Title of Invention

"A FERMENTED SOYBEAN PROTEIN PRODUCT "

Abstract Disclosed are fermented soybean protein products with enhanced enzyme productivity and methods for producing them by solid fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and additionally Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP). A novel Bacillus subtilis GR-101 strain (KCCM 10673P), which has excellent protease productivity in soybean meal, is also disclosed. Fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 strain (KCCM 10673P) producing protease combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) having amylase activity can remove trypsin inhibitors known as anti-nutritional factors and thus can provide soybean peptides with high digestion ratio and excellent enzyme activities. Feed comprising the soybean peptides as active component and capable of improving productivity of livestock and food for human comprising the soybean peptides supply is further disclosed.
Full Text FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to novel fermented soybean protein products and methods of making fermented soybean protein with enhanced enzyme productivity for superior digestibility and nutritional value.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Soybeans have traditionally been an important source of plant-derived protein for human consumption. Soy proteins have been reported to benefit human health by lowering cholesterol, reducing the risks of breast cancer, and atherosclerosis. Soybean meal is also the most commonly used protein source in the animal feed industry. High protein content and wide availability make soybean meal a good source of protein in animal diets. However, consuming improperly processed or uncooked soybeans can be harmful because of anti-nutritional compounds in soybeans, such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins, flatulence-producing compounds, etc. Use of soybean meal is mostly limited to adult animals because of inefficient digestibility of soy proteins by young animals. Use of soybean in infant foods may be even more problematic because of the high susceptibility of infants to anti-nutritional compounds. Attempts have thus been made to process soybean protein to increase its digestibility and nutritional value.
Current methods for chemical processing of soybean protein are cost-intensive and often cause degeneration of soybean proteins, decreased solubility and loss of essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Additionally, due to the high production cost of known methods for processing soybean protein, it is currently not feasible to supply significant amounts of soybean protein to livestock feed, which requires low production cost. Further, known chemical processing methods include heat treatment, chemical treatment and heat drying steps and thus typically cause degeneration of protein and a loss of water-soluble amino acids, resulting in a protein content with low solubility. To prevent severe degeneration of protein, heat treatment in such conventional methods is sometimes carried out at lower temperatures. However, this results in the incorporation of a significant amount of trypsin inhibitors, which are anti-nutritional factors and reduce the digestibility of the soybean protein. It would thus be

highly desirable to develop materials and techniques for processing soybean protein products that reduce the harmful and anti-nutritional properties of soy meal, making soybean protein available as an abundant, affordable, and high-quality source of nutrition for humans, including infants, and livestock, including young animals.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0004] The present invention provides highly nutritional and easily digested soybean
protein products comprising protease- and amylase producing microorganisms. In one
embodiment the fermented soybean protein product comprises Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus
oryzae microorganisms. In preferred embodiments, the fermented soybean protein product has
an initial water content of about 40-50%, as it has been found that this water content can
optimize the protease and amylase activity of the microorganisms.
|0005] In another embodiment of the present invention, the protease producing
microorganism is a Bacillus subtilis strain selected for its ability to produce protease. In preferred embodiments, the protease-producing Bacillus subtilis strain is GR-101 (KCCM 10673P). In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the amylase-producing microorganism is an Aspergillus oryzae strain, selected for its ability to produce amylase. In preferred embodiments, the amylase-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain is GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP).
[0006] In preferred embodiments, the B. subtilis strain produces at least 35 U/g protease,
and the A. oryzae at least 100 U/g amylase. In more preferred embodiments, the B. subtilis
strain produces about 70 U/g protease, and the A. oryzae about 300 U/g amylase.
[0007] Thus, the present invention provides microorganisms isolated from traditional
soybean malt and selected for protease and amylase production. It should be noted that the
specific strains of microorganisms disclosed herein are mere preferred embodiments and that the
present disclosure enables the skilled artisan to isolate and select many equivalent
microorganisms, all of which are within the scope of the instant invention.
[0008] In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides methods of producing
fermented soybean protein with enhanced enzyme productivity, the method comprising adding to soybean meal a Bacillus subtilis strain having protease activity and Aspergillus oryzae strain
having amylase activity. In other preferred embodiments, the Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae strains are added to the soybean meal in a ratio of 1:1.
[0009] Also provided are food products comprising solid fermented soybean protein
obtained by the methods disclosed herein. In a further preferred embodiment, the present invention provides methods of increasing the digestibility and protein content of soybean paste. The methods provided herein comprise the steps of isolating and selecting a protease-producing microorganism from soybean malt, isolating and selecting an amylase-producing microorganism from soybean malt, adding both microorganisms to soybean meal and fermenting the soybean meal with the protease- and amylase-producing microorganisms.
[00010] In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides inoculation kits for the
fermentation of soybean protein product comprising protease- and amylase-producing microorganisms. In more preferred embodiments, the protease-producing microorganism is a Bacillus subtilis strain and the amylase-producing microorganism is an Aspergillus oryzae strain. In preferred embodiments, the inoculation kit contains a Bacillus subtilis strain and Aspergillus oryzae strain in a ratio of 1:1.
[00011] Thus, the present invention relates to methods of producing fermented soybean
protein with enhanced enzyme productivity for superior digestibility and nutritional value. In
one embodiment, the methods comprise production of soybean protein by solid-state
fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 and the products
obtained thereby. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods of preparing
fermented soybean peptides, which methods comprise isolating and selecting a Bacillus subtilis
strain with excellent protease productivity and inoculating the strain into a culture medium in
which soybean meal is dipped at low temperature, followed by fermentation, to enhance enzyme
productivity. The present invention further comprises culturing an Aspergillus oryzae strain with
excellent amylase productivity in combination with the Bacillus subtilis strain to concentrate
soybean protein and to remove trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides such as raffinose and
stachyose. The present invention also relates to livestock feed and food for human consumption
incorporating the soybean peptides fermented by the same method.
[00012] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for processing
fermented soybean protein with enhanced enzyme productivity by solid fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP). The present
invention also provides a novel Bacillus subtilis GR-101 strain (KCCM 10673P), which has excellent protease productivity in soybean meal. According to the present invention, fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 strain (KCCM 10673P) having excellent protease productivity combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) having excellent amylase activity can remove trypsin inhibitors known as anti-nutritional factors and thus can provide soybean peptides with high digestion ratio and excellent enzyme activities suitable for human consumption. Additionally, the soybean peptides obtained according to the present invention can be used as active component in livestock feed, thereby improving productivity of livestock.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[00013] Figure 1 shows the result of HPLC analysis for subfractionation of fermented
soybean protein according to the present invention
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
[00014] In order to process soybean protein more efficiently, the present invention
provides for biological processing of fermented soybean peptides. While it is known that by isolating and selecting a microorganism, such as Aspergillus oryzae, for its ability to produce amylase, soybean meal can be cultured with a microorganism to remove carbohydrates and anti-nutritional factors including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose to produce fermented soybean peptides, the resulting protein is still not sufficiently hydrolyzed to be easily digested.
[00015] Thus, in one aspect the present invention provides a method of processing
fermented soybean peptides comprising culturing a microorganism with excellent amylase activity in combination with a novel strain that exhibits excellent protease activity. The method improves the digestibility of fermented soybean peptides.
[00016] Figure 1 contains a chromatography (fast protein liquid chromatography, FPLC)
of peptide distributions from Fermented Soybean Meal (FSM) and Conventional Soybean Meal
(CSM). Figure 1 contains three graphs: (a) Molecular marker, (b) CSM, and (c) FSM.. The Y-
axis is mAU and the X-axis is retention time (min).
|00017] Figure 1 can be further summarized by the following table:
Table 1
Summary of Peptide distribution (%)of FSM and CSM by size.

(Table Removed)
[00018] A comparison of the FSM with the CSM reveals that the FSM processed with the
present method contains significantly greater numbers of medium sized and smaller sized peptides. 79.64% of the CSM is comprised of large peptides while 12.70% are medium peptides and only 6.61% are small peptides. In contrast, a look at the FSM shows that 30% are medium peptides and 37.50% are small sized peptides.
[00019] Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a novel
microorganism strain with excellent protease productivity in order to hydrolyze the protein into smaller, more easily digested peptides.
[00020] The present invention thus provides highly nutritional and easily digested soybean
protein products comprising protease- and amylase producing microorganisms. In one
embodiment the fermented soybean protein product comprises Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus
oryzae microorganisms. In preferred embodiments, the fermented soybean protein product has
an initial water content of about 40-50%, as it has been found that at this water content the
protease and amylase activity of the microorganisms are optimized.
[00021] In another embodiment of the present invention, the protease producing
microorganism is a Bacillus subtilis strain selected for its ability to produce protease. In preferred embodiments, the protease-producing Bacillus subtilis strain is GR-101 (KCCM 10673P). In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the amylase-producing microorganism is an Aspergillus oryzae strain, selected for its ability to produce amylase. In
preferred embodiments, the amylase-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain is GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP).
[00022] Thus, the present invention provides microorganisms, preferably isolated from
traditional soybean malt, selected for protease and amylase production. It should be noted that the specific strains of microorganisms disclosed herein are mere preferred embodiments and that persons of skill in the art, by following the present disclosure, can isolate and select many equivalent microorganisms suitable for the purposes of the instant invention. The advantage of isolating the microorganisms from traditional Korean soybean malt is that such microorganisms are already adapted to low moisture and high salt environments where other microorganisms are unable to grow. This eliminates an additional selection step and makes the isolated microorganisms well suited for use in the solid fermentation of soybean meal of the present invention.
[00023] In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides methods of producing
fermented soybean protein with enhanced enzyme productivity, the method comprising adding to soybean meal a Bacillus subtilis strain producing protease and Aspergillus oryzae strain having amylase activity. In other preferred embodiments, the Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae strains are added to said soybean meal in a ratio of 1:1.
[00024] Also provided are food products comprising solid fermented soybean protein
obtained by the methods disclosed herein. In a further preferred embodiment, the present invention provides methods of increasing the digestibility and protein content of soybean paste. The methods provided herein comprise the steps of isolating and selecting a protease-producing microorganism from soybean malt, isolating and selecting an amylase-producing microorganism from soybean malt, adding both microorganisms to soybean meal and fermenting the soybean meal with the protease- and amylase-producing microorganisms.
[00025] In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides inoculation kits for the
fermentation of soybean protein product comprising protease- and amylase-producing microorganisms. In more preferred embodiments, the protease-producing microorganism is a Bacillus subtilis strain and the amylase-producing microorganism is an Aspergillus oryzae strain. In preferred embodiments, the inoculation kit contains a Bacillus subtilis strain and Aspergillus oryzae strain in a ratio of 1:1.
[00026] It is yet another object of the present invention to provide livestock feed and food
prepared from the fermented soybean protein, in which protein decomposition and anti-
nutritional factors are minimized, obtained by using the above methods.
[00027] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method
comprising the steps of: selecting a Bacillus subtilis strain with excellent protease activity;
determining adequate fermentation conditions of Bacillus subtilis and A spergillus oryzae so as to
