Title of Invention

A SODIUM-FREE AND GLUTAMATE-FREE FLAVOUR ENHANCER FOR SAVOURY FOOD PRODUCTS

Abstract A flavor enhances for savory food products. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavor enhance comprising a) an amino acid selected from arginine and/or lysine b) adipic acid C) 50-80% (wt) Kcl d) Optionally an ammonium salt.
Full Text FORM - 2

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
&
The Patents Rules, 2003
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
(See Section 10 and Rule 13)
FLAVOUR ENHANCER
HINDUSTAN LEVER LIMITED, a company incorporated under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 and having its registered office at Hindustan Lever House, 165/166, Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai -400 020, Maharashtra, India
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed

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Flavour enhancer
5 This invention relates to the field of flavour enhancers for savoury food products and in particular to sodium-free compositions which enhance the taste in savoury food products.
Background of the invention
Savoury food products enjoy a wide popularity around the globe. The taste of savoury food
10 products is often enhanced with a variety of compounds. One of the most popular is sodium glutamate that is sometimes referred to as a universal flavour enhancer. However, glutamate as a flavour enhancer does not always harmonise with the food taste which is to be accentuated. For example, glutamate as flavour enhancer may be liked in consomme, but is objectionable in a cucumber salad, whilst a celery note can enhance the taste of cucumber
15 salad but is considered extremely objectionable in mashed potato.
In addition, consumer acceptance of added glutamate has decreased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, flavour enhancers having glutamate are less desirable.
20 WO 03/075684 discloses seasoning compositions useful savoury foods. The seasoning disclosed comprises a mixture of nucleotide flavour enhancers (also known as 5'-ribotides) and organic acids (acetic, ascorbic, aspartic, citric, fumaric, malic, tartaric, succinic or lactic acid) or salts thereof. Some of the formulations disclosed contain also yeast extract, and yeast extract (if no countermeasures are taken) will contain glutamate.
25
It was found, however, that the taste effect as obtained by WO 03/075684 (nucleotide flavour enhancers in combination with organic acids) is a bit "lean" instead of a full-bodied, rounded-off taste.
30 US 6,190,709 discloses a soy hydrolysate as a flavour enhancer. The disclosed flavour enhancer is (being substantially free of 5'-IMP and 5'-GMP), obtained by hydrolysing a soy source with a protease mixture comprising by endo- and exoprotease activity, inactivating the enzyme and concentrating. However, this flavour enhancer still comprises glutamate.
35 US 3,615,600 discloses meat flavour compositions comprising amino acids (including glutamic acid and its salts), nucleotides (such as 5'-IMP and 5'-GMP), succinic acid, and a lower

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carboxylic acid (such as lactic acid), wherein it is said that for a "full" taste a specific ratio of succinic and the further organic acid (particularly lactic acid) is required. The amino acids can be obtained by lysis or fermentation of soybeans, yeast, casein, gluten. Various classes of additional compounds are mentioned. GB 1,076,948 discloses meat flavouring compositions
5 comprising organic acids, amino acids (17 are specifically referred to) and 5'-nucleotides. However the latter two references seem specific meat flavours rather than more general flavour enhancers.
In addition, many flavour enhancers rely on the presence of sodium. In fact glutamate is
10 usually added as monosodium glutamate. Excessive dietary sodium intake, has long been suspected as a source of a number of health problems. Consequently, a reduction in sodium consumption would imply benefits for the health of most people.
Thus, there remains a need for an improved flavour enhancer for savoury food products which
15 is preferably sodium-free and glutamate-free and is applicable in a wide variety of savoury food products with minimal off tastes.
Summary of the Invention
A first aspect of the invention provides an improved sodium-free, glutamate free flavour 20 enhancer for savoury food products comprising
a) an amino acid selected from arginine and/or lysine,
b) adipic acid,
c) 50 to 80 wt% of KCI
d) 0 to 20 wt% of an ammonium salt by weight of the total flavour enhancer
25 whereby the weight ratio between the amino acid and adipic acid is at least and 20 :6,
preferably at least 20 :4 more preferably at least 20 : 3 and preferably at most 40 : 0.4, more preferably at most 60:1 most preferably at most 40: 1.
A second aspect of the invention provides a food product comprising a sodium-free and
30 glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to any one of the preceding claims and NaCI wherein the weight ratio of NaCI to said flavour enhancer is at least and 1 :3, preferably at least 1 : 2 more preferably at least 1 : 1 and preferably at most 20 :1, more preferably at most 10:1 most preferably at most 7:1.
35 A third aspect of the invention provides process to prepare a sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to the invention comprising the step of mixing said ingredients as

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dry material at a temperature of less than 50 °C, preferably less than 40°C, more preferably
less than 30°C
Detailed description of the invention
5 For brevity, the sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer will also referred to as flavour enhancer below. The term "sodium-free" for the purpose of the present application is understood to mean a flavour enhancer comprising less than 3.0 wt%, preferably less than 1.0 wt% more preferably less than 0.5 wt% of sodium by weight of the total composition. The term "glutamate-free" for the purpose of the present application is understood to mean a
10 flavour enhancer comprising less than 1 wt%, preferably less than 0.5 wt% more preferably less than 0.1 wt% of glutamate by weight of the total composition. The term glutamate is meant to encompass the presence of its conjugate acid glutamic acid, i.e., to calculate the presence of glutamate all glutamic acid is assumed to be present as glutamate.
15 We have found that an improved sodium-free flavour enhancer can be provided whereby the flavour enhancer has a composition as described. It is to be understood that the flavour-enhancing composition of the invention is a flavour enhancer and thus requires a minimum amount of sodium chloride in the food product to be consumed, namely at least about 0.02% by weight, based upon the weight of the food product. For the purpose of this application, the
20 term "savoury food product" is meant to describe a food product at least about 0.02% NaCI by weight, based upon the weight of the food product.
Surprisingly, the inventive flavour enhancer carries minimal off-tastes compared to known flavour enhancers. In addition, the inventive flavour enhancer can be used with a wide variety
25 of food products. Preferred food products include a seasoning, a stock cube, sauce, a soup, a dressing, a side dish, a meal, a dessert, a spread, an ice cream, confectionery or a beverage. Preferably the food product is a dry food product. For this purpose a dry food product is meant to describe a food product that needs to be contacted with an aqueous base before consumption. Non-limiting examples are (pasta) meal kits, seasonings, dried soups, stock
30 cubes and dried sauces. The latter three food products typically need to be mixed with water to prepare a soup, a stock, and a sauce respectively. Seasonings can be added to an aqueous base like a soup or sauce. Meal kits often comprise a dried sauce or seasoning.
The amino acid in the sodium-free flavour enhancer can be lysine, arginine or a mixture
35 thereof. The amino acid may used it's D- or L- form or a mixture thereof. Preferred is the L
form. The amino acid can be added as such or preferably in the Hydrochloride form. Presently

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lysine is an essential amino acid which is commercially available. L-lysine hydrochloride and
arginine hydrocloride are available from various sources (such as Ajinomoto, Degussa, ADM
and Bio Kyowa, Inc.) For an improved taste, the amount of amino acid present in the flavour
enhancer is less than 45 wt% preferably less than 40 wt% more preferably less than 35 wt%
5 and preferably more than 10 wt%, preferably more than 15 wt%, most preferably more than 20
wt%. Most preferred are the mono hydrochloride forms of the amino acids.
When present the amount of adipic acid in the flavour enhancer according to the invention is less than 15 wt% preferably less than 10 wt% more preferably less than 3 wt% and preferably
10 more than 0.01 wt%, preferably more than 0.3 wt%, most preferably more than 0.5 wt% by weight of the flavour enhancer.
The flavour enhancer may also comprise an ammonium salt. When present the amount of ammonium salt is less than 25 wt % preferably less than 15 wt % more preferably less than 10
15 wt% and preferably more than 1 wt%, preferably more than 3 wt%, most preferably more than 5 wt% by weight of the flavour enhancer. The ammonium salt may be any ammonium salt safe for human consumption with minimal off taste. One preferred ammonium salt is NH4CI. With a view to the preparation of the mixture and the flow characteristics of the potassium chloride employed, it is preferred to use a potassium chloride which contains from 0.2 to 1.0%
20 by weight, especially from 0.5 to 0.8% by weight, of highly disperse silica.
Preferably, the flavour enhancer comprises less than 10 wt% of succinic acid, preferably less than 5 wt%, even more preferably less than 0.1 wt% of succinic acid by weight of the total composition. The flavour enhancer may comprises less than 10 wt% of a nucleotide,
25 preferably less than 5 wt%, even more preferably less than 0.1 wt% of nucleotide by weight of the total composition.
To allow practical use of a sodium-free flavour enhancer, it preferably has a pure white colour, complete solubility in water, stability on boiling, free flow, freedom from dust, non-hygroscopic
30 behaviour, no tendency to separate, and a virtually neutral pH of the aqueous solution, namely from 6 to 8.
For an improved functionality, the flavour enhancer preferably has an average particle size of from 0.01 to 2 mm, more preferably from 0.05 to 1 mm, most preferably from 0.1 to 0.4 mm.
35 For the purpose of the present invention, the size of the flavour particles is meant to refer to 'volume weighted mean diameter' denoted by D[4,3] as described by M. Alderliesten in Part.

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Part. Syst. Charact., 7 (1990), 233-241. This is preferably determined by a Malvern
Mastersizer X particle analyser.
Although not limited thereto, the flavour enhancer of the invention may also be suited for use
5 in the domestic/household setting, where it may be employed to season foods during preparation or at the time of consumption, i.e., at the stove or table. Thus, the flavour enhancing composition of the invention may be packaged in suitable containers or dispensers, e.g., shakers, which may be provided with instructions for measurement and/or use in combining with food products.
10
The inventive flavour enhancer composition may be used in any food product to enhance the savoury flavour. When added to a food product comprising NaCI, the weight ratio of NaCI to said flavour enhancer is at least and 1 : 3, preferably at least 1 : 2 more preferably at least 1 : 1 and preferably at most 20 :1, more preferably at most 10:1 most preferably at most 7:1.
15
From a processing point of view it is advantageous that only a few ingredients are needed to prepare the inventive flavour enhancer. Other flavour enhancers often rely on complex mixtures of number of nucleotides and hydrolysates.
20 The flavour enhancer according to the invention may be prepared mixing the ingredients
thereof. Preferably, the process to prepare the flavour enhancer comprises the step of mixing said ingredients as dry material at a temperature of less than 50 °C, preferably less than 40°C, preferably less than 30°C.
25 Other than in the examples, or where otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients or reaction conditions used herein are to be understood as modified in all instances by the term "about". Similarly, all percentages are weight/weight percentages of the total flavour enhancer composition unless otherwise indicated. Where the term "comprising" is used in the specification or claims, it is not intended to exclude any terms, steps or features
30 not specifically recited. Where different ranges are given for a technical feature such as a specific ingredient or process condition, all sub ranges subsumed therein are included. Numerical ranges expressed in the format "from x to y" are understood to include x and y. Unless specified otherwise temperatures are in degrees Celsius (°C) and measurements are carried out at 20°C and normal pressure. All documents cited are in relevant part,
35 incorporated herein by reference.

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The invention is more fully illustrated by the following non-limiting examples showing some
preferred embodiments of the invention.
Examples
5 The flavour and aftertaste of different flavour enhancers was tested using the Arthur D. Little (ADL) Flavour Profile Method:
• Flavour is evaluated by tasting the sample in mouth and swallowing it (i.e. includes aromatics, basic tastes and mouthfeel factors).
• Aftertaste is the sensation which is still present in mouth one minute after swallowing.
10
For the ADL method a panel of highly trained assessors was used, who first independently study the product's aroma and flavour and subsequently agree in an open discussion upon a consensus profile. Each sample is being evaluated four times in four consequent separate sessions. The panel selects references for a standardised definition of the vocabulary. The
15 reference materials are kept in glass jars (200 ml) with twist-off lids. Before starting each session, panel members sniff on the references. Additionally, each panellist has a set of basic taste solutions which are used to ensure calibration of each panellist on the basic taste intensity scale.
20 Flavour Enhancer Compositions A to H (according to the invention)

