Title of Invention

AN ELEVATOR

Abstract An elevator, preferably an elevator without counterweight, comprising a number of diverting pulleys in the upper part of an elevator shaft or equivalent, a number of diverting pulleys in the lower part of the elevator shaft and a number of diverting pulleys on an elevator car, is installed in such manner that at least some of the diverting pulleys for the upper part are rigged in the lower part of the elevator shaft and at least some of the diverting pulleys from which the passage of the ropes is directed upwards are rigged at the same time. The diverting pulleys for the upper part thus rigged are raised in the rigged state to the upper part of the elevator shaft or equivalent and mounted in place.
Full Text 1
METHOD FOR INSTALLING AN ELEVATOR, AND ELEVATOR
The present invention relates to a method as defined in the preamble of claim 1, to an elevator created by this method and to an elevator as defined in the pre-amble of claim 10.
One of the objectives in elevator development work is to achieve an efficient and economical utilization of building space. In recent years, this development work has produced various elevator solutions without ma-chine room, among other things. Good examples of ele-vators without machine room are disclosed in specifi-cations EP 0 631 967 (Al) and EP 0 631 968. The eleva-tors described in these specifications are fairly ef-ficient in respect of space utilization as they have made it possible to eliminate the space required by the elevator machine room in the building without a need to enlarge the elevator shaft. In the elevators disclosed in these specifications, the machine is com-pact at least in one direction, but in other direc-tions it may have much larger dimensions than a con-ventional elevator machine.
In these basically good elevator solutions, the space required by the hoisting machine limits the freedom of choice in elevator lay-out solutions. Some space is needed to provide for the passage of the hoisting ropes. It is difficult to reduce the space required by the elevator car itself on its track and likewise the space required by the counterweight, at least at a reasonable cost and without impairing the performance and operational quality of the elevator. In the case of a traction sheave elevator without machine room, mounting the hoisting machine in the elevator shaft is difficult, especially in a solution with machine above, because the hoisting machine is an object of fairly large size and weight. Especially in the case

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of larger loads, speeds and/or hoisting heights, the size and weight of the machine are a problem regarding installation, even so much so that the required ma-chine size and weight have in practice limited the sphere of application of the concept of elevator with-out machine room or at least retarded the introduction of said concept in larger elevators. In modernization of elevators, the space available in the elevator shaft has often limited the sphere of application of the concept of elevator without machine room. Often, especially when hydraulic elevators have had to be modernized or replaced, it has not been practical to apply a roped elevator solution without machine room due to insufficient space in the elevator shaft, par-ticularly when no counterweight has been used in the hydraulic elevator solution to be modernized/replaced. The drawbacks of elevators with counterweight are the cost of the counterweight and the space required for the counterweight in the elevator shaft. Drum driven elevators, which are nowadays rather seldom installed, have the drawbacks of heavy and complicated hoisting machines and their large power and/or torque require-ment. Prior-art elevators without counterweight are exotic and no proper solutions are known. So far it has not been technically or economically reasonable to make elevators without counterweight. One solution like this is disclosed in specification WO9806655. The recent international patent application PCT/FI03/00818 discloses a feasible elevator solution without coun-terweight differing from prior-art solutions. In prior-art elevator solutions without counterweight, the tensioning of the hoisting rope is implemented us-ing a weight or spring, and that is not an attractive approach to implementing the tensioning of the hoist-ing rope. Another problem with elevators without coun-terweight, when long ropes are used e.g. due to a

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large hoisting height or large suspension ratios used, the compensation of rope elongations and at the same time the friction between the traction sheave and the hoisting ropes is insufficient for the operation of the elevator. In the case of a hydraulic elevator, es-pecially a hydraulic elevator with lifting power ap-plied from below, the shaft efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the cross-sectional shaft area taken up by the ele-vator car to the total cross-sectional area of the elevator shaft, is fairly high. This has traditionally been a significant reason why expressly a hydraulic elevator has been selected for a building. On the other hand, hydraulic elevators have many drawbacks related to their lifting principle and use of oil. Hy-draulic elevators have a high energy consumption, a possible leakage of oil from the equipment is an envi-ronmental hazard, the periodically required oil change involves a high cost, even an elevator installation in good condition causes olfactory disadvantages as small amounts of oil escape into the elevator shaft or ma-chine room and from there further to other parts of the building and into the environment and so on. Due to the shaft efficiency of a hydraulic elevator, mod-ernization of the elevator by replacing it with an-other type of elevator that would allow the drawbacks of the hydraulic elevator to be avoided but would ne-cessitate the use of a smaller elevator car is not an attractive solution to the owner of the elevator. Hy-draulic elevators also have small machine spaces, which may be located at a distance from the elevator shaft, making it difficult to change the elevator type.
There are very large numbers of traction sheave eleva-tors installed and in use. They were made at their time to meet the proposed needs of users and the in-tended uses of the buildings concerned. Later, both

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user needs and the practical requirements of the buildings have changed in many cases and an old trac-tion sheave elevator may have become insufficient in respect of size of the elevator car or in other re-spects. For example, older elevators of a rather small size are not necessarily suited for transporting per-ambulators or roller chairs. On the other hand, in older buildings that have been converted from residen-tial use to office or other use, the originally in-stalled smaller elevator is no longer sufficient in capacity. As is known, increasing the size of such a traction sheave elevator is practically impossible be-cause the elevator car and counterweight already fill the cross-sectional area of the elevator shaft and the car can not be reasonably enlarged.
The general aim of the invention is to achieve at least one the following objectives. An objective of the invention is develop the elevator without machine room so as to achieve more efficient space utilization in the building and in the elevator shaft than before. This means that the elevator should permit of being installed in a relatively narrow elevator shaft if necessary. One objective is to achieve an elevator in which the elevator hoisting rope has a good hold/grip on the traction sheave. A further objective of the in-vention is to create an elevator solution without counterweight without compromising on the properties of the elevator. It is also an objective to eliminate the undesirable effects of rope elongations. An addi-tional objective of the invention is to achieve a more efficient utilization of the elevator shaft spaces above and below the elevator car than before in the case of elevators without counterweight. A specific objective is to create an effective method of install-ing a traction sheave elevator without counterweight in an elevator shaft.

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The objective or objectives of the invention should be achieved without compromising on the possibility of varying the basic layout of the elevator.
The method of the invention is characterized by what is disclosed in the characterization part of claim 1. The elevator of the invention is characterized by what is disclosed in the characterization part of claim 10. Other embodiments of the invention are characterized by what is disclosed in the other claims. Inventive embodiments are also presented in the description part of the present application. The inventive content dis-closed in the application can also be defined in other ways than is done in the claims below. The inventive content may also consist of several separate inven-tions, especially if the invention is considered in the light of explicit or implicit sub-tasks or in respect of advantages or sets of advantages achieved. The fea-tures of different embodiments and applications of the invention may also be combined in other ways in addi-tion to those described here. Some of the attributes contained in the claims below may be superfluous from the point of view of separate inventive concepts.
By applying the invention, one or more of the follow-ing advantages, among others, can be achieved:
- the invention enables a simple manner of installing
an elevator while also reducing the installation
time; the installation time is shortened and the to-
tal installation costs are reduced
- so-called "one-man installation" becomes possible
for a significant portion of the installation time
or even for the entire installation work, so the
progress of the installation work is not retarded by
waiting times incurred when several persons are

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working together; a saving on installation time of up to one third can be achieved;
- as the car is only installed after the rigging of
the ropes and construction of a possible car frame,
most of the work associated with the rigging and the
car frame can be carried out from the bottom of the
shaft, where no risk of falling is present; also,
the use of the car during the later stages of in-
stallation allows faster installation and improves
work safety
- in the elevator of the invention, no separate steel
structures reducing the shaft space above the eleva-
tor car need to be provided at the upper end of the
elevator shaft

- no space is required below the elevator car at the
lower end of the elevator shaft for rope wheels or
other devices needed for suspension, and conse-
quently a shallow pit at the lower end of the eleva-
tor shaft is sufficient
- in the elevator of the invention, no rope portions
going upwards or downwards and no diverting pulleys
are needed in the parts directly above and below the
elevator car because the transverse passages of the
hoisting ropes take place on the elevator car, so
the spaces required above and below the elevator can
be made shallow
- in the elevator of the invention, the horizontal
rope portions of the hoisting ropes have been ar-
ranged in conjunction with the elevator car, pref-
erably inside a transverse beam comprised in the
elevator car, thus avoiding transverse passages of
hoisting ropes in the upper or lower parts of the

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elevator shaft, which allows the space directly above or below the elevator car to be made shallow
- in the elevator of the invention, the horizontal rope portions of the hoisting ropes have been ar-ranged in conjunction with the elevator car, pref-erably inside a transverse beam comprised in the elevator car, thus avoiding transverse passages of hoisting ropes in the upper or lower parts of the elevator shaft, so the transverse rope tension forces are in conjunction with the car, which makes it unnecessary to provide separate supporting ar-rangements for the diverting pulleys and hoisting machine in the upper and/or lower parts of the ele-vator shaft
- by applying the invention, efficient utilization of
the cross-sectional area of the shaft is achieved
- although the invention is primarily intended for use
in elevators without machine room, it can also be
applied for use in elevators with machine room, in
which case the hoisting ropes have to be passed
separately via the hoisting machine in the machine
room or the traction sheave of the hoisting machine
has to be arranged to be mounted in the elevator
shaft
- Preferable suspension ratios above and below the
elevator car are 2:1, 6:1, 10:1 and so on. Other
suspension ratios may also be used, e.g. 8:1 or
other even ratios. In rope suspension, if the end of
the hoisting ropes is attached to the elevator car,
the suspension ratio may be an odd ratio, e.g. 7:1
or 9:1.

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- Symmetrical suspension of the elevator car relative
to the elevator car is easily achieved at least in
the preferred embodiments of the invention.
- installation and maintenance of the diverting pul-
leys of the elevator are easy to implement as these
are secured in place by means of fastening elements
- installation of the hoisting machine is easy to im-
plement by applying the invention.
The primary area of application of the invention is elevators designed for transporting people and/or freight. A normal area of application of the invention is in elevators whose speed range is about or below 1.0 m/s but may also be higher. For example, an eleva-tor traveling at a speed of 0.6 m/s is easy to imple-ment according to the invention.
In the elevator of the invention, normal elevator ropes, such as generally used steel wire ropes, are applicable. The elevator may use ropes of synthetic material and rope structures with a synthetic-fiber load-bearing part, such as e.g. so-called "aramid" ropes, which have recently been proposed for use in elevators. Applicable solutions are also steel-reinforced flat belts, especially because of the small deflection radius they permit. Particularly advanta-geously applicable for use in the elevator of the in-vention are elevator hoisting ropes twisted from e.g. round and strong wires. In this way it is possible to achieve thinner ropes and, due to the smaller rope thicknesses, also smaller diverting pulleys and drive sheaves. Using round wires, the rope can be twisted in many ways using wires of the same or different thick-nesses. In ropes well applicable with the invention, the wire thickness is below 0.4 mm on an average. Well-suited ropes made from strong wires are those in

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which the average wire thickness is under 0.3 mm or even under 0.2 mm. For example, thin-wired and strong 4-mm ropes can be twisted relatively advantageously from wires such that the average wire thickness in the finished ropes is between 0.15 ... 0.25 mm, in which the thinnest wires may even have a thickness of only about 0.1 mm. Thin rope wires can be easily made quite strong. The invention uses rope wires of a strength exceeding about 2000 N/mm2. Appropriate rope wire strengths are 2300-2700 N/mm2. In principle, it is possible to use rope wires of a strength of about 3000 N/mm2 or even more.
By increasing the contact angle using a rope pulley functioning as a diverting pulley, the grip between the traction sheave and the hoisting ropes can be im-proved. A contact angle of over 180° between the trac-tion sheave and the hoisting rope is achieved by using a diverting pulley or diverting pulleys. In this way, a lighter car of a reduced weight can be used, thus increasing the space-saving potential of the elevator.
The elevator of the invention is an elevator without counterweight and with an elevator car guided by guide rails and suspended by means of diverting pulleys on a set of hoisting ropes in such manner that that the set of hoisting ropes of the elevator comprises rope por-tions going upwards and downwards from the elevator car. The elevator comprises a number of diverting pul-leys in the upper and lower parts of the elevator shaft. The elevator has a drive machine provided with a traction sheave and placed in the elevator shaft. The elevator comprises a compensating device acting on the hoisting ropes to equalize and/or compensate the rope tension and/or rope elongation. The elevator car has diverting pulleys mounted on it near the two side walls. In the elevator of the invention, the rope por-

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tions going from the diverting pulleys in the lower part of the elevator shaft and from the diverting pul-leys in the upper part of the elevator shaft to the diverting pulleys mounted on the elevator car extend substantially vertically. In the elevator, the rope portions connecting the rope portions extending from one side of the elevator car to the other side are rope portions between diverting pulleys mounted near different side walls of the elevator car.
According to the invention, the elevator installation or the installation of the elevator of the invention may proceed as follows:
1. A rope for a hoist is mounted in the elevator
shaft e.g. by fastening to the ceiling a pulley
block to which the rope is passed, and a hoist-
ing device suited for the installation work is
introduced to drive the rope.
2. An overspeed governor - safety gear system is
installed in the shaft so that the elevator car
to be installed or a part of it that is going to
be used in the installation work can be pro-
tected against uncontrolled movement already
during the installation work.

3. Plumb lines, laser sources, preferably two, or
similar devices to be used for checking the
straightness of the shaft and in the installa-
tion and alignment of the car guide rails are
mounted in the shaft.
4. The lowest car guide rail sections are installed
and aligned in position. The diverting pulleys
to be mounted in the lower part of the shaft,
e.g. at the lower ends of the guide rails, and
possible diverting pulleys to be mounted under

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the elevator car are preferably installed in conjunction with the installation of the first guide rail sections.
5. On the first installed guide rail sections are placed the car on buffers, a frame supporting the car and also functioning as a safety gear frame, or in the case of a self-supporting car at least a beam or beams on which the diverting pulleys placed on the car are to be mounted. Preferably a solution is used wherein the car frame or other car-supporting structure is clearly lower than it will be in the finished elevator; for example, the car frame may be a telescopic structure. During installation, the mutual positions of the car an guide rails is controlled by means of conventional sliding or roller guides mounted on the car/car frame.
6. The diverting pulleys needed on the car are
mounted on the car frame or other car part in-
stalled on the guide rails and, using temporary
support blocks or by other means, the diverting
pulleys to be installed at the upper end of the
elevator shaft, and preferably the elevator
hoisting machine as well, are also fastened to
the said car frame or other part. All the di-
verting pulleys of the elevator are now close to
the lower part of the elevator shaft, being ac-
cessible for rigging from the shaft bottom or
other working platform or without requiring the
installer to ascend or descend more than a cou-
ple of steps between working platforms at dif-
ferent heights.
7. The rigging of the ropes is carried out by pull-
ing the ropes from one diverting pulley to an-

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other. The rope reels are preferably placed on the bottom of the elevator shaft in a frame sup-porting the reels, from which the rope is then passed to the diverting pulleys in accordance with a roping diagram.
8. Components to be installed or preferably all the
components to be installed are brought into the
elevator shaft and arrangements are made to al-
low them to be taken along on the elevator car
or a car frame provided with a suitable working
platform when the latter is beginning to be
raised or has been raised to a higher level in
the elevator shaft.
9. Using the hoist, a hoisting operation is per-
formed by hoisting by the upper part of the car
frame or by the beam structure in the upper part
of the car so that the preferably telescopically
constructed car frame is stretched/the top beam
of the car comes to a sufficient height, pref-
erably to a height that, in respect of the con-
struction of the car, corresponds to the final
car height from the structure of the lower part
of the car/car frame to allow the car to be con-
structed. The beam of the upper part of the car
frame/car is firmly secured to the lower part of
the car frame/car, using a fastening arrangement
either final or temporary in respect of instal-
lation of the elevator. In the case of a car
frame, it is preferable to lock the telescoping
car frame to its final height at this stage,
whereas in the case of a self-supporting car the
top beam of the car and a working surface in the
lower part of the car, e.g. the car floor can be
fastened together by using the car walls or
other means, e.g. temporary beams or tension

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bars. The car floor is preferably installed at this stage, both in the case of a car with a car frame and in the case of a self-supporting car construction. To the structure thus obtained are fastened boxes or holders on which the car guide rails are carried along. In an installation with a car frame, conventional rubber insulators or other suitable vibration insulating elements are placed between the car floor and the car frame.
10. The car walls are installed, preferably starting
from the back wall. The walls and the floor
preferably constitute in themselves a structure
relatively rigid against torsion, but if neces-
sary the structure can be stiffened by means of
separate reinforcing elements.
11. The ceiling of the car is mounted in place,
preferably by a final arrangement, thus making
the car itself quite stiff, so it will be well
able to withstand all the stress it is subjected
to during installation and subsequent operation.

12. The overspeed governor - safety gear system is
activated in its function of controlling the mo-
tion of the car.
13. An installation-time safety device acting on the
safety gear or other means locking the elevator
car to the guide rails is added to the elevator.
The installation-time safety device may be auto-
matic, such that whenever the rope of the hoist
used to lift the elevator car becomes loose or
the force supporting the elevator car falls be-
low a certain limit, the safety device causes
the car to be immovably locked to the guide
rail. The safety device may be a pedal or other
coupling means that is used by the installer to

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keep the safety gear or other safety device in a state permitting movement of the elevator as he/she is driving the elevator by means of the hoist, and at other times the safety device automatically prevents movement of the elevator car.
14. In a preferable case, all the guide rails are
loaded onto the car and the installation of the
car guide rails is started by installing new
guide rails above those already installed, using
the elevator car as a working platform and rais-
ing the elevator car upwards by means of the
hoist as the installation work is progressing.
15. The guide rails are aligned with the help of la-
ser beams and/or other means conventionally used
for the alignment of guide rails.
16. When the upper end of the shaft is reached, the
diverting pulleys brought on the car for the up-
per part of the shaft are mounted in the upper
part of the shaft, preferably on diverting pul-
ley supporters secured to the upper part of the
elevator guide rails. The drive machine of the
elevator is also preferably mounted on a guide
rail. The drive machine and at least one of the
diverting pulleys may have a common supporter by
which they are supported on the guide rail. If
necessary, a suitable hoist or other hoisting
tool is utilized. In the case of an elevator
with machine below, the hoisting machine is
mounted in place in a corresponding manner. All
the time during the hoisting of the elevator car
and installation of the diverting pulleys and
hoisting machine, the hoisting ropes have been
delivered from their reels as required by the

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distances between the rope wheels increasing with the progress of the installation. At the beginning of the installation work, one end of the ropes may already have been secured in place.
17. The equipment equalizing rope forces and compen-sating rope elongations is installed for opera-tion and the ends of the ropes are secured to the positions determined by the roping diagram. The elevator car is now practically on its guide rails.
The installation work will not necessarily follow the above-described procedure in all the various stages of installation and/or not all the stages of installation are necessary, at least quite in the form described above. For example, the installation can be imple-mented by first building a car supporting frame either completely or partly and then securing a working plat-form to the frame and mounting the guide rails from bottom to top, whereupon the ropes are rigged on the rope wheels of the elevator and the car is built and finally the diverting pulleys for the upper part of the elevator shaft and the machine are moved to the upper part of the elevator shaft and mounted in place. Even the procedure according to this example could be varied by building the car in the last step of the procedure. Correspondingly, when a new elevator is in-stalled in place of an old one but the old guide rails are used, the installation of guide rails would be left out completely from the steps of the method.
In simplified terms it could be stated that, in in-stalling an elevator without counterweight, the main components of the elevator are at first installed on the bottom of the shaft between the first guide rails,

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the two first guide rail sections being typically of a length of a few meters, preferably equal to about one floor-to-floor height or distance. Often the guide rails are delivered in sections of a length of about five meters, which are then joined together during in-stallation to form a guide rail line extending from the lower part of the elevator shaft to its upper part. In less spacious environments shorter guide rail sections of a length of about 21/2 meters are easier to handle. Between the first guide rails is assembled a car supporting frame, a safety gear frame, an elevator car or equivalent, which is used as an "installation tool" and/or as an installation carriage, to which are secured in a temporary manner the diverting pulleys of the car as well as the hoisting machine together with the associated equipment. The diverting pulleys for the lower part of the shaft are mounted in the lower part of the shaft. The roping is installed on the di-verting pulleys and on the traction sheave of the ma-chine and a possible double wrap wheel while the car supporting frame and the pulleys for the upper part of the shaft that have been temporarily secured to it are still in the lower part of the shaft. Once the ropes are in place on the rope wheels, it is "stretched" to its final length by moving the car supporting frame/car upwards according to the progress of the guide rail installing work utilizing the car support-ing frame/car and by finally raising the diverting pulley for the upper part of the shaft and the machine to their final positions.
During the rigging work, the diverting pulleys and ma-chines supported on the car are preferably near the shaft bottom, e.g. so that the installer can carry out the rigging work from the bottom of the shaft and from a foot stool possibly provided on the bottom of the shaft or from some other working platform placed near

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the bottom of the shaft. The car or the car supporting frame is provided with means, such as a mounting or other fastening point, or a possibility to secure a carrying pallet or support for carrying the diverting pulleys to the upper part of the shaft. By implement-ing the car supporting frame as a telescopic struc-ture, e.g. such that its lateral upright beams are each made of two parts of which one goes inside the other. Such a structure can be extended almost to a double height, and thus the upper part of a car sup-porting frame having a final height of over two meters and the diverting pulleys secured to the upper part can be reached by the installer from the bottom of the shaft when the supporting frame is in the collapsed form. After the diverting pulleys have been fastened to the supporting frame and the roping has been mounted on the diverting pulleys, the supporting frame can be stretched to its final height.
In the following, the invention will be described in detail with reference to a few embodiment examples and the attached drawings, wherein
Fig. 1 is a diagram representing an elevator ac-cording to the invention,
Fig. 2 is a diagram representing an elevator accord-ing to the invention and Fig. 1 as seen from another angle,
Fig. 3 is a diagram representing an elevator ac-cording to the invention and Fig. 1 and 2 as seen from a third angle,
Fig. 4 presents a car supporting frame according to the invention, extended to a height at which the car can be installed in the frame,

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Fig. 5 presents the car supporting frame of the in-vention in a collapsed form,
Fig. 6 presents the car supporting frame of the in-vention on the bottom of the shaft, and
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic representation of rope rig-ging implemented according to the invention.
Figures 1, 2 and 3 illustrate the structure of an ele-vator according to the invention. The elevator is preferably an elevator without machine room and with a drive machine 4 placed in the elevator shaft. The ele-vator presented in the figures is a traction sheave elevator without counterweight and with machine above, in which the elevator car 1 moves along guide rails 2. In Figures 1, 2 and 3, the hoisting ropes run as fol-lows: One end of the hoisting ropes is fixed to a wheel of a smaller diameter comprised in a compensat-ing gear functioning as a compensating device 8, said wheel being fixedly attached to a second wheel of a larger diameter comprised in the compensating gear 8. This compensating gear 8 functioning as a compensating device has been fitted to be fastened to the elevator shaft via a supporting element 7 immovably fixed to an elevator guide rail 2. From the compensating gear 8 wheel of smaller diameter, the hoisting ropes 3 go downwards to a diverting pulley 12 mounted on the ele-vator car, preferably on a beam 2 0 fitted in place in the upper part of the elevator car, and pass around the diverting pulley 12 along rope grooves provided on it. In the rope wheels used as diverting pulleys, these rope grooves may be coated or uncoated, e.g. with a friction-increasing material, such as polyure-thane or some other appropriate material. From divert-ing pulley 12, the ropes go further upwards to a di-verting pulley 19 in the elevator shaft, said pulley

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being mounted in place on the supporting element 7, via which the diverting pulley 19 is mounted in place on the elevator guide rail. Having passed around di-verting pulley 19, the ropes go further downwards to a diverting pulley 14 which has also been fitted in place on a beam 20 fitted in place on the elevator car, preferably in the upper part of the elevator car. Having passed around diverting pulley 14, the rope goes further transversely relative to the elevator shaft and elevator car to a diverting pulley 15 mounted in place on the same beam 2 0 on the other side of the elevator car, and after passing around this di-verting pulley the hoisting ropes go further upwards to a diverting pulley 10 mounted in place in the upper part of the elevator shaft. Diverting pulley 10 has been fitted in place on a supporting element 5. Via the supporting element 5, the diverting pulley is sup-ported by the elevator guide rails 2. Having passed around diverting pulley 10, the hoisting ropes go fur-ther downwards to a diverting pulley 17 mounted on the elevator car 1 and also fitted in place on the beam 20. Having passed around diverting pulley 17, the hoisting ropes go further upwards to a diverting pul-ley 9 preferably mounted in place near the hoisting machine 4. Between diverting pulley 9 and the traction sheave 10, the figure shows Double Wrap (DW) roping. From diverting pulley 9, the hoisting ropes go further to the traction sheave 10 after first passing via di-verting pulley 9 in "tangential contact" with it. This means that the ropes 3 going from the traction sheave 10 to the elevator car 1 pass via the rope grooves of diverting pulley 9 and the deflection of the rope 3 caused by the diverting pulley 9 is very small. It could be stated that the ropes 3 going from the trac-tion sheave 10 only come into "tangential contact" with the diverting pulley 9. Such "tangential contact"

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functions as a solution for damping rope vibrations and it can also be applied in other roping solutions. The ropes pass over the traction sheave 10 of the hoisting machine 4 along the rope grooves on the trac-tion sheave 10. From the traction sheave 10, the ropes 3 go further downwards to diverting pulley 9, passing around it along the rope grooves of the diverting pul-ley 9 and returning back up to the traction sheave 10, over which the ropes pass along the rope grooves of the traction sheave. From the traction sheave 10, the ropes 3 go further downwards in "tangential contact" with diverting pulley 9 past the elevator car 1 moving along the guide rails 2 to a diverting pulley 18 placed in the lower part of the elevator shaft. The hoisting machine and diverting pulley 9 are mounted in place on the supporting element 5, which in turn is fixed in place on the elevator guide rails 2. Divert-ing pulleys 12,19,14,15,10,17,9 and the wheel of smaller diameter comprised in the compensating gear 8 together with the traction sheave 10 of the hoisting machine 4 form the suspension above the elevator car with the same suspension ratio as below the elevator car, this suspension ratio in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 being 6:1. The hoisting ropes pass around diverting pulley 18 along rope grooves provided on it, which has been fitted in place preferably in the lower part of the elevator shaft on a supporting element 6 fixed in place to an elevator guide rail 2. Having passed around diverting pulley 18, the ropes 3 go further up-wards to diverting pulley 17 fitted in place on the elevator car and mounted on the beam 20, and having passed around said diverting pulley 17 the ropes go further downwards to a diverting pulley 16 in the lower part of the elevator shaft, which has been fit-ted in place on supporting element 6. Having passed around diverting pulley 16, the ropes return to di-

21
verting pulley 15 fitted in place on the elevator car, said pulley being mounted on the beam 20. From divert-ing pulley 15, the hoisting ropes 3 go further trans-versely across the elevator car to the diverting pul-ley 14 mounted in place on the beam 20 on the other side of the elevator car. Having passed around this diverting pulley, the ropes go further downwards to a diverting pulley 13 fitted in place in the lower part of the elevator shaft, said pulley being mounted in place on a supporting element 22, which supporting element 22 in turn has been fixed in place to the ele-vator guide rail 2. Having passed around diverting pulley 13, the ropes go further upwards to diverting pulley 12 fitted in place on the elevator car, said pulley being mounted on the beam 20. Having passed around diverting pulley 12, the ropes 3 go further downwards to a diverting pulley 11 mounted in place on a supporting element 22 in the lower part of the ele-vator shaft. Having passed around diverting pulley 11, the hoisting ropes 3 go further upwards to the compen-sating gear 8 mounted in place in the upper part of the shaft, the second end of the hoisting rope being fixed to the compensating gear 8 wheel of larger di-ameter. The compensating gear functioning as a compen-sating device 8 is mounted in place on supporting ele-ment 7. Diverting pulleys 18,17,16,15,14,13,19,11 and the wheel of larger diameter in the compensating gear 8 functioning as a compensating device form the sus-pension below the elevator car with the same suspen-sion ratio as in the suspension above the elevator car, this suspension ratio being 6:1 in Fig. 1, 2 and 3.
In Fig. 1, 2 and 3, the compensating gear 8 consists of two wheel-like bodies, preferably wheels, of dif-ferent diameters and immovably fixed to each other, which compensating gear 8 has been fitted in place on

22
the supporting element 7, which again is mounted in place on the elevator guide rails 2. Of the wheel-like bodies comprised in the compensating gear 8, the wheel connected to the hoisting rope below the elevator car has a larger diameter than the wheel connected to the hoisting rope above the elevator car. The diameter ra-tio between the diameters of the wheels of the compen-sating gear defines the magnitude of the tensioning force acting on the hoisting rope and therefore also the force of compensation of the elongations of the hoisting rope and at the same time the magnitude of the rope elongation to be compensated. The use of a compensating gear 8 provides the advantage that this structure will compensate even very large rope elonga-tions. By varying the size of the diameters of the wheels of the compensating gear 8, it is possible to exert an influence on the magnitude of the rope elon-gation to be compensated and on the ratio between the rope forces T1 and T2 acting over the traction sheave, which ratio can be standardized by the arrangement in question. Due to a large suspension ratio or a large hoisting height, the length of the rope used in the elevator is large. Therefore, it is essential for the operation and safety of the elevator that the hoisting rope portion below the elevator car is held under a sufficient tension and that the amount of rope elonga-tion to be compensated is large. Often this can not be implemented using a spring or a simple lever. With odd suspension ratios above and below the elevator car, the compensating gear functioning as a compensating device in the elevator depicted in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 has been fitted in place on the elevator car by means of a transfer gear, and with even suspension ratios the compensating gear functioning as a compensating device in the elevator of the invention has been fitted in place in the elevator shaft, preferably on the eleva-

23
tor guide rails. In the compensating gear 8 of the in-vention it is possible to use wheels, the number of which is two, but the number of wheel-like bodies used may vary, for example it is possible to use only one wheel with hoisting rope fixing points fitted on it at different positions with respect to the diameter. It is also possible to use more than two wheels if it is desirable e.g. to vary the ratio between the diameters of the wheels by only changing the diameters of the wheels in the compensating gear. The elevator without counterweight presented in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 is not pro-vided with traditional springs for compensating the rope forces, but instead it uses a compensating gear 8 as a compensating device. Consequently, the ropes com-prised in the set of hoisting ropes 3 can be secured directly to the compensating gear 8. Besides a compen-sating gear as presented in the figures, the compen-sating device of the invention may also consist of a suitable lever or other appropriate compensating de-vice with several compensating wheels. The beam 20 presented in the figures which is fixed in place in conjunction with the elevator car may also be mounted elsewhere than in the place above the elevator car as shown in the figures. It may also be placed e.g. below the elevator car or somewhere between these positions. The diverting pulleys may have a plurality of grooves and the same diverting pulley can be used to guide both the passage of the hoisting ropes comprised in the suspension above the elevator car and the passage of the hoisting ropes comprised in the suspension be-low the elevator car, as illustrated e.g. in the fig-ures in connection with diverting pulleys 12,14,15,17.
A preferred embodiment of the elevator of the inven-tion is an elevator without counterweight and with ma-chine above, which elevator has a drive machine with a coated traction sheave and thin hoisting ropes of a

24
substantially round cross-section. The contact angle of the hoisting ropes on the traction sheave of the elevator is greater than 180°. The elevator comprises a unit comprising the drive machine, the traction sheave and a diverting pulley, all fitted in place via a supporting element, the diverting pulley being ready fitted in a correct angle relative to the traction sheave. This unit is secured to the elevator guide rails. The elevator is implemented without counter-weight with a suspension ratio of 6:1. The compensa-tion of rope forces and elongations is implemented us-ing a compensating device according to the invention. The diverting pulleys in the elevator shaft are fitted in place by means of supporting elements on the eleva-tor guide rails and the diverting pulleys on the ele-vator car are all mounted in place on a beam on the elevator car, said beam also forming a structure brac-ing the elevator car.
The elevator car 1 is suspended on the hoisting ropes via the beam 2 0 and the diverting pulleys mounted on the beam. The beam 2 0 is part of the load-bearing structure of the elevator car, which may be in the form of a self-supporting car or a framework of beams or the like joined or integrated to the elevator car. The elevator is preferably installed by first rigging the ropes and only then completing the elevator car. The floor 24 of the elevator car 1 can be initially placed as a working platform or a separate working platform can be used for the rigging work. For the time of installation of the elevator ropes on the rope wheels, the diverting pulleys of the elevator car and the pulleys for the lower part of the elevator shaft and possibly also the pulleys for the upper part of the elevator shaft are placed close to each other so that the installer can reach them from the working platform or from the bottom of the shaft. The working

25
platform is close to the shaft bottom during the in-stallation of the ropes on the rope wheels. Once the hoisting ropes have been mounted on the diverting pul-leys, the diverting pulleys in the upper and lower parts of the elevator shaft and those on the elevator car can be moved further away from each other while at the same time supplying more rope into the elongating roping. The diverting pulleys in the upper part of the elevator shaft are mounted in place by utilizing the elevator car or in some other way. The diverting pul-leys of the elevator car are raised together with the beam 20 to a distance from the floor 24 of the eleva-tor car and the elevator car 1 is assembled by joining the walls 25 to the floor and mounting the beam 20 and ceiling 23 in the upper part of the elevator car.
Fig. 7 illustrates how the ropes of an elevator imple-mented according to the invention are passed over dif-ferent diverting pulleys and rope pulleys of the hoisting machine, and Fig. 4, 5 and 6 show the car supporting frame 30, which in Fig. 4 is presented in a length in which the car can be installed inside the frame while Fig. 5 presents it in a collapsed or lower form that makes the frame easy to transport, as far as the frame is transported as a complete assembly, with diverting pulleys mounted on it, allowing the ropes to be easily passed to them when the car supporting frame is on the bottom of the elevator shaft 31 as illus-trated in Fig. 6. The car supporting frame is provided with guides 32, by means of which the car is posi-tioned and guided as it is moving vertically along the elevator guide rails 33. The upper part 34 and lower part 35 of the car supporting frame are telescopically joined together by beam sections 3 6 and 3 7 of the side beams of the car frame, which sections go inside each other. The telescopic or otherwise variable-length joining together of the upper and lower parts can also

26
be implemented in other ways. The car supporting frame is provided with diverting pulleys intended for the suspension of the elevator car on the ropes, compris-ing a first set of diverting pulleys 38, from which the ropes of the set of hoisting ropes go upwards, and a second set of diverting pulleys 39, from which the ropes of the set of hoisting ropes go downwards. Fig. 6 shows the diverting pulleys 42 to be installed in the upper part of the shaft but which are temporarily mounted on the car supporting frame, the hoisting ma-chine 40 with a traction sheave (not shown) and pref-erably an auxiliary diverting pulley 41, which allows the roping on the machine to be implemented as so-called Double Wrap roping or the contact angle between the traction sheave and the ropes to be changed in other ways. In Fig. 7, the set of hoisting ropes 44 is depicted as a single rope with arrowheads indicating the passage of the rope, starting from the rope end fixing point 45 in the lower part of the shaft and fi-nally ending up at a rope force differentiating ar-rangement 46, which consists of a tackle system de-signed to maintain the relative rope tension differ-ence between the rope portions above and below the elevator car. The rope force differentiating arrange-ment can also be implemented in other ways, which may involve a different solution regarding the fixing of the rope ends. Starting from the fixing point 45, the ropes go first to a rope wheel comprised in the dif-ferentiating arrangement 46, then continuing first to the diverting pulley 43 in the lower part of the shaft, from where the rope goes further to a down-direction diverting pulley 39 of the car and further, passing one by one over the diverting pulleys in the lower part of the shaft and the down-direction divert-ing pulleys of the car, until from the last diverting pulley in the lower part of the shaft the ropes go up

27
to the machine 40. From the machine 40, the ropes run further to the first up-direction diverting pulley 38 on the car, passing by turns over the diverting pul-leys 42 in the upper part of the shaft and each up-direction diverting pulley 3 8 until from the last di-verting pulley in the upper part of the shaft the ropes terminate at the differentiating arrangement 46.
It is obvious to the person skilled in the art that different embodiments of the invention are not limited to the examples described above, but that they may be varied within the scope of the claims presented below. For example, the number of times the hoisting ropes are passed between the diverting pulleys in the upper part of the elevator shaft and those on the elevator car and between the diverting pulleys in the lower part of the elevator shaft and those on the elevator car is not a very decisive question as regards the ba-sic advantages of the invention, although it is possi-ble to achieve some additional advantages by using multiple and even numbers of rope portions. It is also obvious to the skilled person that an embodiment ac-cording to the invention can also be implemented using odd suspension ratios above and below the elevator car, in which case the compensating device is mounted in conjunction with the elevator car or its struc-tures. In accordance with the examples described above, a skilled person can vary the embodiment of the invention as the traction sheaves and rope pulleys, instead of being coated metal pulleys, may also be un-coated metal pulleys or uncoated pulleys made of some other material suited to the purpose.
It is further obvious to the person skilled in the art that the metallic traction sheaves and rope wheels used as diverting pulleys in the invention, which are coated with a non-metallic material at least in the

28
area of their grooves, may be implemented using a coating material consisting of e.g. rubber, polyure-thane or some other material suited to the purpose.
It is also obvious to the person skilled in the art that the elevator car and the machine unit may be laid out in the cross-section of the elevator shaft in a manner differing from the lay-out described in the ex-amples. The skilled person also understands that 'ele-vator car' may refer to a self-supporting car struc-ture, an assembly consisting of an elevator car and a car supporting frame, or also a car structure mounted inside a car supporting frame.
It is obvious to the skilled person that an elevator applying the invention may be equipped differently from the examples described above. It is further obvi-ous to the skilled person that the elevator of the in-vention can be implemented using as hoisting ropes al-most any flexible hoisting means, e.g. a flexible rope of one or more strands, a flat belt, a cogged belt, a trapezoidal belt or some other type of belt suited to the purpose.
It is further obvious to the skilled person that the elevator of the invention may also be provided with a counterweight, in which case the counterweight of the elevator preferably has a weight below that of the car and is suspended by a separate set of ropes. The skilled person understands that an elevator shaft is not strictly necessary for the elevator, provided that sufficient safety and protection of the technical parts are achieved.

29
CLAIMS
1. A method for installing an elevator, preferably an elevator without counterweight, in which method the elevator to be installed comprises a number of diverting pulleys in the upper part of an elevator shaft or equivalent, a number of diverting pulleys in the lower part of the elevator shaft and a num-ber of diverting pulleys on an elevator car, char-acterized in that at least some, preferably all of the diverting pulleys for the upper part are rigged in the lower part of the elevator shaft and at least some of the diverting pulleys from which the passage of the ropes is directed upwards are rigged at the same time, and that the diverting pulleys for the upper part thus rigged are raised in the rigged state to the upper part of the ele-vator shaft or equivalent and mounted in place.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in
that the diverting pulleys to be mounted in the
upper part are hoisted by means of the elevator
car or a part of the car provided with a mounting
platform.
3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized
in that the traction sheave of the drive machine
of the elevator is rigged and the drive machine is
hoisted to the upper part of the elevator shaft or
equivalent together with the diverting pulleys and
mounted in place.
4. A method according to any one of the preceding
claims, characterized in that a number of divert-
ing pulleys in the upper part of the elevator
shaft or equivalent, a number of diverting pulleys
in the lower part of the elevator shaft and a num-
ber of diverting pulleys on the elevator car,

30
preferably all these diverting pulleys, are rigged first and after the rigging the diverting pulleys for the upper part are hoisted in the rigged state to the upper part of the elevator shaft or equiva-lent and mounted in place.
5. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the installation is carried out using the car or a car supporting frame that is at first a low structure in the ele-vator shaft and can then be elevated to its final height, and the diverting pulleys of the car are secured to this initially low car or supporting frame and the diverting pulleys for the upper part of the shaft are also temporarily fastened to it and preferably also the drive machine is temporar-ily secured to it, whereupon these are rigged and, in the case of the car, the car is brought to its finished height, or in the case of the car frame, the car frame is brought to its finished height and the car is mounted in the car frame.
6. A method according to any one of the preceding
claims, characterized in that while the diverting
pulleys for the upper part are being hoisted, the
guide rails are installed in the elevator shaft at
the same time by utilizing, both in the hoisting
and in the installation of the guide rails, the
elevator car or a structure comprised in the car,
such as the top of the car, or a working platform
supported by a structure comprised in the car.
7. A method according to any one of the preceding
claims, characterized in that the diverting pul-
leys in the upper part and preferably also those
in the lower part are mounted on the guide rails

31
or the mountings of said pulleys are connected via supporting elements to the guide rails.
8. An elevator installed according to any one of the
preceding claims.
9. An elevator according to claim 8, characterized in
that the elevator has a telescopic car supporting
frame.
10. An elevator, preferably an elevator without coun-
terweight, said elevator comprising a number of
diverting pulleys in the upper part of an elevator
shaft or equivalent, a number of diverting pulleys
in the lower part of the elevator shaft or equiva-
lent and a number of diverting pulleys on an ele-
vator car, characterized in that at least some,
preferably all of the diverting pulleys in the up-
per part have been rigged in the lower part of the
elevator shaft and at least some, preferably all
of the diverting pulleys from which the passage of
the ropes is directed upwards have been rigged in
the lower part of the elevator shaft, and that the
diverting pulleys for the upper part thus rigged
have been raised in the rigged state to the upper
part of the elevator shaft or equivalent and
mounted in place.

Documents:

01019-kolnp-2006 abstract.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 claims.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 correspondence others.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 description (complete).pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 drawings.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 form-1.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 form-3.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 form-5.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 international publication.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 international serch authority report.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006 pct form.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006-assignment.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006-correspondence others-1.1.pdf

01019-kolnp-2006-form-3-1.1.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-ABSTRACT 1.1.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-AMENDED CLAIMS.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-AMENDED PAGES OF DESCRIPTION.pdf

1019-kolnp-2006-ANNEXURE FORM 3.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-CANCELLED PAGES.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-CORRESPONDENCE-1.1.pdf

1019-kolnp-2006-CORRESPONDENCE.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-DRAWINGS 1.1.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-FORM 1.1.1.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-FORM 2.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-FORM 3.1.1.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-FORM 5.1.1.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-FORM-27.pdf

1019-kolnp-2006-OTHERS.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-PA.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-PETITION UNDER RULE 137.pdf

1019-KOLNP-2006-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT.pdf

1019-kolnp-2006-TRANSLATED COPY OF PRIORITY DOCUMENT.pdf

abstract-01019-kolnp-2006.jpg


Patent Number 245144
Indian Patent Application Number 1019/KOLNP/2006
PG Journal Number 01/2011
Publication Date 07-Jan-2011
Grant Date 04-Jan-2011
Date of Filing 20-Apr-2006
Name of Patentee KONE CORPORATION
Applicant Address KARTANONTE 1, FI 00330 HELSINKI,
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 BJORNI OSMO PAJUNTIE 3, FI-05830 HYVINKAA,
2 VANTANEN TEUVO RATAKATU 11 C 40, FI-05800 HYVINKAA
3 MUSTALAHTI JORMA RAIVAAJANTIE 13, FI-05620 HYVINKAA
4 AULANKO ESKO KAENKATU 6 C 33, FI-04230 KERAVA
PCT International Classification Number B66B 7/10
PCT International Application Number PCT/FI2004/000659
PCT International Filing date 2004-11-09
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 20031664 2003-11-17 Finland