|Title of Invention||
A PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING OIL
|Abstract||A sparging technique based composition and a process thereof comprising use of a blend of bioenhancers and antioxidants applied to oil seeds for better mixing and efficiently extracting oil from the seeds are disclosed. The process is time and energy saving and yield-efficient in oil extraction.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
THE PATENT ACT 1970
(39 of 1970)
The Patents Rules, 2003
(See section 10 and rulel3)
1. TITLE OF THE INVENTION:
"SPARGING TECHNIQUE BASED OIL EXTRACTION PROCESS"
(a) NAME: ADVANCED BIOCHEMICALS LIMITED
(b) NATIONALITY: Indian Company incorporated under the Indian Companies ACT, 1956
(c) ADDRESS: 106, Dhanalaximi Industrial Estate, Above Navneet Motors, Gokul Nagar, P.O. Box: 182, Thane (West) 400 601, Maharashtra, India
3. PREAMBLE TO THE DESCRIPTION
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it has to be performed.
TECHNICAL FIELD OF INVENTION:
The present invention relates to an efficient process of extracting oil from oil seeds in a good yield. More particularly the present invention relates to a process of extracting oil from oil seeds applying a blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants using sparging techniques to make an oil-extraction plant more viable and profitable by reducing the time and energy.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:
Normally, vegetable oils are obtained from germs, seeds and fruits by expelling and/or extracting with organic solvents in a continuous or discontinuous process. The pre-treatment or conditioning of the raw material is important for obtaining an economically justifiable yield of high quality oil. The aim of conditioning, in which the degree of mechanical crushing, the moisture content of the basic material, the temperature and the time are important factors, to facilitate the escape of the oil (in expelling) or the penetration of the extraction agent (in extracting) by destroying the plant cells and by causing thermal expansion of the cell contents.
Patent No. CA 1325220 discloses a process for extracting vegetable oil from an oil bearing material such as oil seeds, corn and the like. The process comprises adding a food oil of preferably the same type as will be extracted from the oil bearing material to form a slurry mixture. Selected enzymes present in the slurry are deactivated and the slurry is heated to a pre selected temperature for a pre selected period of time, preferably under a partial vacuum. This processing reduces the phospholipids and trace metal content in the oil extracted from the oil bearing material. The oil product produced is light in color, shows no turbidity and exhibits a minimal amount of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron. The oil is ready for physical refining.
Patent No. W09113956 discloses a process for the preparation of a vegetable-oil product from oilseed, such as rapeseed, and the product obtained by the process. In the process the seed is comminuted, possibly heat-treated, and slurried in water. According to the
invention, an enzyme is added to this slurry, the purpose of the enzyme being to retain in the aqueous phase the phosphatides present in the seed, while the oil separates to form a separate phase of its own, which is separated mechanically by centrifugation, for example. The obtained crude vegetable oil, which does not contain organic solvent residues and is substantially devoid of phosphatides, is refined physically to produce a final product, the refining comprising a treatment with an adsorption agent and/or a deodorization.
The present invention improves the conventional processes of obtaining vegetable oil from low oil content seeds such as soya, or from high oil content seeds, such as the sunflower seeds, applying enzymatic treatment to the soya before and during the process of extraction with solvents and to the sunflower before the pressing. This treatment is carried out by multiple enzyme complexes: cellulase, glucanase, hemicellulase, pectinase and proteases which permit an easier release of the oil from the oil cells. The modification can be implemented over the existing installations without substantial changes in the conventional course of the operation. The enzymatic treatment results in predigested oil cake with residual flavour and oil which can be obtained during the process, which can be used as an animal alimentation.
OBJECTIVE OF THE INVENTION:
The main objective of present invention relates to the use of bioenhancers and
antioxidants using sparging technique to make an oil extraction plant viable and
Another object of present invention relates to the fact that the properties of the oil
extracted after treatment with bioenhancers does not change the physical and nutritional
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:
The present invention discloses a process of extracting oil from oil seeds applying a blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants using sparging techniques thus making the oil-extraction plant more viable and profitable thereby reducing the time and energy and
improving yield of extracted oil and thus the deoiled cake obtained by above said process has more digestive property which is beneficial to the cattle feed industry.