conform to a solid fermentation process; determining variations in enzyme productivity, protein
level and anti-nutritional factors with the lapse of time during solid fermentation; and
determining amino acid digestion ratio and fractions of fermented soybean protein by using the
fermented soybean protein obtained from the preceding steps. In a preferred embodiment, the
Bacillus subtilis strain is isolated from Korea traditional soybean malt, which ensures that it is
adapted to low moisture and high salt environments. In preferred embodiments of the invention,
the Bacillus subtilis strain is GR-101 and the Aspergillus oryzae strain is GB-107.
[00028] According to another aspect of the present invention, the Bacillus subtilis has a
protease activity of 35 U/g or greater, and the Aspergillus oryzae has an amylase activity of 100
U/g or greater. The measured enzyme activities of the microorganisms may vary according to
the assay and fermentation process used. Another aspect of the invention is the ability of the
microorganism to remove ammonia, to produce low molecular weight peptides from the raw
materials, and to maintain its own activity when grown together with another microorganism.
[00029] According to yet another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a novel
Bacillus subtilis GR-101 strain (KCCM 10673P) with excellent protease productivity. In
preferred embodiments, the B. subtilis strain is isolated from traditional soybean malt.
[00030] According to still another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a
method for processing fermented soybean protein with enhanced protease productivity,
characterized in that soybean meal having an initial water content of about 40-50% is used as
culture medium, and Bacillus subtilis GR-101 strain (KCCM 10673P) with excellent protease
productivity is mixed with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) in a ratio of 1:1.
[00031] According to yet another aspect of the present invention, there is provided
livestock feed comprising the solid-state fermented soybean protein obtained by the above method as active component.
[00032] Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the present
invention. It is to be understood that the following examples are illustrative only and the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto.
EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 1: ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STRAIN WITH EXCELLENT
PROTEASE PRODUCTIVITY
[00033] Bacillus subtilis with excellent protease productivity useful for microorganisms in
livestock feed was isolated from traditional soybean malt by converting high-molecular weight soybean protein into low-molecular weight peptides via fermentation with microorganisms. 1 g of soybean malt was suspended in 10 mL of sterilized saline so that it was diluted in a ratio of 1x10-1 to 1x10-5. 100 D/mL of the dilution obtained thereby was applied to a MYP culture medium (Beef extract 1g/L, peptone 10g/L, D-mannitol 10g/L, sodium chloride 10g/L, Phenol Red 0.025g/L), followed by incubation at 37°C for 24 hours. After the incubation, colonies appearing on the solid medium were examined with a microscope for isolation, and such isolated strains were cultured in a SK agar medium (skim milk 10 g/L, NaCl 0.24 g/L, yeast extract 0.75 g/L, anhydrous potassium phosphate (KH2PO2) 1.24 g/L, magnesium sulfonate (MgSO4H2O) 80 mg/L, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4.7H2O) 0.7 mg/L and agar 15 g/L, pH 7.5) at 37°C for 16 hours. Then, strains with a large decomposed ring of skim milk were preliminarily selected. The strains with a large decomposed ring were immersed in water to a water content of 40%, inoculated into sterilized soybean meal as culture medium, followed by incubation at 37C° for 16 hours, and then a strain having a high protease liter and causing the largest variation in crude protein content of soybean meal was finally selected. Such final strain was examined with an optical microscope and subjected to gram staining. Identification of the strain was performed by the Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms (KCCM) through the 16S rDNA sequence. As a result, the finally selected strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis. The strain was denominated as Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and was deposited in the Korea Research Institute Bioscience & Biotechnology as the deposition No. KCCM 10673P. Table 2 shows the identification of the unknown microorganism

as a new strain of B. subtilis based on a profile of the microorganism's ability to utilize different types of carbohydrate substrates. Table 2
Biochemical Characteristics and Metabolic Characteristics for Carbohydrate Availability of Bacillus subtilis GR-101

(Table Removed)
EXAMPLE 2: DETERMINATION OF OPTIMIZED FERMENTATION CONDITIONS
OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS GR-101 AND ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE GB-107 (KCTC
10258BP) SUITABLE FOR SOLID FERMENTATION OF SOYBEAN MEAL
[00034] Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) were
examined for their optimized fermentation conditions depending on water content upon fermentation of soybean meal. To perform this, crude protein content, cell count of microorganisms and enzyme activity were examined.
[00035] First, soybean meal having an initial water content of 13% was adjusted to a water
content of 30%, 40%, 50% or 60%. Next, 500 g of each soybean meal sample was introduced in a stainless steel sieve and the sieve was covered with aluminum foil, followed by cooking at 75C° for 30 minutes and cooling to 30C°. Then, seeds of Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) were taken each in an amount of 1% per 500g soybean meal, each containing 1x109 and 5xl08/ml microorganisms) and then sprayed to the soybean meal having a water content of 30%, 40%, 50% or 60%, followed by mixing uniformly. The seeds were cultured in an incubator at 33C° for 36 hours and dried in a dryer at 50C° to a water content of 8%. Then, each sample was examined for amylase activity, protease activity and crude protein content. Herein, in order to determine the enzyme activity, 10 g of the soybean meal medium sample having a water content of 30%, 40%, 50% or 60% was milled in a mortar and introduced in a mass flask. After this, the mass flask was filled with distilled water to a height of 100 mL, agitated for 30 minutes and left for 2 hours. The sample was subjected to centrifugal separation (10,000 X g, 4C°) and the supernatant was used for measuring the enzyme activity.
[00036] More particularly, amylase activity was determined from the whole reducing
sugar, which is prepared by using soluble starch (1% in 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) as substrate, by the DNS (dinitrosalicylic acid) method (see, [Miller, Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31: 426-428, 1959]. 1U (unit) of enzyme is defined as the amount of enzyme capable of isolating 1 µmol of the product per minute.
[00037] Protease activity was determined from tyrosine formed after the enzymatic
reaction using casein (20 mM, 0.7% in Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0) as substrate, by the Folin method (see, [Park, Thesis Collection of Graduate School Chun-Buk University 4: 101, 1978]).
1U (unit) of enzyme is defined as the amount of enzyme capable of isolating lµmole of the product per minute.
[00038] The optimized condition for growth of microorganisms depending on water
content of the culture medium used in culture of the combination of strains are shown in the following Table 3. Table 3
Variations in Amylase Productivity, Protease Productivity and Crude Protein by Fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 Combined wiih Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) Depending On Water Content of Soybean Meal

(Table Removed)
[00039] Cell count of Bacillus subtilis GR-101 increased in proportion to the water
content, and protease productivity increased accordingly. However, Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) showed the highest cell count and amylase activity at a water content of 40% during its fermentation combined with Bacillus subtilis GR-101. Additionally, crude protein content showed the highest level at a water content of 40%. Therefore, the optimum of water content for fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) was 35% - 45%.
[00040] Although the method according to the present invention results in an increase of
crude protein content by about 0.5 to 1% compared to known methods, it provides protease activity increased by 9 times, and thus further enhances hydrolysis of soybean protein and facilitates digestion and absorption of the protein.
Table 4

(Table Removed)
[00041] The following Table 5 shows the optimized inoculation ratio of each strain of
Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP). Table 5
Optimized Ratio of Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) for Combined Culture Thereof

(Table Removed)
[00042j When fermentation was carried out by adjusting soybean meal having a water
content of 46% to a water content of 40%, the optimum of the combination ratio of Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) was 50:50, as demonstrated by the highest increase in crude protein content. Additionally, when Bacillus subtilis GR-101 was combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) in a ratio of 50:50, the best result was obtained in terms of enzyme titer.
EXAMPLE 3: DETERMINATION OF ENZYME ACTIVITY
[00043] A number of microorganisms were isolated from traditional Korean soybean paste
(Mae-Joo) and tested for amylase and protease activity. The following table shows the actual value of amylase and protease activity of the selected microorganisms.