Ingredient (wt%)
A B C D E F G H
L-lysine 29 32 25 15
Arginine 19 24 24 28 10
Adipic Acid 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2
KCI 80 69 74 65 66 75 60 67
NH4CI 9 8 11 6

Ratio amino acid: adipic acid 19:1 29:2 24:2 24:2 32:2 25:1 28:1 25:2
Compositions I and J: Use of the flavour enhancer in a savoury food product The flavour enhancer according to the invention was used successfully in a pasta meal kit with
25 a composition as set out below. The pasta meal kit (equivalent to 2.13 servings) was prepared according to the instructions (Boil 2 cups water (approx. 460 ml) with 1 tbsp margarine in a

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sauce pan, add dry mix and stir, let cook for additional 8 min). Surprisingly, the addition of the
flavour enhancer enhanced the savoury taste without unacceptable off tastes or increasing the
amount of sodium and glutamate (Composition J). In fact, it turned out that the savoury taste
of composition J was similar to a composition I with an additional 0.59 g of NaCI. The weight
5 ratio of NaCI to Flavour Enhancer was 3.4 to 1
Pasta meal kit (q dry weight)

I J
SPRAY DRIED BUTTER 9 9
VEGETABLE OIL-DRIED 7.2 7.2
CORNSTARCH 3.6 3.6
SUCROSE 2.9 2.9
NaCI 1.85 1.85
AUTOLYZED YEAST 2.5 2.5
WHITE ON POWDER 1.8 1.8
DAIRY BLEND 1.08 1.08
FLAVOUR AND HERBS 0.75 0.75
Flavour Enhancer D 0 0.55
PASTA 103.00 103.00
Compositions K and L: Use of the flavour enhancer in a savoury food product
10 The flavour enhancer according to the invention can be used successfully in a dry soup composition with a composition as set out below. The soup was prepared according to the instructions (Add content into a cup and pour over with 175 ml of boiling water. Stir well until disolved and serve). The soup according composition K does not have a satisfactory savoury taste. Surprisingly, the addition of flavour enhancer enhanced the savoury taste without
15 unacceptable off tastes or increasing the amount of sodium and glutamate (composition L). The weight ratio of NaCI to Flavour Enhancer was 2.1 to 1
Dry soup composition (a dry weight)

K L
Tomato powder 5:0 5.0
Sugar 4.6 4.6
Garnish 3.4 3.4
Starch 2.0 2.0
NaCI 1.18 1.18
Palmfat 1 1
Maltodextrin 0.7 0.7
MSG 0.5 0.5
Vegetable powder 0.4 0.4
Flavours 0.31 0.31
Herbs 0.13 0.13
Xanthan 0.1 0.1
Organic acid 0.06 0.06
Flavour Enhancer D 0 0.57

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Flavour Enhancer Compositions M (comparative example) and N (according to the invention)

Ingredient (wt%)
M N
L-Arginine Monohydrochloride 50 24
Adipic Acid 40 2
KCI 10 74

Ratio amino acid : adipic acid 5:4 1.2: 1
Flavour Enhancer Compositions M (comparative example) and N (according to the invention) were compared using Focussed Attribute Profiling. Composition N according to the invention
5 was more preferred than composition M (comparative example).

D-2006(V) PCT/EP2005/012950 amended claims 17.10.2006 EP2005012950
9 Claims
1. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer for savoury food products comprising
a) more than 10 wt% of an amino acid selected from arginine and/or lysine,
b) adipic acid,
c) 50 to 80 wt% of KCI
d) 0 to 20 wt% of an ammonium salt by weight of the total flavour enhancer whereby the weight ratio between the amino acid and adipic acid is at least 20 :6, preferably at least 20 :4 more preferably at least 20 : 3 and preferably at most 40 : 0.4, more preferably at most 60:1 most preferably at most 40: 1.
2. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to claim 1 wherein the
amount of adipic acid is less than 15 wt% preferably less than 10 wt% more preferably
less than 3 wt% and preferably more than 0.01 wt%, preferably more than 0.3 wt%, most
preferably more than 0.5 wt%.
3. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the
amount of amino acid is less than 45 wt% preferably less than 40 wt% more preferably
less than 35 wt% and preferably more than 15 wt%, most preferably more than 20 wt%.
4. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the amount of ammonium salt is less than 25 wt % preferably less than 15 wt % more preferably less than 10 wt % and preferably more than 1 wt%, preferably more than 3 wt%, most preferably more than 5 wt%.
5. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the amino acid is in the monohydrochloride form, preferably the amino acid is L-arginine monohydrochloride.
6. A sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to any one of the preceding claims having an average particle size of from 0.01 to 2 mm, more preferably from 0.05 to 1 mm, most preferably from 0.1 to 0.4 mm.
7. A food product comprising a sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according to any one of the preceding claims and NaCI wherein the weight ratio of NaCI to said
AMENDED SHEET

