Title of Invention

"A PROCESS FOR PRODUCING FREEZE TEXTURIZED MUSHROOMS AND THEIR SPENTS"

Abstract This invention relates to a process for producing freeze texturized mushrooms and their spents comprising in the steps of washing of mushrooms and their spents with plain water, blanching with boiling water for a period of 1 to 5 minutes, the washed mushrooms and their spents to inactivate the enzymes particularly polyphenol oxidase, grinding the blanched mushrooms for 20-40 seconds at 15000 to 20000 rpm, washing the slurry again with plain water, adding 2 to 4% common salt for 25 to 45 minutes to the slurry, pressing the slurry followed by addition of cryoprotectants wherein the cryoprotectant comprises 0.3 to 0.7% sorbitol, 1.5 to 3% skimmed milk powder and 0.1 to 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate and freezing of the mass at a minimum temperature of minimum -18°C for 60-80 hrs followed by subsequent thawing of the product so obtained.
Full Text FIELD OF INVENTION
This invention relates to a process for producing freeze texturized mushrooms and their spents which can be used in making curries and can serve as a meat substitute for vegetarian diets.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
Mushrooms are nutritious and palatable food. They contain 20-40% (dw) protein and are good source of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. They are known to be intermediate in quality between vegetable and animal proteins and the supplementary value of mushroom protein in vegetarian diet is of considerable significance. Apart from this mushrooms have been reported to exhibit medicinal properties. Mushrooms have been found helpful in preventing high blood pressure, arthrosclerosis; kidney ailments, diabetes, cataract, gall stones, cancer and ADDS.
Freezing is generally used as method of preservation but it has also been used to fabricate texturized products which simulate characteristics of meat by bringing about substantial changes within delicate structure of food and food products. Freezing draws out water

from cellular fluids and solidifies it as ice crystals. The process increases concentration of remaining aqueous solution and brings protein molecules together which provide a fibrous texture to product after freezing and thawing. Freezing has been utilized to produce texturized food product from amorphous protein paste and slurries like kori tofu from soybean and surimi from white fleshed fish. Freezing and thawing can have a detrimental effect on sensory and water holding properties of food. To minimize these changes certain substances known as cryoprotectans are added to foods. These substances have been reported to slow down the rate of the crystal growth and alter crystal shapes.
During peak harvest growers resort mushrooms to distress sale which cause a great economic loss and unsold mushrooms become a total loss. Further lower portion of mushrooms like stipes and stubs are either buried or thrown which is labour intensive and expensive. Generally canning, freezing and drying are the methods of preservation and value addition which require mushrooms of prime quality. Fruitful utilization of such spent mushrooms (stipes, stubs and overaged mushrooms) will give a boost to the mushroom industry. Keeping all these constraints freeze texturization of mushrooms and their spents was carried out.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
An object of this invention is to propose a process for freeze textunzation of mushrooms and their spents.
Another object of this invention is to propose a process for freeze texturization of mushrooms and their spents and where the spent mushrooms are otherwise thrown.
Still another object of this invention is to propose a process for freeze texturization of mushrooms and their spents from a slurry of mushrooms hence the shape and size are not considered.
Yet another object of this invention is to propose a process for freeze texturization of mushrooms and their spents, which is free from mushroom odour and blackening during storage.
A further object of this invention is to propose a process for freeze texturization of mushrooms and their spents, which improves the overall value of the mushrooms.
A still further object object of this invention is to propose a process for freeze texturization of mushrooms and their spents, which can served as a meat analog for vegetarian diet.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION
According to this invention there is provided a process for producing freeze texturized mushrooms and their spents comprising in the steps of:-
i) washing of mushrooms and their spents with plain water,
ii) blanching with boiling water for a period of 1 to 5 minutes, the washed mushrooms and their spents to inactivate the enzymes particularly polyphenol oxidase,
iii) grinding the blanched mushrooms for 20-40 seconds at 15000 to 20000 rpm,
iv) washing the slurry again with plain water,
v) adding 2 to 4% common salt for 25 to 45 minutes to the
slurry, vi) pressing the slurry followed by addition of cryoprotectants
wherein the cryoprotectant comprises 0.3 to 0.7%
sorbitol, 1.5 to 3% skimmed milk powder and 0.1 to 0.3%
sodium tripolyphosphate and
vii) freezing of the mass at a minimum temperature of minimum -18°C for 60-80 hrs followed by subsequent thawing of the product so obtained.
Freeze texturized product was developed from mushrooms which was spongy, cohesive and white in colour with a very little mushroom aroma. Mushrooms (Agaricus sp.) and their spents (stipe, stubds and overaged mushrooms) were washed with plain water to remove surface soil and dirt. This was followed by blanching in water for 1 to 5 min to inactivate enzymes responsible for enzymatic browning (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase). The blanched mushrooms were ground in a wet grinder for 20-40 sec at 15000-20000 rpm (without load). Further increase in grinding time was found to decrease yield and sensory quality. The ground slurry was taken in a muslin cloth and washed 2 times with water. Any excess wash water was removed from slurry by gentle squeezing by hand. Washed slurry was added with common salt @2.0-4.0% for effective removal of cellular and extra cellular fluids for 25-45 min. Salt concentration above 4% was found to impair the sensory flavour and texture attributes of the product. The slurry was washed again with water. This was followed by pressing the slurry in a porous wooden vat by placing a weight of 3 to 6 kg for 14-20 min. The next step of the process was addition of addition of cryoprotectants to the pressed mass. The cryoprotectants used were sorbitol (0-4% w/w), skimmed milk powder (SMP) (0.4% w/w) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) (0-4% w/w). The mass was spread on trays, pressed gently by hand to give a smooth surface and then frozen at -18°C for 60-80 hours in a deep freezer. The frozen mass was thawed by keeping at room temperature, refrigerator, hot water and microwave oven. Thawing in refrigerator (7±2°C) for 3 to 5 hours had the least drip loss (10.0-13.0%). The thawed product was kept in a tray and was cut into pieces.
Fig.l of the accompanying drawing illustrates the flow chart of the process. The yield, moisture, true protein, fat, crude fiber and ash content of the unfried freeze texturized product was 30-34%, 86.25-87.25, 1.65-1.94, 0.22-0.46, 4.6-6.5 and 0.68-0.86% fw, respectively (Table 1). The product contained lower protein content as compare to fresh mushrooms due to the loss of water and salt soluble proteins during washing steps. For sensory evaluation the product was fried in refined soybean oil at 180-190°C for about 5-7 sees till their surface turned light brown. Sensory panelists were asked to evaluate samples for four attributes namely colour, appearance, texture and flavour using a 9 point hedonic scale, where a score of 0 meant poor and 9 meant excellent and a score more than 7.0 indicated acceptability of product. The product after frying showed an excellent sensory acceptability on the basis of colour (score 8.0-8.5), appearance (score 7.8-8.4), texture (score 7.8-8.5) and flavour (score 8.0-8.5). The unfried product had a shelf life of 36-48 hours at ambient temperature and 6-7 days at refrigerated (7±2°C) conditions.