(Table Removed)
[00044] Protease activity was determined by the following method:
Assay for Proteolytic Activity using Azocasein
[00045] Azocasein is a chemically modified protein that was designed as a substrate for
quantitative assays of proteolytic enzyme activity. It is prepared by chemically adding sulfanilamide groups to the milk protein casein. The sulfanilamide groups, which are orange, are covalently linked to the peptide bonds. Reaction mixtures are set up using azocasein as the substrate. They are then incubated under the conditions chosen for the experiment. As the proteolytic enzyme hydrolyzes peptide bonds, shorter peptides and amino acids are liberated from the chain.
[00046] Following incubation, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is added to stop the enzyme and
precipitate (by denaturation) macromolecules, including the enzyme and undigested azocasein.
These are removed from the reaction mixture by centrifugation. Very short peptide chains and
free amino acids liberated by the proteolytic enzyme are not precipitated by the TCS, and thus
remain in solution. The greater the extent of proteolysis, the greater the number of short peptide
chains and free amino acids in solution, and thus, the more intense the orange color of the
solution. The intensity of the color, measured spectrophotometrically, is used to determine the
relative activity of the proteolytic enzyme. The assay has been in use since 1949 (Tomarelli, R.
M, J. Charney, and M. L. Harding. 1949. The use of azoalbumin as a substratein the colorimetric
determination of peptic and tryptic activity. Jour. Lab. and Clin.Med. 34:428-433.)
[00047] Assay for Amylase Activity
Amylase activity was measured by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method (Rick, W. and H.P. Stegbauer. 1974. a-Amylase measurement of reducing groups. In H. V. Bergmeyer (ed.),
Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, 2nd edn., vol. 2, Academic Press, New York.). One unit of amylase activity was defined as the amount of enzyme hydrolyzing 1µmol of glucose equivalents of starch in one minute under the assay condition. 5 ml of soluble starch solution, 200 µl enzyme solution and 4.8 ml distilled water were mixed and reacted at 37 °C for 30 min, 3 ml of DNS solution was then added. The reaction was stopped by boiling for 5 min. The absorbance was measured at 540 nm.
[00048] An alternative amylase activity is that developed by Smith and Roe, J. Biol.
Chem., 179, 53 (1949), as modified by Manning and Campbell (J. Biol. Chem, 236:11, 2952-2957). Briefly, a 1% solution of Lintner soluble starch is prepared in 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 4.6. To each of two test tubes were added 5.0 ml of the buffered starch substrate, 3.0 ml of 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.6), and 1.0 ml of 0.5 M CaCl2. A third tube served as a reagent blank. The tubes were incubated at 65 °C until equilibrated. To one tube was added 1.0 ml of enzyme and, after a 10-minute reation time at 65 °C, 2.0 ml of 1 N HC1 were added to each tube. Enzyme (1.0 ml) was then added to the reagent blank and the undigested starch control tube. After thorough mixing, 0.2 ml of each of the three tubes was placed in 50-ml volumetric flasks containing o.5 ml of 1 N HC1 and 40 ml of distilled water. Color was developed in each flask by the addition of 0.1 ml of an iodine solution (3.0% KI and 0.3% I2). The flasks were brought to volume and thoroughly mixed. The resultant blue solutions were decanted into colorimeter tubes and absorbancy read at 620 nm with a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 20 colorimeter. Activity was calculated by the equation:
AbC - AbD x mg of starch initially present = mg of starch hydrolyzed
AbC
in which AbC is the absorbancy of the control and AbD is the absorbancy of the digest. ONe unit of α-amylase is that amount of protein which will hydrolyze 10 mg of starch per minute under the specified conditions. Specific activity is expressed as units per mg. of protein.