19-10-2006'(V)

PCT/EP2005/012950 amended claims 17.10.2006

EP2005012950

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flavour enhancer is at least and 1 :3, preferably at least 1 : 2 more preferably at least 1 : 1
and preferably at most 20 :1, more preferably at most 10:1 most preferably at most 7:1.
8. A food product according to claim 7 wherein the food product is a seasoning, a stock cube, sauce, a soup, a dressing, a side dish, a meal, a dessert, a spread, an ice cream, confectionery or a beverage.
9. A food product according to claim 7 or 8 wherein the food product is a dry food product.
10. A process to prepare a sodium-free and glutamate-free flavour enhancer according any one of the preceding claims comprising the step of mixing said ingredients as dry material at a temperature of less than 50°C, preferably less than 40°C, more preferably less than 30°C.
Dated this 22nd day of June 2007

AMENDED SHEET

Documents:

947-mumnp-2007-cancelled pages(22-6-2007).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-CLAIMS(AMENDED)-(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-claims(granted)-(9-12-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-CLAIMS(MARKED COPY)-(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-claims.doc

947-mumnp-2007-claims.pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE (7-10-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE(16-12-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-correspondence(17-10-2007).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE(22-11-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE(8-2-2012).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-correspondence(ipo)-(9-12-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-correspondence-others.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-correspondence-received.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-description (complete).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-description(granted)-(9-12-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form 1(24-8-2007).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-FORM 1(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form 13(24-8-2007).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form 18(17-10-2007).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form 2(granted)-(9-12-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form 2(title page)-(22-6-2007).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-FORM 2(TITLE PAGE)-(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form 2(title page)-(granted)-(9-12-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-FORM 3(24-2-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-FORM 3(3-8-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-FORM PCT-IPEA-409(5-4-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-FORM PCT-ISA-210(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-1.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-2.doc

947-mumnp-2007-form-2.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-3.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-5.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-pct-ipea-409.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-pct-ipea-416.pdf

947-mumnp-2007-form-pct-separate sheet-409.pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-GENERAL POWER OF ATTORNEY(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-pct-search report.pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-REPLY TO EXAMINATION REPORT(5-4-2010).pdf

947-MUMNP-2007-SCHEDULE TO FORM 3(5-4-2010).pdf

947-mumnp-2007-wo international publication report(17-10-2007).pdf


Patent Number 244530
Indian Patent Application Number 947/MUMNP/2007
PG Journal Number 50/2010
Publication Date 10-Dec-2010
Grant Date 09-Dec-2010
Date of Filing 22-Jun-2007
Name of Patentee HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED
Applicant Address HINDUSTAN LEVER HOUSE, 165-166 BACKBAY RECLAMATION, MUMBAI.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 GLAETSCH BRIGITTE UNILEVER BESTFOODS DEUTSCHLAND, KNORRSTRASSE 1, 74074 HEILBRONN.
2 MUELLER RUDI GUNTER UNILEVER BESTFOODS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH, KNORRSTRASSE 1, 74074 HEILBRONN.
PCT International Classification Number A23L1/237 A23L1/22
PCT International Application Number PCT/EP2005/012950
PCT International Filing date 2005-11-30
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 04078512.3 2004-12-23 EUROPEAN UNION
2 EP05076476 2005-06-27 EUROPEAN UNION