TABLE1
Proximate composition of fresh Agaricus bisporus mushroom and untried freeze texturized mushrooms.
(Table Removed)












WE CLAIM:
1. A process for producing freeze texturized mushrooms and their spents comprising in the steps of:-
i) washing of mushrooms and their spents with plain water,
ii) blanching with boiling water for a period of 1 to 5 minutes, the washed mushrooms and their spents to inactivate the enzymes particularly polyphenol oxidase,
iii) grinding the blanched mushrooms for 20-40 seconds at 15000 to 20000 rpm,
iv) washing the slurry again with plain water,
v) adding 2 to 4% common salt for 25 to 45 minutes to the slurry,
vi) pressing the slurry followed by addition of cryoprotectants wherein the cryoprotectant comprises 0.3 to 0.7% sorbitol, 1.5 to 3% skimmed milk powder and 0.1 to 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate and
vii) freezing of the mass at a minimum temperature of minimum -18°C for 60-80 hrs followed by subsequent thawing of the product so obtained.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step of thawing is carried out at a temperature of 5-9°C for 3 to 5 hours.

Documents:

2074-DEL-2005-Abstract-(21-10-2010).pdf

2074-DEl-2005-Abstract-(30-12-2010).pdf

2074-del-2005-abstract.pdf

2074-DEL-2005-Claims-(21-10-2010).pdf

2074-DEl-2005-Claims-(30-12-2010).pdf

2074-del-2005-claims.pdf

2074-DEL-2005-Correspondence-Others-(21-10-2010).pdf

2074-DEL-2005-Correspondence-Others-(30-12-2010).pdf

2074-del-2005-correspondence-others.pdf

2074-del-2005-correspondence-po.pdf

2074-DEL-2005-Description (Complete)-(21-10-2010).pdf

2074-DEl-2005-Description (Complete)-(30-12-2010).pdf

2074-del-2005-description (complete).pdf

2074-del-2005-drawings.pdf

2074-del-2005-form-1.pdf

2074-del-2005-form-18.pdf

2074-del-2005-form-2.pdf

2074-DEL-2005-Form-3-(21-10-2010).pdf

2074-DEL-2005-GPA-(21-10-2010).pdf

2074-del-2005-gpa.pdf

2074-del-2005-petition-138.pdf


Patent Number 245273
Indian Patent Application Number 2074/DEL/2005
PG Journal Number 02/2011
Publication Date 14-Jan-2011
Grant Date 11-Jan-2011
Date of Filing 04-Aug-2005
Name of Patentee G.B.PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY
Applicant Address PANTNAGAR-263145, UTTARANCHAL, INDIA
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 NIRANKAR NATH G.B.PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, G.B.P.U.A.& T., PANTNAGAR U.S.NAGAR, UTTARANCHAL, INDIA
2 NARENDRA SINGH SHAH DEPTT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE & G.B.P.U.A.& T., PANTNAGAR U.S.NAGAR, UTTARANCHAL, INDIA
3 DEEPIKA MISRA B DEPTT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE & G.B.P.U.A.& T., PANTNAGAR U.S.NAGAR, UTTARANCHAL, INDIA
PCT International Classification Number A23B 7/04
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA