated from sand / salt by sieving through a 40 mesh BSS sieve. The volume of popped grains was measured, number of popped grains and unpopped grains was counted and expansion volume obtained. All the three parameters i.e percent popped grains, popping volume and expansion volume increased after processing in variety ICTP8203 and local 1, which initially had poor popping quality. On the other hand local 2 which was a good popper, its popping quality further enhanced and increase in all the parameters was observed.
Popping characteristics of pearl millet varieties with or without steam treatment
(Table remove)
Example 4
500g of sorghum was steamed for 15 minutes in a closed container without pressure by spreading grains on a wire mesh tray. The steamed grains were spread in a trays for 2 to 5 minutes and immediately packed in double polyethylene bags and stored in room temperature. The steamed, packed grains (250 - 260°C) were popped after 24 and 48 hour in hot sand / salt. Volume of popped grains, unpopped grains and volume expansion estimated.
Improved popped volume and expansion volume was observed in processed grains packed in polyethylene bags after 24 and 48h.
(Table remove)
A local variety of foxtail millet which had poor popping quality was selected. Fox tail millet grains (500g) were spread on a wire mesh tray (bed thickness about 2.0 cms) and steamed for different durations 5, 15 and 30 minutes. The steamed grains were spread in a tray and batches of 5 were popped in hot salt / sand (1:20 ratio) at 220°C to 250°C at regular intervals of drying starting from 5 minutes after steaming till 60 minutes after steaming. The popped grains were separated from sand / salt by sieving through a 40 mesh BSS sieve. The volume of popped grains was measured, number of popped grains and unpopped grains was counted and expansion volume obtained.
(Table remove)

The number of popped grains, popping volume and expansion of this millet grain was also enhanced when compared to both the controls
Example 6
A local variety of finger millet which had very poor popping quality was selected. Fox tail millet grains (500g) were spread on a wire mesh tray (bed thickness about 2.0 cms) and steamed for different durations 5, 15 and 30 minutes. The steamed grains were spread in a tray and batches of 5 were popped in hot salt / sand (1:20 ratio) at 220°C to 250°C at regular intervals of drying starting from 5 minutes after steaming till 60 minutes after steaming. The popped grains were separated from sand / salt by sieving through a 40 mesh BSS sieve. The volume of popped
grains was measured, number of popped grains and unpopped grains was counted and expansion volume obtained.
(Table Remove)
The number of popped grains increased considerably and hence volume expansion and pop volume also increased when compared to the untreated control
Example 7
A local variety of maize, which had very poor popping quality was selected. Maize grains (200g) were spread on a wire mesh tray (bed thickness about 2.0 cms) and steamed for different durations 5, 15 and 30 minutes. The steamed grains were spread in a tray and batches of 5 were popped in hot salt / sand (1:20 ratio) at
220°C to 250°C at regular intervals of drying starting from 5 minutes after steaming till 60 minutes after steaming. The popped grains were separated from sand / salt by sieving through a 40 mesh BSS sieve. The volume of popped grains was measured, number of popped grains and unpopped grains was counted and expansion volume obtained.
(Table Remove)
Maize, which had a very poor popping quality did not pop even after processing suggesting that steaming alone does not enhance the popping quality of this grain.

Advantages of the invention:-
(a)The process enables improving popping quality like, popping number, popped volume and expansion volume, of sorghum and millet grains.
(b) The process enables popping of sorghum and millet grains with poor or no popping quality.
(c) The process further enhances the popping quality of sorghum and millet grains with good popping quality by increasing the expansion volume further.
(d) The process eliminates the critical moisture content adjustments which is very important to achieve the maximum expansion volume, which also depends on the variety.
(e) The process enables the popping of sorghum or millet grains belonging to different varieties which differ in their popping quality.
(f) The use of this process eliminates the necessity to pop only certain varieties thus allowing the popping industry to pop any variety of sorghum or millet grains.
(g) The use of this process improves and upgrades the popping quality of varieties of poor popping quality and thereby diversifying the use of coarse grains.
(h) This process enables the use of coarse grains in the preparation of snack products enhancing the utilization of coarse grains.









We claim:
1. An improved process for the popping of coarse cereal grains comprising:
a) size grading the coarse cereal grains by mechanical means to obtain uniform grains,
b) Characterized in that steaming the coarse grains in a chamber for a period ranging 5-30 minutes at temperature ranging from 97-100°C,
c) spreading the steamed coarse grains and holding it for a period ranging 1-45 minutes in a tight chambers,
d) popping the coarse grain in hot salt/sand in a ratio 1:20 at 220 to 250 °C and separating popped grain from salt/sand by known method to obtain popped grain.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1, where in the coarse cereal grains is selected from sorghum, pearl millet, foxtail millet and finger millet and others.
3. An improved process for the popping of coarse cereal grains substantially as herein described with reference to the examples accompanying this specification.



Documents:

477-DEL-2004-Abstract (23-10-2009).pdf

477-del-2004-abstract.pdf

477-DEL-2004-Claims (23-10-2009).pdf

477-del-2004-claims.pdf

477-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others (11-02-2010).pdf

477-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others (23-10-2009).pdf

477-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(23-12-2010).pdf

477-del-2004-correspondence.pdf

477-del-2004-correspondene-others.pdf

477-del-2004-correspondene-po.pdf

477-DEL-2004-Description (Complete) (23-10-2009).pdf

477-del-2004-description (complete).pdf

477-del-2004-description.pdf

477-del-2004-form-1.pdf

477-del-2004-form-18.pdf

477-del-2004-form-2.pdf

477-DEL-2004-Form-3 (23-10-2009).pdf

477-del-2004-form-3.pdf

477-del-2004-form-5.pdf

477-del-2004-form1.pdf

477-del-2004-form2.pdf

477-del-2004-form3.pdf

477-del-2004-form5.pdf


Patent Number 245479
Indian Patent Application Number 477/DEL/2004
PG Journal Number 03/2011
Publication Date 21-Jan-2011
Grant Date 20-Jan-2011
Date of Filing 16-Mar-2004
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Applicant Address RAFI MARG,NEW DELHI 110001,INDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 MANDYAM KRISHNAKUMAR BHASHYAM DEPARTMENT OF GRAIN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, CFTRI, MYSORE-570 013,INDIA
2 MANCHANAHALLI SHIVANNA MEERA DEPARTMENT OF GRAIN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, CFTRI, MYSORE-570 013,INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number A23L1/18
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA