|Title of Invention||
"PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AN ADSORBENT/CATALYST COMPRISING AN IRON OXIDE AND/OR IRON OXYHYDROXIDE"
|Abstract||Process for the production of an adsorbent/catalyst comprising an iron oxide and/or iron oxyhydroxide embedded in an iron hydroxide matrix in pellet form, characterised in that (a) an aqueous iron (III) hydroxide suspension is mixed into an aqueous suspension of iron oxide and/or iron oxyhydroxide, including Fe(0H)2 and then (bl) either the suspension is dried until it reaches a solid state and the solid material is then comminuted mechanically to the desired shape and/or size or (b2) the suspension undergoes mechanical shaping, optionally in the semisolid state after predrying, followed by (additional) drying until a solid state is achieved wherein a strong base such as NaOH or KOH as an alkaline precipitant is used to precipitate the iron (III) hydroxide.|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to pieces or granules based on iron oxide and/or iron oxyhydroxides of any modification having a high specific surface area (50 to greater than 200 m2/g according to BET), processes for their production and their conversion into piece form having high mechanical stability, and their use as contact and/or adsorption medium/reaction medium for catalyzing chemical reactions, for removing foreign substances from liquids and/or for gas purification.
Contact granules and adsorber granules, including those based on iron oxides and/or iron oxyhydroxides, have already been described. They are used predominantly in continuous processes, where they are usually found in tower- or column-like apparatuses, through which the medium to be treated flows, and on the external and internal surface of the granules of which the chemical or physical reaction or adsorption processes take place. For this purpose pulverulent materials cannot be used, because they compact in the direction of flow of the medium and as a result increase the resistance to flow until the apparatus plugs. If an apparatus is cleaned by backwashing (see below), large amounts of the powder are discharged, are lost or lead to an intolerable pollution of the wastewater.
However, the flowing media also exert forces on the granules which can lead to abrasion and/or to movement up to vigorous agitation of the granules. As a result the granules collide with one another and in consequence unwanted abrasion results. This leads to loss of contact or adsorber material and to contamination of the medium to be treated.
Iron-oxide- and iron-hydroxide-containing adsorption media/reaction media are advantageously usable, for example, in the field of water purification or gas purification. In water purification this medium is used in filters or adsorber columns through which flow passes horizontally or vertically, or by addition to the water to be treated, for removing dissolved, suspended or emulsified organic or inorganic
phosphorus compounds, arsenic compounds, antimony compounds, sulfur compounds, selenium compounds, tellurium compounds, beryllium compounds and cyano compounds and heavy metal compounds from, for example, drinking water, service water, industrial, municipal wastewater, mineral water, holy water and therapeutic water and river water, garden pond water and agricultural water. It is also possible to use the what are termed reactive walls for removing said pollutants from groundwater- and leachate-water-bearing formations from contaminated sites (landfills).
In gas cleaning, the medium is used in adsorbers for binding unwanted constituents, such as hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and prussic acid, and other phosphoruss, arsenics, antimonys, sulfurs, seleniums, tellurium compounds and also cyano compounds and heavy metal compounds in exhaust gases. It is also possible to adsorb gases such as HF, HC1, H2S, SOx, NOx.
It is also possible to remove compounds of phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium and also cyano and heavy metal compounds from waste oils and other contaminated organic solvents.
Contact granules and adsorber granules based on iron oxides and/or iron oxyhydroxides are also used to catalyze chemical reactions in the gas phase or in the liquid phase.
Differing types of process are known to remove trace substances and pollutants from aqueous systems using adsorption media.
Thus DE-A 3 120 891 describes a process in which, to remove principally phosphates from surface water, filtration is performed through activated alumina having a particle size of 1 to 3 mm.
To remove pollutants from water, DE-A 3 800 873 describes an adsorption medium based on porous materials, for example hydrophobized chalk having fine to medium particle size.
DE-A 3 703 169 discloses a process for preparing a granulated filter substance for treating natural water. The adsorbent is prepared by granulating an aqueous suspension of kaolin with addition of pulverulent dolomite in a fluidized bed. The granules are then fired at 900 to 950°C.
DE-A 40 34 417 discloses a process for preparing and using highly reactive reagents for purifying exhaust gas and wastewater. Descriptions are given here of mixtures of Ca(OH)2 with additions of clays, stone flours, fly dust and fly ashes which are prepared so as to be porous and have a surface area of approximately 200 m2/g.
Said processes and the contacts used for this purpose share the disadvantage that the respective component responsible for the selective adsorption of constituents of the media to be purified, that is to say the actual adsorbent, must have high levels of additives to permit shaping to form granules. As a result, the binding capacity for the water pollutants to be removed is decreased considerably. Furthermore, the later workup or further processing of the material is problematic, since the foreign materials used as binder must first be removed again.
DE-A 4 214 487 describes a process and a reactor for removing impurities from water. Flow passes horizontally through a funnel-shaped reactor in which the sorbent used for water impurities is finely divided iron hydroxide in floe form. A disadvantage of this process is the use of the floc-form iron hydroxide which, owing to the low differences in density between water and iron hydroxide, leads to the fact that such a reactor can only be operated at very low flow velocities and there is the risk that the sorbent, possibly already loaded with pollutants, is discharged from the reactor together with the water.
JP-A 55 132 633 describes a granulated red mud as byproduct of aluminum production as adsorbent for arsenic. This is composed of Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2. The stability of the granules and the granulation process are not reported herein. A further disadvantage of this adsorbent is the lack of constancy in the product composition, the uncertain availability and the possible aluminum pollution of the drinking water. Since aluminum is under suspicion of promoting the development of Alzheimer's disease, contamination with this is in particular to be avoided.
DE-A 19 826 186 describes a process for preparing an iron-hydroxide-containing adsorption medium. An aqueous polymer dispersion is mixed into iron hydroxide in water-dispersible form. This mixture is then either dried to achieve a solid state and the solid material then mechanically comminuted into the desired shape and/or size, or the mixture is, if appropriate after predrying, submitted to shaping and then end-dried to achieve a solid state. As a result a material is obtained in which the iron hydroxide is firmly embedded in the polymer and is said to have a high binding capacity for the pollutants usually present in wastewaters or exhaust gases.
A disadvantage of this process is the use of organic binders which additionally pollute the water to be treated by leaching out and/or abrading organic materials. In addition, stability with relatively long use of the adsorber compound is not ensured. An organic binder can also serve as nutrient medium to bacteria and other microorganisms, so that there is a risk of colonization of the contact with microorganisms and contamination of the medium by the same.
In principle the presence of different types of aids required for the production of the adsorbents is disadvantageous in the workup, recycling or further processing of used adsorbents, because the utilization of pure substances is less of a problem than is the case with mixtures of substances. Thus, for example, polymeric binders in the further processing of adsorber materials based on iron oxide as pigments for coloring concrete is disadvantageous, since these binders can impede the dispersion of the pigment in liquid concrete.
DE-A 4 320 003 describes a process for removing dissolved arsenic from groundwater using colloidal or granulated iron hydroxide. For the use of fine, suspended iron(HI) hydroxide products, it is recommended here to introduce the iron hydroxide suspension into fat-bed filters which are packed with granular material or other supports having high external or internal porosity. This process is also accompanied by the disadvantage that, based on the adsorbent "substrate + iron hydroxide", only low specific loading capacities are achievable. Furthermore, there is only weak binding between substrate and iron hydroxide, so that in a subsequent treatment with arsenic-containing water, there is the risk of discharge of iron hydroxide or iron arsenate. In this publication, in addition, the use of granulated iron hydroxide as adsorber material for a fixed-bed reactor is mentioned. The granulated iron hydroxide is prepared via a freeze-conditioning (freeze-drying) of iron hydroxide obtained by neutralizing acidic iron(III) salt solutions at temperatures below minus 5°C. This production process is highly energy-consuming and leads to wastewaters with a high salt pollution. In addition, the result of this production process produces only very small grains having low mechanical stability. This leads, in the case of use in a fixed-bed reactor, to the fact that the grain size spectrum is partially decreased by mechanical abrasion of the particles in the course of the operation, which in turn leads to the fact that finely dispersed particles of loaded or unloaded adsorption medium are discharged from the reactor. A further disadvantage of these granules is that the adsorption capacity with respect to arsenic compounds is considerably decreased if the granules lose water, for example as a result of relatively long dry idle time.
US-A-5,948,726 has disclosed adsober/binder systems which are produced by withdrawing a sufficiently large amount of water from a mixture of (a) a cross-linkable binder of colloidal metal oxides or metalloid oxides, (b) oxidic adsorbents such as metal oxides and (c) an acid, in such a manner that the components (a) and (b) crosslink, forming an adsorber/binder system. From the evidence of the illustrative embodiments, the binders used are colloidal clay earths or aluminum oxide.
A disadvantage of these compositions is the use of acid (column 9, line 4) required in their production, and the circumstance that these are not pure substances, but heterogeneous substances, which is undesirable not only for production and regeneration of such adsorbers, but also for their disposal or final deposit, for example in a landfill. The scope of disclosure of this publication is also said to encompass adsorbers which are suitable for adsorbing arsenic; however, specific examples are not presented. It is known that aluminum oxide is considerably inferior to iron oxides with respect to the adsorption capacity for arsenic.
For water treatment, preferably, continuously operated adsorbers are used, which are frequently operated in groups arranged in parallel. In order to free, for example, drinking water from organic impurities, such adsorbers are charged with activated carbon. At peak consumption times, the adsorbers present are then operated in parallel in order to prevent the flow velocity from increasing above the design-limit maximum. During times of lower water consumption, individual adsorbers are taken out of operation and during this can be serviced, for example, the adsorber material being exposed to particular stresses, as are described in more detail below.
The use of granules which can be produced by compacting, for example, pulverulent iron oxide by using high linear forces has already been mentioned. Such granules have already been described for homogeneously coloring liquid concrete. The use of high linear forces in compacting is greatly energy-intensive and costly and the stability of the compacted material is unsatisfactory for relatively long use in adsorbers. Therefore, such materials are only considered for use with limitations in, for example, adsorbers, in particular continuously operated adsorbers, in the purification of water. In particular during servicing or cleaning the adsorber systems by backwashing (see below), such granules, as a result of the associated agitation of the same, lose large amounts of substance. The backwash wastewater is made highly turbid due to the abrasion. This is unacceptable for several reasons: firstly, adsorber material is lost which, after a long service time, is highly loaded with impurities and is therefore a toxicological hazard. The wastewater stream is then polluted with the abrasion which can sediment and thus leads to impairment of the piping systems, and
finally the sewage treatment plant is undesirably physically and toxicologically polluted, just to name some reasons.
The object therefore underlying the present invention was to provide a contact or an adsorption medium/reaction medium based on iron-oxygen compounds in piece form which has high mechanical stability together with a high binding capacity for pollutants present in liquids and gases, without organic binders or foreign inorganic binders needing to be used to achieve sufficient mechanical stability, and systems which are operated using such media.
The inventive contacts or adsorption media/reaction media, their production, their use and apparatuses charged with these achieve this complex object.
The material in this case is iron oxide and/or iron oxyhydroxide firmly embedded in Fe(OH)3 polymer, a material which, as studies have found, has a high binding capacity for the pollutants customarily present in wastewaters or exhaust gases and which, without addition of organic binders or foreign inorganic materials having binder function, already has sufficient mechanical and hydraulic stability.
Since this material is free from foreign binders, compared with adsorbers of the prior art, it additionally has the advantage that, if necessary after elution or removal of the adsorbed pollutants, it can be disposed of or supplied to other applications in entirety, for example after grinding, for pigmenting concrete and other building materials and conventional pigment applications in plastics, dyes and coatings or for pigmenting other substrates such as bark mulch or shredded timber.
To produce adsorption media of this type, first an aqueous suspension of iron oxyhydroxide and/or iron oxide and iron hydroxide is prepared which is either dried until it becomes solid and the solid material is if appropriate then mechanically comminuted to the desired shape and/or size or, alternatively, the dispersion, if appropriate after a predrying, is subjected in the semisolid state to a mechanical shaping and subsequent (further) drying until a solid state is achieved.
The products thus obtainable can then be further comminuted, for example by coarse grinding or grinding. Since the products on their first contact with water, for example during the first filling of a freshly charged adsorber apparatus with water, comminute spontaneously, however, this will generally not be necessary.
The invention therefore also relates to a process for producing an iron oxide/iron hydroxide-containing adsorption medium/reaction medium in piece form.
The inventive material is obtainable by mixing iron oxides and/or iron oxyhydroxides of the most varied phases including Fe(OH)2, each in pure form or in any mixture, in solid, semisolid or suspended form by adding Fe(OH)3 in suspension or in gel form of variable water content, and then dewatering this mixture, for example by filtration or evaporation, completely or retaining a certain water content, and subsequently mechanically comminuting the solid or semisolid material to the desired shape and/or size, or subjecting the dispersion, if appropriate after a predrying in the semisolid state, to a mechanical shaping and subsequent (further) drying to achieve a solid state. The iron oxide and/or iron oxyhydroxide is firmly embedded into the Fe(OH>3 polymer in the course of this. The Fe(OH)3 can also be generated in situ from Fe(III) salt solutions and neutralization, or from iron(II) salt solutions by oxidation and neutralization. Preferably, the residual alkali from the production process of the suspended pigment is reacted for this purpose with an equivalent amount of Fe(III) salt.
The iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3 is preferably aqueous-pasty in the initial state, with the paste being able to have almost any water contents, generally between 10-90% by weight, preferably beween 40 to 70% by weight. However, it is also possible to use freshly prepared iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3 which has been produced by precipitation from iron(III) salt solutions or from iron(II) salt solutions by oxidation and neutralization.
Dewatering by evaporation is preferably employed when the suspensions to be dewatered are substantially salt-free and/or less stringent requirements as to the mechanical strength in operation are made of the end products produced.
Alternatively, dewatering is performed by filtration. In this case it is possible, to improve the filtration behavior of the suspensions, to employ customary filtration-enhancing measures, as are described, for example, in Solid-Liquid Filtration and Separation Technology, A. Rushton, A.S., Ward R.G., Holdich, 2nd edition 2000, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, and Handbuch der Industiellen Fest/Fliissig-Filtration [Handbook of industrial solid/liquid filtration], H. Gasper, D. Ochsle, E. Pongratz, 2nd edition 2000, Wiley-VCH Weinheim. Thus, for example, flocculants can be added to the suspensions.
The suspensions to be dewatered can also contain iron carbonates.
The inventive products can be subjected to drying in air and/or in vacuo and/or in a drying cabinet and/or on belt dryers or in spray dryers at temperatures in the range from 5 to 300°C. Freeze-drying of the material is also possible.
The inventive products preferably have a residual water content of less than 20% by weight.
The material is preferably comminuted by grinding to particle sizes in the range between 0.5 and 20 mm. The semisolid material is preferably mechanically shaped in a granulating or pelleting plant or in an extrusion press, in which case shaped bodies of a size in the range from 0.5 to 20 mm in diameter or length can be obtained.
It has been found that the resultant pieces or granules have a high binding capacity for pollutants present in waterbodies, liquids or gases, and in addition they have a sufficiently high stability toward flowing media with respect to mechanical or hydraulic loading.
In particular, it is surprising that the iron oxyhydroxides or iron oxides treated with Fe(OH)3 solidify during drying into very hard agglomerates which, without addition of binder, have a high mechanical abrasion resistance and a high hydraulic stability toward the contact with flowing water, and which have a high binding capacity for the pollutants and trace substances present in the water.
Suitable materials for the inventive use are iron oxyhydroxide pigments (for example goethite) just as iron oxide pigments (for example hematite, magnetite) and/or iron carbonates. The preparation of iron oxide pigments is prior art, they are obtained by precipitation and oxidation or Penniman reactions from iron(II) salt solutions and the iron hydroxide by precipitation from iron(ITJ) salt solutions. Such pigments can contain structures based on α,ß, , δ, δ', E phases and/or Fe(OH)2, and also mixed phases and interphases of the same. Yellow iron oxyhydroxides can be ignited to form red iron oxides.
The product has BET surface areas of 50 to 500 m2/g, preferably from 80 to 200 m2/g.
The primary particle size was determined by scanning electron microscopy, for example at an enlargement of 60 000:1 by measurement (instrument: XL30 ESEM FEG, Philips). If the primary particles are needle-shaped, as, for example, in the phase of α-FeOOH, the needle width may be reported as a measure of the particle size. In the case of nanoparticulate oc-FeOOH particles, needle widths of up to 100 nm are found, but chiefly between 4 and 50 nm. α-FeOOH primary particles customarily have a length:width ratio of 5:1 to 50:1 typically from 5:1 to 20:1. By doping or special reaction procedures, the needle shapes, however, may be varied in their length:width ratio. If the primary particles are isometric, as, for example, in the phases α-Fe2O3, y-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, the particulate diameters can equally well be less than 20 nm.
By mixing Fe(OH)3 with pigments and/or nanoparticulate iron oxides or iron (oxy)hydroxides, the scanning electron micrographs indicate the presence of the
added pigment or seed particles in their known particle morphology which, due to the amorphous Fe(OH)3 polymer, are held together or adhere to one another.
Yellow .iron oxyhydroxide pigments are generally synthesized by precipitating iron(II) hydroxides or carbonates from corresponding iron(II) salt solutions, for example FeSO4, FeCl2 in pure form, or as pickling solutions in the acidic or alkaline pH range and subsequent oxidation to form iron(III) oxyhydroxides (see, inter alia, G. Buxbaum, Industrial Inorganic Pigments, VCH Weinheim, 2nd edition, 1998, pp. 231 ff)- Oxidation of divalent to trivalent iron is preferably performed with air, with intensive gas introduction being advantageous. Oxidation with H2O2 also leads to iron oxyhydroxides. Preferably, NaOH is used as alkaline precipitant. However, other precipitants can also be used, such as KOH, Na2C03, K2CO3, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, NH3, NH4OH, MgO and/or MgCO3.
By suitable choice of the precipitation and oxidation conditions, nanoparticulate α, ß, , δ phases and mixed phases of iron oxyhydroxides may be synthesized which have a high specific surface area so that the nanoparticles clump together in the dry state and have in comminuted form a high stability toward mechanical and fluid-mechanical abrasion. To direct the precipitated pigments toward the necessary highly finely divided character, the precipitations, for example of yellow α-FeOOH, as described in the patents US-A 2 558 303 and US-A 2 558 304, are carried out in the alkaline pH range using alkali metal carbonates as precipitant and generally modifiers are added, for example SiO2, zinc salts, aluminum salts or magnesium salts, hydroxycarboxylic acids, phosphates, metaphosphates. Products produced in this manner are described in US-A 2 558 302. Such seed modifiers do not impede later reprocessing, recycling or other types of use of the inventive adsorbents. In the case of the precipitation processes in an aqueous medium, according to current knowledge, precipitation in an alkaline environment leads to less firmly agglomerated powders than those in an acidic environment.
Seed modifiers, however, have, inter alia, the advantage that even at relatively high reaction temperatures, sufficient finely divided character can nevertheless be achieved.
Compared with the prior art, the products described, the process for their production and their use are an improvement. The inventive granules in contrast to those of the prior art can bear considerably greater loads and thus have a much greater abrasion stability toward mechanical and hydraulic stress. They can be used directly as such. Even the comminution or shredding of the initially obtained crude dry substance from filter cake or extrusion presses can be dispensed with, for example when used in adsorber systems for water purification, since the coarse pieces reduce themselves in size on their contact with water. In this case a random particle size distribution occurs, but no particles of a size which are discharged from the adsorber by the flowing medium to a significant extent.
A separate granulation, as would be necessary when conventional iron oxyhydroxides are used in the form of (flowable) powder, either with the aid of foreign binders or very high linear forces in compacting, can be dispensed with completely.
Another method of producing granules which has proved itself is granulation of a semi-moist paste. In this case pellets or rods are formed from a semisolid paste, for example by means of a simple perforated plate, a roller press or an extruder, and this is either dried immediately or these extrudates are additionally brought, by means of a spheronizer, into a bead or granule form. The still-moist beads or granules can subsequently be further dried to any desired moisture content. In order that the granules do not clump together, a residual moisture content of The amounts of iron oxyhydroxides or iron oxides, on the one hand, and iron hydroxide, on the other, to be used inventively are determined by the requirements made of the inventive product with respect to its mechanical stability and abrasion strength. Although a higher content of (pulverulent) pigments will generally decrease the mechanical strength of the inventive products, the filtration of the suspensions
may be facilitated. Those skilled in the art active in the respective field of application will be able to determine the optimum mixing ratio for their application using few preliminary experiments.
Particularly preferably, the inventive granules are used in the purification of liquids, in particular for removing heavy metals. A preferred use in this technical field is decontaminating water, in particular drinking water. Very recently, particular attention has been paid to removing arsenic from drinking water. The inventive granules are outstandingly suitable for this purpose, since using the inventive granules achieves concentrations which not only comply with the low limiting values specified by the US EPA, but can also be lower than these.
For this purpose the granules can be used in customary adsorber apparatuses as are currently used, for example charged with activated carbon, for removing other types of pollutants. A batchwise operation, for example in cisterns or similar containers, which may be equipped with stirrers, is also possible. However, use in continuous systems, such as continuous-flow adsorbers, is preferred.
Since untreated water to be treated to produce drinking water customarily also contains organic impurities such as algae and similar organisms, the surface of adsorbers, in particular the outer surface of a granule-type adsorbent, becomes coated during use with generally slimy deposits which impede or even prevent the ingress of water and thus the adsorption of constituents to be removed. For this reason, the adsorber apparatuses are backwashed with water from time to time, which is preferably carried out during times of low water consumption (see above) on apparatuses which are individually taken out of operation. In this case the adsorbent is swirled up and, as a result of the associated mechanical stressing of the surface, the unwanted coating is removed and discharged in counterflow to the direction of flow during operation in service. The washing water is customarily fed to a sewage treatment plant. In this case the inventive adsorbents prove themselves particularly well in service, since their high strength makes possible cleaning in a short time, without significant losses of adsorber material being encountered or the backwashing
water fed to the wastewater being highly polluted with discharged adsorber material, or possibly even highly polluted with heavy metals.
Since the inventive granules are free from foreign binders, the material is relatively simple to dispose of after use. Thus the adsorbed arsenic can be removed thermally or chemically, for example in special apparatuses, and an iron oxide pigment is obtained as a pure substance, which can be either recycled for the same use, or can be fed to customary pigment applications. Depending on the application and legal provisions, the adsorber content can also be used without the prior removal of heavy metals, for example as pigment for pigmenting permanent construction materials such as concrete, since the heavy metals removed from the drinking water are permanently immobilized in this manner and are removed from the water cycle.
Therefore, water treatment plants or waterworks in which apparatuses charged with. the inventive granules are operated are also subject matter of the present invention, as are processes for decontaminating water using such apparatuses, and apparatuses of this type themselves.
The specific surface area of the inventive products is determined in accordance with BET via the carrier gas method (He:N2 = 90:10) using the one-point method as specified by DIN 66131 (1993). Before measurement, the sample is heated for 1 h at 140°C in a stream of dry nitrogen.
To measure the adsorption of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V), 3 1 of an aqueous solution of NaAsC>2 or Na2HAsO4 having a starting concentration in each case of approximately 2-3 mg/1 of arsenic is treated with 3 g of the sample under test in a 5 1 PE flask over a defined period, and the flask is agitated in the course of this on rotating rollers. The adsorption rate of As ions on iron hydroxide over this defined period, for example one hour, is reported as mg(As3+/5+)/g(FeOOH)h from the difference from the As3+/5+ ions remaining in solution.
To measure the adsorption of Sb3+, Sb5+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Cr6*, Cd2+ ions, the same pattern is followed, more precisely the desired concentrations are prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of Sb2O3, KSb(OH)6, PbCl2, NaCrO4, CdCh in H2O and the pH is set to 7-9.
The As, Sb, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb contents of the loaded iron oxyhydroxide or of the solutions is determined using mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as specified in DIN 38406-29 (1999) or via optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) as specified by EN-ISO 11885 (1998), in each case using inductively coupled plasma as the excitation unit.
Mechanical and hydraulic abrasion strength was evaluated according to the following method: 10 g of the granules under test having particle sizes > 0.1 mm were admixed with 150 ml of deionized water in a 500 ml conical flask and rotated at 250 rotations/minute for a period of 30 minutes in a LabShaker shaking machine (Kiihner model, from Braun). The fraction >0.1 mm was then isolated from the suspension using a screen, dried and weighed. The weight ratio between final weight and initial weight gives the abrasion value in %.
The invention will be described in more detail below with reference to examples. The examples are intended to illustrate the process and do not represent a limitation.
124 1 of an aqueous NaOH solution (114 g/1) were charged at 24°C and, with stirring, were rapidly mixed with 1711 of an aqueous solution of FeSO1 (100 g/1) and then oxidized with 10 1 of air per hour and mole of Fe. Immediately after oxidation was complete, 561 of an aqueous solution of Fe2(SO4)3 (100 g/1) were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The resultant yellowish-brown suspension was worked up as in example 2.
According to the x-ray diffractogram, the product consisted 100% of a-FeOOH. From the scanning electron microgram, for example at an enlargement of 60 000:1, the needle widths were determined by measurement between 15 and 35 nm, and the needle lengths between 70 and 180 nm. The needles were highly agglomerated. The specific BET surface area was 131 m /g. The abrasion value after 30 minutes was only 7% by weight.
The adsorption- rate with respect to an aqueous NaAsO2 solution at a starting concentration of 2.3 mg of (As3+)/l was 1.7 mg of (As3+)/g(FeOOH)h, and with respect to an Na2HAsO4 solution at a starting concentration of 2.7 mg of (As5+)/l the adsorption was 1.2 mg of (As5+)/g(FeOOH)h.
7.51 of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (150 g/1) were admixed with 7.41 of an aqueous solution of Fe2(SO4)3 (100 g/1) and were rapidly treated at 34°C with stirring with 2.91 of an aqueous NaOH solution (200 g/1). The reaction mixture was then preoxidized for 10 minutes with 290 1 of air per hour and then further precipitated with stirring with 2.2 1 of an aqueous NaOH solution (200 g/1). The reaction mixture was then oxidized for a further 15 minutes with 290 1 of air per hour. The yellowish-
brown suspension was filtered on a vacuum filter and the precipitate was washed to a residual filtrate conductivity of 1 mS/cm.
According to the x-ray diffractogram, the product consisted of 100% cc-FeOOH. In the scanning electron micrograph, for example at a magnification of 60 000:1, small particles in addition to needles can be seen. In the case of the small particles, the needle widths were determined by measurement at between 15 and 35 nm, and the needle lengths between 30 and 70 nm. In the case of the larger needles, needle widths up to 50 nm and needle lengths up to 350 nm were determined. The needles and: particles were highly agglomerated among one another. The specific BET surface area was 177 m2/g. The abrasion value after 30 minutes was only 3% by weight.
The adsorption rate with respect to an aqueous NaASO2 solution of a starting concentration of 2.3 mg/1 of (As3+) was 1.3 mg of (As3+)/g(FeOOH)»h, with respect to an Na2HAsO4 solution of a starting concentration of 2.7 mg/1 of (As5+) was 0.7 mg of(As5+)/g(FeOOH)«h.
45 g of a needle-shaped cc-FeOOH pigment powder (Bayferrox® 930, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, DE) were admixed with 470 ml of an FeCl3 solution (0.1 N) and mixed for 5 minutes at 500 rpm. Then, 141 ml of an aqueous NaOH solution (1 N) were added slowly dropwise and the suspension was further stirred for 15 minutes.
The suspension was filtered through a vacuum filter, the filter was washed with 1000 ml of deionized H2O and then dried for 15 h at 105°C. 47.6 g of the dried product were redispersed in 2300 ml of 0.1 M FeCl3 solution and then rapidly admixed with 690 ml of an aqueous NaOH solution (1 N). The suspension was filtered through a vacuum filter, the filter was washed with 2000 ml of deionized H2O and then dried for 15 h at 105°C. The dried product was very hard, was coarsely ground, and the sieve fraction of 1 - 5 mm was isolated.
According to the x-ray diffractogram, the product consisted of 100% a-FeOOH. The specific BET surface area was 99 m2/g. The granules, on shaking with water in a glass beaker, had a high abrasion resistance, which was revealed in the fact that the water was not colored by pigment as is the case, for example, with untreated α-FeOOH pigment powder (Bayferrox® 930).
The adsorption rate with respect to an aqueous NaAsO2 solution of a starting concentration of 23 ng/1 of (As3+), as can occur, for example, customarily in natural water bodies, was, after 30 minutes, 17 u,g of (As3+)/g(FeOOH)»h, equivalent to 84% adsorption.
4096 kg of NaOH (as a solution containing approximately 300 g/1) were charged and diluted with water to 40 m . 4950 kg of FeSO4 are dissolved with water to give a solution of 48.5 m3, cooled to 15°C and then pumped in 1 h to the NaOH charge. The suspension was then oxidized in approximately 2h with 1500 m3/h of air. Approximately 87 m3 of this suspension were admixed with stirring with 14.4 m3 of FeOSO4 solution (113.4 g/1) and stirred for a further 30 min. The batch was washed on a filter press to a residual filtrate conductivity of Adsorption behavior: The adsorption rate with respect to NaAsO2 at a starting concentration of 2.7 mg of (As3+)/l was 2.1 mg of (As3+)/g(FeOOH)h, and with respect to Na2HAsO4 at a starting concentration of 2.8 mg/1 (As5+) was 2.0 mg of (As5+)/g(FeOOH)h, with respect to CdCl2 (starting concentration 2.7 mg of (Cd2+)/l) the adsorption was 1.1 mg of (Cd2+)/g(FeOOH)h, with respect to KSb(OH)6 (starting concentration 2.6 mg of (Sb5+)/l, it was 1.9 mg of (Sb5+)/g(FeOOH)h, with respect to Sb2O3 (starting concentration 2.3 mg of (Sb3+)/l it was 2.0 mg of (Sb3+)/g(FeOOH)h, with respect to Na2CrO4 (starting concentration 2.6 mg of (CR6+)/] it was 1.1 mg of (Cr6*), with respect to PbCl2 (starting concentration 1.6 mg of (Pb2+)/l it was 1.57 mg of(Pb2+)/g(FeOOH)h.
525 g of a suspension of a needle-type cc-FeOOH pigment powder (50 g/1 FeOOH, Bayferrox® 920, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, DE) were admixed with 800 g of an aqueous solution of FeCl3 (100 g/1) and an iron hydroxide was precipitated onto the pigment by adding 247 g of an aqueous naOH solution (24%). The suspension was filtered through a vacuum filter, the filter cake was washed to a residual filtrate conductivity of The adsorption weight with respect to an aqueous NaAsO2 solution of a starting concentration of 2.9 mg/1 of (As3+) was 1.8 mg of (As3+)/g(FeOOH)•h, and with respect to an Na2HAsO4 solution of a starting concentration of 2.8 mg/1 (As5+) was 1.6 mg of (As5+)/g(FeOOH)•h.
1. Process for the production of an adsorbent comprising an iron oxide
and/or iron oxyhydroxide embedded in an iron hydroxide matrix in pellet
form, characterised in that
(a) an aqueous iron(III) hydroxide suspension is mixed into an aqueous suspension of iron oxide and/or iron oxyhydroxide, including Fe(OH)2 and then
(bl) either the suspension is dried, such as herein described until it reaches a solid state and the solid material is then comminuted mechanically, such as herein described to the desired shape and/or size or
(b2) the suspension undergoes mechanical shaping, optionally in the semisolid state after predrying, followed by (additional) drying until a solid state is achieved
wherein a strong base such as NaOH or KOH as an alkaline precipitant is used to precipitate the iron (III) hydroxide.
2. Process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the iron oxides and/or iron oxyhydroxides contain structures based on a,p, 6, 81, e and/or Fe(OH)2 phases, ferric hydrite and mixed and intermediate phases thereof.
3. Process as claimed in claims 1 and 2, wherein iron carbonates are used optionally instead of the iron oxides and/or iron oxyhydroxides.
4. Process as claimed in claims 1 to 3, wherein the iron oxides and/or (oxy)hydroxides used are commercially conventional pigments.
5. Process as claimed in claims 1 to 3, wherein iron oxides and/or iron (oxy)hydroxides used are transparent pigments.
6. Apparatus suitable for the through-flow of media, wherein they contain adsorbent in pellet form prepared by the process as claimed in claims 1 to 5.
7. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6, wherein the media are gases.
8. Apparatus as claimed in claim 6, wherein the media are liquids.
9. Apparatus as claimed in claims 6 and 8, wherein the medium is water.
|Indian Patent Application Number||371/DELNP/2003|
|PG Journal Number||47/2010|
|Date of Filing||12-Mar-2003|
|Name of Patentee||LANXESS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH|
|Applicant Address||D-51368, LEVERKUSEN, GERMANY.|
|PCT International Classification Number||C02F 1/28|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/EP01/10513|
|PCT International Filing date||2001-09-12|