EXAMPLE 4: VARIATIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY, CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT
AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS DURING LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION
DEPENDING ON FERMENTATION CONDITIONS
[00049] After fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 combined with Aspergillus
oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) for preparation of fermented soybean peptides, protein dispersibility index (PDI) and KOH solubility index were measured in order to obtain information about amounts of anti-nutritional factors of soybean meal, including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose and protein solubility.
[00050] For this, solid fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 combined with
Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) was performed in soybean meal having water content adjusted to 40%. During the fermentation, variations in enzyme activity and crude protein content were observed.
[00051] Titer of trypsin inhibitors was determined by the method according to AACC-71-
10 (American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1995). Raffinose and stachyose were determined by liquid chromatography (LC). Protein dispersibility index was cdetermined as follows: 0.5 g of a sample was introduced into 150 mL of water, and the mixture was stirred at 8,500 rpm for 10 minutes and filtered. Next, the filtrate was measured for its nitrogen content by using a kjeldahl instrument and the nitrogen content was expressed as solubility (see, Batal, et. al, Protein dispersibility index as an indicator of adequately fermented soybean meal, Polut Sci. 79: 1592-6, 2000). Then, KOH solubility was obtained as follows: 0.1 g of a sample was added to 0.2% aqueous KOH solution, and the mixture was mixed for 20 minutes and filtered. Next, the filtrate was measured for its nitrogen content by using a kjeldahl instrument and the nitrogen content was expressed as solubility (see, Parsons, et. al, Soybean protein solubility in potassium hydroxide: an in vitro test of in vivo protein quality. J Anim Sci. 69: 2918-24, 1991).
Table 6
Variations in Large-Scale Fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 Combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) over Time

(Table Removed)
[00052] As fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 combined with Aspergillus oryzae
GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) progressed, enzyme titer and crude protein content increased. Also, enzyme production increased with the lapse of fermentation time, and particularly increased rapidly after 24 hours from the start point of the fermentation.
[00053] Additionally, trypsin inhibitor titer was reduced significantly according to
fermentation degrees of Bacillus subtilis GR-101. Particularly, about 55% of trypsin inhibitor titer could be reduced by known heat treatment methods and 45% could be reduced by fermentation according to known methods. However, addition of Bacillus subtilis GR-101
enhances protease activity as a result of fermentation, so that trypsin inhibitor titer is further reduced by about 0.3 TI mg/g (0.3 mg trypsin inhibitor/g soybean meal), compared to previously known methods.
[00054] The following Table 7 shows the results of anti-nutritional factors measured after
the fermentation using the novel Bacillus subtilis GR-101 according to the present invention combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP). Table 7
Anti-nutritional Factor Content after the Fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 Combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP)

(Table Removed)
[00055] After the fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 according to the present
invention combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP), anti-nutritional factor content was reduced significantly compared to soybean meal, and stachyose and raffinose were not detected. This indicates that fermentation using the novel Bacillus subtilis GR-101 according to the present invention combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) enhances protease activity, even if the above anti-nutritional factors are partially destroyed during heat treatment.
[00056] As can be seen the above results, fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101
according to the present invention combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) under the optimized conditions can reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors, i.e. stachyose and raffinose significantly as well as improve the protein dispersibility index and KOH solubility index, compared to previously known methods.
EXAMPLE 5. DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACID DIGESTION RATIO AND
SOYBEAN PROTEIN FRACTION IN WEANED PIGS USING BACILLUS SUB THIS
GR-101 ACCORDING TO THE PRESENT INVENTION AND ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE
GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP)
[00057] In order to determine amino acid digestion ratio of the fermented soybean protein
according to the present invention in weaned pigs, thirty head of ternary hybridized (Yorkshire X Landrace X Duroc) weaned pigs were selected and each pig was housed in a separate metabolism cage. As control, soybean meal was used, and fermented soybean protein was measured for the amino acid digestion ratio by collecting excrete from the pigs for two days from the fourth day of the feed intake after the lapse of time needed for adaptation. Table 8
Amino Acid Digestibility in Weaned Pigs Using Soybean Meal, Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP)

(Table Removed)
[00058] Digestibility of the total essential amino acids of the control (soybean meal) was
59.66%, while that of the soybean protein fermented by using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 and
Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) was 87.80%. Additionally, digestibility of the
non-essential amino acids of the control (soybean meal) was 59.48%, while that of the fermented
soybean protein was 86.63%, which was significantly higher compared to the control.
[00059] To check the peptide sub-fractionation of the fermented soybean protein
according to the present invention, the acetone concentration method was used to extract protein and the extract was subjected to HPLC equipped with a Sepadex 75 column to perform analysis for sub-fractionation of the protein. After the analysis using HPLC, constitution of the peptides are shown in FIG. 1.
[00060] As shown in FIG. 1, sub-fractionation of the protein demonstrates that
67.5% of the total protein is formed of peptides with 2,000 Da or less, 37.5% of which is distributed over the range of 1,000 Da or less. By contrast, 70% of the total protein in soybean meal prepared by previously known methods is made of peptides with 25,000 Da or less. This indicates that fermentation using Bacillus subtilis GR-101 combined with Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP), having excellent protease titer and amylase titer, permits soybean meal to be hydrolyzed more efficiently, so that high-molecular weight protein is degraded into low-molecular weight peptides and low-molecular weight peptides predominate.






We claim
1. A fermented soybean protein product comprising Bacillus subtilis GR-101 (KCCM 10673P) for protease-production and Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (KCTC 10258BP) for amylase production.
2. The fermented soybean protein product as claimed in claim 1, wherein said Bacillus subtilis produces protease in the amount of 70 Units per gram.
3. The fermented soybean protein product as claimed in claim 1 wherein said Bacillus subtilis produces protease in the amount of 35 Units per gram.
4. The fermented soybean protein product as claimed in claim 1, wherein said Aspergillus oryzae produces amylase in the amount of 300 units per gram.
5. The fermented soybean protein product as claimed in claim 1, wherein said Aspergillus oryzae produces amylase in the amount of 100 units per gram.
6. The fermented soybean protein product as claimed in claim 1 wherein said
Bacillus subtilis strain producing protease is collected from traditional Korean
soybean malt.
7. A method of producing the soybean product of claim 1 by increasing the
digestibility and protein content of soybean paste, comprising the steps of:
i. selecting a protease-producing Bacillus subtilis strain; ii. selecting an amylase-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain; iii. adding said Bacillus and Aspergillus strains to soybean meal in a ratio of
1:1; and iv. fermenting said soybean meal.
8. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein said soybean meal has an initial water content of about 40-50%.
9. An inoculation kit for the fermentation of soybean protein product comprising a Bacillus subtilis strain and an Aspergillus oryzae strain of preceding claims.
10. The inoculation kit as claimed in claim 9, wherein said Bacillus subtilis strain and Aspergillus oryzae strain are present in a ratio of 1:1.

Documents:

2010-DEL-2006-Abstract-(20-10-2010).pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Abstract-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-abstract.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Claims-(20-10-2010).pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Claims-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-claims.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Correspondence-Others-(20-10-2010).pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Correspondence-Others-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-correspondence-others.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Description (Complete)-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-description (complete).pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Drawings-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-drawings.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Form-1-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-form-1.pdf

2010-del-2006-form-13-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-form-18.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Form-2-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-form-2.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Form-3-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-del-2006-form-3.pdf

2010-del-2006-form-5.pdf

2010-DEL-2006-GPA-(30-09-2009).pdf

2010-DEL-2006-Petition-137-(30-09-2009).pdf


Patent Number 245467
Indian Patent Application Number 2010/DEL/2006
PG Journal Number 03/2011
Publication Date 21-Jan-2011
Grant Date 20-Jan-2011
Date of Filing 11-Sep-2006
Name of Patentee GENEBIOTECH CO., LTD
Applicant Address 311-3 KYUNGCHUN-RI, KYERYONG-MYUN, GONGJU-SHI, CHUNGNAM 314-831, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 LEE CHAN HO 1606-1901, SARANG MAEUL APT., 415, SANG-DONG, WONMI-GU, BUCHEON-SI, GYEONGGI-DO, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
2 CHO WON TAK 104-102, HYUNDAI APT., 357, DOHWA-DONG, MAPO-GU, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
3 CHO KYUNG JIN 105-506, JUGONGN APT., 255-3,, SHINKWAN-DONG, GONGJU-SI, CHUNGNAM, REPUBLIC OF KOREA
PCT International Classification Number C12P39/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 10-2005-0085085 2005-09-13 Republic of Korea