The present invention describes the energy saving, yield efficient process of extracting oil from oil seeds applying a blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants using sparging techniques to make an oil- extraction plant more viable and profitable. The application of blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants using sparging techniques on oil seeds increase the oil extractability and ultimately achieves reduction of oil in de-oiled cake also improve the digestibility of deoiled cake.
This step is inventive, over the conventional method in tapping the biochemical energy of
Bioenhancers and replacing the much costlier mechanical/ electrical energy. The use of
blend of bioenhancer and Antioxidants leads to
(i) Improving the quality of extracted oil by increasing its saturation value.
(ii) reducing the chances of rancidity in final extracted oil.
Use of Sparging technique enables uniform application of the blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants on the oil-bearing seeds thus yielding the better results.
Synergetic action of blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants are as follows: The gums/fibres bind the oil (fat) and protein in the seed. The perfect blend of cellulase, hemicellulase, pectinase, amylase and proteases which break the cell wall structure at different points on the cell and also cause loosening of fibers (gums) present in the seeds, improving the oil extraction process and ultimately leading to increased oil yield. This results in saving of energy during the stages of cooking of seed, flaking, solvent extraction, and during recovery of solvent in desolventizer toaster. At the same time, due to Antioxidants' action on seed, increase in the saturation value of extracted oil is observed, thus decreasing substantially the chances of rancidity in the final extracted oil.
Lab Trial Method:
Treatment with Blend of bioenhancers and antioxidant in tandem with the Conventional Process:
The above said sparging technique is a specially designed technique for the continous module of spray of blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants applied for extracting oil from oil seeds .This technique helps in improving the mixing characteristic of the blend of bioenhancers and antioxidants thus improving the yield of oil extracted from the treated oil seeds.
The schematic representation of the sparging technique module is shown in figure 1.
Mechanism of blend of bioenhancer and antioxidants in the extraction of oil seed is shown in figure 2.
Seed + blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants ►
(i) Reduction in energy and Time required for oil extraction
(ii) Increasing the oil yield
(iii)Quality of the oil (reduce the chances of rancidity and increases saturation
value of extracted oil)
The present invention claims the composition which consists of blend of bioenhancers and antioxidant wherein the said bioenhancers comprises especially cell wall degrading pentosanases which acts on pentosans like pectin, xylan, cellulose present in the cellular lining of the oil seed. The bioenhancers are formulated in conjunction with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, tocopherol, Butylated hydroxyl toluene, tertiary butyl hydroxyl quinone. The rate of action of bioenhancers and antioxidant agents is the synergistic effect of improving extracted oil yield as well as improving the shelf life of extracted oil by reducing the rancidity.
The present invention discloses process in which the blend of bioenhancer and antioxidants wherein the said bioenhancer comprising pentosanases such as Pentosanase - 0 - 5%, Antioxidants - 0 -1% with dextrin, maltodextrin as inert filler. (l)Bioenhancer The mechanism of bioenhancers can be exploited for the increase in yield of extracted oil
1. Bioenhancers break down the cell wall structures at different points on the cell wall of the oil seeds which improve the rate of oil extraction.
2. Bioenhancer Causes loosening of fibers (gums) present in the seeds, improving the oil extraction process and ultimately leading to increased oil yield
Antioxidants are the compounds used to preserve the food material such as oil, by retarding deteoriation, rancidity or discolouration due to oxidation reaction naturally occurring within the foods which involve the removal of electrons from atoms and molecules and lead to the reduction of recipient compound. Due to Antioxidants' action on seed cell wall, increase in the saturation value of extracted oil is observed, thus decreasing substantially the chances of rancidity in the final extracted oil. Thus the extracted oil has better shelf life by reducing rancidity.
According to the present invention, Bioenhancers were prepared by fermentation using controlled conditions with the help of pressure, adjustments in temperature and using suitable fermentation medium referring to the environment. The fermentation process is carried out by using the fermentation substrate and the carbohydrate source that is metabolized by the fermenting microorganism(s). The fermentation media includes fermentation substrate and other raw materials used in the fermentation process. In the present invention, the fermentation media can bring out liquefaction and saccharification processes or other desired processes prior to or simultaneously with fermentation.
Lab Trial Results and Observation: Extraction of Oil from Soyabean:
1) Soyabean Whole Seed Treatment
2) Soyabean Flaked And Grounded
The experiment is conducted in the lab using solvent extraction principle by Soxhlet apparatus
Treatment of Whole Soya Seed:
Oil extracted from whole soyabean seed was as follows:
Sr. no. % blend ofbioenhancer andantioxidant % of oil extracted % Diff.compared withcontrol % Increase over control
1 0.1% 15.98 0.55 3.56
2 0.2% 16.35 0.92 5.96
3 0.3% 16.56 1.13 7.32
4 0.4% 16.74 1.31 8.48
5 0.5% 17.12 1.69 10.95
6 control 15.43 - -
Schematic presentation of increase in oil extracted resulting from enzyme concentration is shown in figure 3.
Treatment of Grounded Seed: Conventional Method:
Bioenhancer Treatment Method:
Oil extracted from grinded soyabean seed is as follows:
Sr. no. % blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant dose % of oil extracted % Diff.compared withcontrol % Increase over control
1 0.1% 20.15 0.94 4.8
2 0.2% 20.31 1.1 5.7
3 0.3% 20.60 1.39 7.23
4 0.4% 20.92 1.71 8.90
5 0.5% 21.01 1.8 9.37
6 Control 19.21 - -
Increase in oil extracted resulting from grinded soya bean seed with increasing percentage of enzyme concentration is shown in Figure 4.
The methodology of oil extraction using sparging technique is shown in figure 5. Comparison of Properties of Oil Obtained from the Treatment
Properties Control extracted oil Treated with Bioenhancer and anti oxidant oil specification
specific gravity 0.917 0.916 0.915-0.925
Solubility Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
Appearance Clear liquid Clear liquid Clear liquid
Acid value 0.846 0.824 2max(mg of KOH/g)
Free fatty acid 0.828 0.821 1max(mg of KOH/g)
Saponification value 188.95 189.25 185-193mg of KOH/g
Iodine value 120.71 121.42 120-124
Absorbance at 280 nm 0.234 0.231 0.23 - 0.24
Overall benefits of using blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant in oil extraction are as follows:
The advantages of the present invention are as follows:
1. Substantial saving of energy thus making the process cost-effective:
a. Energy and time saving in cooking of seed.
b. Energy Saving during flaking
c. Number of extraction stages reduced; hence saving in pumping
d. Oil yield increases by 8-14%.
e. Lesser solvent cost.
f. Lesser residual solvent in de-oiled cake.
g. Lesser energy requirement in desolventiser -toaster (D-T).
h. Lesser degumming cost of oil during refining.
2. Improvement the conventional processes by applying a blend Bioenhancers and Antioxidants using sparging technique.
3. Acceleration of the process of oil extraction.
4. Higher oil-extraction capacity thus increasing the viability and profitability of the oil seed plant.
5. Blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants contained in the residual oil-cake enhance its nutritional value making it easily digestible and ideal for the cattle-feed and other animals.
6. Use of Sparging technique enables uniform application of the blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants on the oil-bearing seeds thus yielding better results.
7. The use of blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant in oil extraction process, results in getting oil with better shelf life and reduced rancidity problem.
Series of trials were performed on range of experimental conditions. The results obtained by applying blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants using sparging techniques has given a positive note to decrease the time and energy required for oil extraction and consequently increasing the yield and quality of the oil.
Schematic Representation of Plant Trial Method:
The above trials conclusively prove that the time and energy requirement in oil-extraction plant can be substantially reduced and increase in oil-yield can be achieved by diligent use of blend of Bioenhancers and Antioxidants.
1. Efficiency of plant increased.
2. After analyzing the result, we can conclude that oil extracted or percentage recovery of oil is more than their usual result (without Bioenhancers and Antioxidants treatment).
3. The oil present in the de-oiled cake is reduced resulting in more digestible cake
than usual one, to satisfactory extent.
Plant Trial Report
Time Moisture % % of Oil in De oiled cake(DOC)
12 noon 13.20 1.23
2 P.M. 12.4 1.12
4 P.M. 12.4 1.07
6 P.M. 12.6 1
8 P.M. 12.4 1
10 P.M. 13.0 1.01
12 M.N. 13.0 1.05
2 A.M. 12.8 0.95
4 A.M. 12.6 0.87
6 A.M. 12.6 0.83
Effect of decrease in oil content in deoiled cake after treatment by bioenhancers is shown in Figure 6.
1) The oil content in D.O.C. reduced up to 30 TO 35%.
2) The colour of the flame (By oil flame technique) is also reduced meaning that oil is of good quality
3) Colour of the Extracted oil has reduced by 15 TO 18%.
4) There is possibility of reducing number of extraction stages.
5) Increase in efficiency of plant by reduction in time and power consumption during process
Plant lab trial report of soyabean oil extraction:
% blend of bioenhancer and anti oxidant dose % of oil extracted % Increase in oil content
Treated (0.1%) 15.67 2.881%
Treated (0.2%) 15.91 4.91%
Treated (0.3%) 16.23 7.631%
Treated (0.4%) 16.45 9.529%
Treated (0.5%) 16.95 13.65%
Control 15.23 -
Effect of blend of bioenhancers and anti-oxidant as per increase in dosage expressed in terms of percentage of oil extracted is shown in Figure 7.
Analysis Of Protein Content In Oil (Nutritional value):
Sr No. % Enzyme dose %Oil recovered %Protein inoil % of extra protein gain %Increase ofprotein
1 0.1 15.67 42.68 0.13 0.3
2 0.2 15.81 42.76 0.21 0.49
3 0.3 16.13 42.92 0.37 0.86
4 0.4 16.31 43.01 0.46 1.08
5 0.5 16.35 43.03 0.48 1.12
6 control 15.23 42.55 * *
Increasing trend of protein in oil (in percentage) by increase of bioenhancer is shown in Figure 8.
Soya Bean Trial Report
The trial was conducted on 250 tones of Soya bean seeds at 11:00 A.M. The Trial was continued for one day, which got finished by next day. The blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant Solution was sprayed at a single point which could cover only 25- 30% of the area.
We sprayed the blend of bioenhancer and anti oxidant Solution (12.5gms per quintal) on a 12 inches conveyor carrying the Soya bean seeds just before Mixer. This is further mixed in a mixer for 5mins, then goes in to the steam cooker, and then goes for flaking. Next stage Oil extraction is done.
A) Laboratory Results:
De Oiled Cake Extracted Oil
Time Moisture % Oil % Flame Flash Point F.F.A Miscella Colour
12 noon 13.20 1.23 03 85 - 22.86 -
2 P.M. 12.4 1.12 01 105 0.60 - 39
4P.M. 12.4 1.07 02 85 - 24.48 38
6 P.M. 12.6 1 02 120 - - -
8 P.M. 12.4 1 02 100 - 24.38 33.0
10 P.M. 13.0 1.01 01 105 - - 36.0
12 M.N. 13.0 1.05 02 110 - 20.57 -
2 A.M. 12.8 0.95 02 70 - - 33
4 A.M. 12.6 0.87 01 120 - 21.14 38.5
6 A.M. 12.6 0.83 01 100 - - -
8 A.M. - 1.09 - - - - -
10 A.M. - 1.03 - - - - -
12 A.M. - 1.04 - - - - -
1) The spraying could be done only on 25% to 30% seeds as there was only one single stream of Bioenhancer Solution being sprayed on the seeds.
2) The oil content in D.O.C. reduced up to 0.83%.
3) The colour of the flame is also reduced.
4) Colour of the Extracted oil has reduced.
C) Results Achieved:
• Oil Extraction will increase final yield and is base parameter in the Soya bean Industry.
• The colour of the flame/ Oil is reduced means oil is of good quality.
• There is a possibility of reducing number of stages of extraction as extraction efficiency increases. This will reduce the power cost of that particular stage and lesser hexane consumption.
• There is possibility of reducing time and power consumption of toasting the D.O.C.
Effect of blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant in improving the shelf life of oil by reducing rancidity.
The peroxide value of oil extracted after treatment with blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant and without treatment is compared. The oils after treatment with blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant is checked for its peroxide value after 1 month also.
The results are as follows:
Blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant dosage Peroxide value in milli equi /kg
Impact of dosage of blend of bioenhancers and antioxidants on peroxide value is indicated in Figure 9.
Lower the value, lower the rancidity. Thus the above result shows that oil extracted after treatment with bioenhancer and antioxidant has much lower peroxide value than compared with the untreated one.
Determination of Saponification Value:
The saponification value is the number of mg of potassium hydroxide (KOH) to saponify the esters in 1 g of the sample and neutralize the free acids in 1 g of a sample.
Unless otherwise specified, proceed as follows: Weigh accurately about 1 g of the sample, transfer into an Erlenmeyer flask, add 40 ml of ethanol, and dissolve while warming if necessary. Add 20 ml of ethanolic potassium hydroxide TS, accrately measured, equip the flask with a reflux condenser, and heat in a water bath for 30 minutes while shaking the flask occasionally. Cool, add a few drops of phenolphthalein TS, and immediately titrate excess potassium hydroxide with 0.5 mol/1 hydrochloric acid. Perform a blank test, and calculate the saponification value by the formula
Saponification Value = (a-b)* 28.5 / weight of sample in gm
a = volume (ml) of 0.5 mol/1 hydrochloric acid consumed in the blank test, b = volume (ml) of 0.5 mol/1 hydrochloric acid consumed in the test.
Determination of Acid Value:
The acid value is the number of mg of potassium hydroxide (KOH) required to neutralize
1 g of a sample.
Hereinafter in the Monographs, such specification as not more than 15 (Fats and Related Substances Tests) indicates that when determined as directed in the following procedure, the acid value is not more than 15.
Unless otherwise specified, proceed as follows: Weigh accurately the specified quantity of the sample given in the table, according to the acid value of the table, and, unless otherwise specified, add 50 ml of an ethanol ether mixture (1 : 1).
Dissolve while heating if necessary, and use this solution as the test solution. Cool, add a few drops of phenolphthalein TS, titrate with 0.1 mol/1 ethanolic potassium hydroxide until the pink color of the solution persists for 30 seconds, and calculate the acid value by the formula below. Before using the solvent, add 0.1 mol/1 ethanolic potassium hydroxide to the solvent until its pink color persists for 30 seconds, using phenolphthalein TS as an indicator.
Acid value = [vol of 0.1 M ethanolic KOH consumed/weight of sample] * 5.611
Determination of Iodine Number
In this experiment iodobromine adds to the double bond.
C = C + IBr fC-C
The Hanus solution (IBr in acetic acid) is added in excess. After the reaction is complete, excess iodobromine is reacted with iodide forming 12, IBr +1-012 + Br-, which in turn is determined by standard thiosulphate titration.
Warning: Be careful when handling the iodobromine solution. Treat any spill immediately with thiosulphate solution.
Reagents and Apparatus: Unknown sample, 0.2000 M Hanus solution, dichloro-methane,15% KI solution in distilled water, distilled water, 0.2000 M sodium thiosulfate, starchindicator, erlenmeyer flasks (3 x 500 mL), buret (50 mL), graduated pipette (2 mL), measuring cylinders (10 and 100 mL), volumetric pipette (25 mL), aluminium foil.
Procedure: Pipette out aliquotes (1.00 mL) of the unknown mixture into erlenmeyer flasks (500 mL) and add 10 mL of dichloromethane. With a pipet add 25.0 mL Hanus solution, cover the opening with aluminiumfoil and place your labelled flasks in the dark in the cupboard (under the fume hood) for 30 min. with occasionally shaking. Add 10 mL
of the 15% KI solution, shake thoroughly and add 100 mL of dist. water. Titrate the solution with 0.2000 M sodium thiosulphate until the solution turns pale yellow. Add starch indicator (3mL) and continue titration until the blue colour entirely disappears. Calculate the iodine number.
Determination of Specific Gravity:
The specific gravity is determined by specific gravity bottle method. Note down the weight of empty bottle, bottle filled with water and bottle filled with sample. Calculate the specific gravity of the given material as follows.
Specific gravity = (weight of bottle + sample) - (weight of bottle)
(weight of bottle +water) - (weight of bottle)
Determination of Protein Content:
The protein content of flour can be done by KJELDAHL METHOD. The total nitrogen can be determined as approximately 1.5 g. The crude protein can be calculated using the factor N* 5.7
Determination of peroxide Value:
Weigh accurately 4-5 gms or less when clearly rancid into a dry conical flask. Add 10 ml of chloroform. Dissolve the fat by swirling. Add 15 ml of glacial acetic acid and 1 ml of aqueous KI solution. Stopper the flask for 1 min in dark. Add 75 ml of distilled water and titrate liberated iodine against thio. Carry out the reagent blank which should not exceed 0.5mlof0.01Nthio.
Peroxide Value = V-Vblank * T * 103 Milli Equi / Kg
DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS:
Figure 1 describes the schematic representation of the sparging technique continuous module for spray. The list of apparatus involved are indicated therein as follows.
1 - 500 liter HDPE tank
2 - 0.25HP water pump
3 - Elbow 4- Tee
5 - Pressure gauge
6 - Valve
7 - Spray pipe
8 - Nozzle (0.3mm &0.6mm)
9 - Pipe lines (20mm)
Figure 2 describes the mechanism of action of the blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant. The Blend of bioenhancer and Antioxidant acting on cell wall degradation is displayed therein.
Figure 3 explains the relationship of enzyme concentration to the percentage of oil
extracted from whole soyabean seed.
This figure indicates increase in yield of oil with increased enzyme concentration.
Figure 4 details the relationship of enzyme concentrate to percentage of oil extracted from grinded soyabean seed.
The figure indicates higher oil extraction with higher enzyme concentration and also higher extraction from grinded seeds compared to whole seeds.
Figure 5 describes the methodology of oil extraction using sparing technique of blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant spray.
Figure 6 shows the effect of decrease in oil content in deoiled cake after treatment with bioenhancer.
Figure 7 shows the effect of blend of bioenhancer and antioxidant as per dosage on the percentage of soyabean oil extract.
Figure 8 indicates the increasing trend of protein in oil (in percentage) by increase in percentage of bioenhancer.
Figure 9 indicates impact of dosage of blend of bioenhancers and antioxidant on peroxide value.
1. A sparging techniques based composition and a process thereof comprising use of a blend of bioenhancers and antioxidants applied to oil seeds for better mixing and extracting more oil efficiently from the seeds wherein said process is time and energy saving and yield-efficient for extracting oil from oil seeds.
2. The composition as claimed in claim 1 wherein said bioenhancer includes pentosanases such as cellulase, hemicellulase, pectinase, amylase and protease are in the range of 0.1-5% by potency determination.
3. The composition as claimed in claim 1 wherein said antioxidants are selected from ascorbic acid, tocopherol, Butylated hydroxyl toluene, tertiary butyl hydroxyl quinone in the range of 0.1-1% by potency determination.
4. The deoiled cake produced through the process comprising the blend of bioenhancers and antioxidants, as claimed in claim 1, 2 and 3 having low oil content, more digestive property and which is beneficial for cattle feed.
5. The oil extracted after the treatment comprising the blend of bioenhancer and antioxidants as in the process as claimed in claim 1, with high retention characteristics of physical properties with stable nutritional values as well as improved shelf life, by reducing rancidity of the said oil.
Dated this 10th day of May 2006
Dr. Gopakumar G. Nair Gopakumar Nair Associates
A sparging technique based composition and a process thereof comprising use of a blend of bioenhancers and antioxidants applied to oil seeds for better mixing and efficiently extracting oil from the seeds are disclosed. The process is time and energy saving and yield-efficient in oil extraction.
|Indian Patent Application Number||583/MUM/2005|
|PG Journal Number||50/2010|
|Date of Filing||13-May-2005|
|Name of Patentee||ADVANCED ENZYME TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||SUN MAGNECTICA, 5TH FLOOR NEAR LIC SERVICE ROAD, LOUIS WADI, THANE - 400 604|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23D7/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|