Title of Invention

IMMUNOGLOBULINS

Abstract The present invention concerns immunoglobulins, such as antibodies, which specifically bind Oncostatin M (OSM), particularly human OSM (hOSM) and modulate the interaction between OSM and gpl30. In typical embodiments, OSM is glyco-sylated. The invention also concerns antibodies that modulate the interaction between both Site 11 and Site III of OSM and their respective interacting partners. Further disclosed are pharmaceutical compositions, screening and medical treatment methods.
Full Text WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
Immunoglobulins
Field of the invention
The present invention relates to immunoglobulins that specifically bind Oncostatin M (OSM) and in particular human OSM (hOSM). More particularly, the present invention relates to antibodies that specifically bind hOSM. The present invention also concerns methods of treating diseases or disorders with said immunoglobulins, pharmaceutical compositions comprising said immunoglobulins and methods of manufacture. Other aspects of the present invention will be apparent from the description below.
Background of the invention
Oncostatin M is a 28 KDa glycoprotein that belongs to the interleukin 6 (IL-

6) family of cytokines which includes IL-6, Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotropin-1 (CT-1) and cardiotrophin-1 like cytokine (See Kishimoto T et al (1995) Blood 86: 1243-1254), which share the gp130 transmembrane signalling receptor (See Taga T and Kishimoto T (1997) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 15: 797-819). OSM was originally discovered by its ability to inhibit the growth of the melanoma cell line A375 (See Malik N (1989) et al Moi Cell Biol 9: 2847-2853). Subsequently, more effects were discovered and it was found to be a multifunctional mediator like other members of the IL-6 family. OSM is produced in a variety of cell types including macrophages, activated T cells (See Zarling JM (1986) PNAS (USA) 83: 9739-9743), polymorphonuclear neutrophils (See Grenier A et al (1999) Blood 93:1413-1421), eosinophils (See Tamura S et al (2002) Dev. Dyn. 225:
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327-31), dendritic cells (See Suda T et al (2002) Cytokine 17:335-340). It pancreas, kidney, testes, spleen stomach and brain (See Znoyko I et al (2005) Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 283:182-186), and bone marrow (See Psenak O et al (2003) Acta Haematol 109:68-75) Its principle biological effects include activation of endothelium (See Brown TJ et al (1993) Blood 82: 33-7), activation of the acute phase response (See Benigni F et al (1996) Blood 87:1851-1854), induction of cellular proliferation or differentiation, modulation of inflammatory mediator release and haematopoesis (See Tanaka M et al (2003) 102: 3154-3162), remodelling of bone (See de Hooge ASK (2002) Am J Pathol 160: 1733-1743) and, promotion of angiogenesis (See Vasse M et al (1999) Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 19:1835-1842) and wound healing.
Receptors for OSM (OSM receptor (, "OSMR(") are expressed on a wide range of cells including epithelial cells, chondrocytes, fibroblasts (See Langdon C et al (2003) J Immunol 170: 548-555), neuronal smooth muscle, lymph node, bone, heart small intestine, lung and kidney (See Tamura S et al (2002) Mech Dev 115:127-131) and endothelial cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that endothelial cells are a primary target for OSM. These cells express 10 to 20 fold higher numbers of both high and low affinity receptors and exhibit profound and prolonged alterations in phenotype following stimulation with OSM (See Modur V et al (1997) J Ciin Invest 100:158-168). In addition, OSM is a major autocrine growth factor for Kaposi's sarcoma cells, which are thought to be of endothelial origin (See Murakami-Mori K et al (1995) J Clin Invest 96:1319-1327).
In common with other IL-6 family cytokines, OSM binds to the transmembrane signal transducing glycoprotein gp130. A key feature of the gp130 cytokines is the formation of oligomeric receptor complexes that
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comprise gp130 and one or more co-receptors depending on the ligand (Reviewed in Heinrich PC et al (2003) Biochem J. 374:1-20). As a result, these cytokines can mediate both the shared and unique biological activities in vitro and in vivo depending on the composition of the receptor complex formed. Human OSM (hOSM) differs from the other IL-6 cytokines in that it can form complexes with gp130 and either one of the two co-receptors, LIFR or the oncostatin receptor (OSMR). Figure 1 illustrates the interaction between hOSM and gp130, LIFR and OSMR. The crystal structure of hOSM has been solved and shown to comprise a four a helical bundle with two potential glycosylatton sites. Two separate ligand binding sites have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis on the hOSM molecule (See Deller MC et al (2000) Structural Fold Des. 8:863-874). The first, called Site II (sometimes "site 2") interacts with gp130 and the second site, called Site III (sometimes "site 3"), at the opposite end of the molecule interacts with either LIFR or OSMR. Mutagenesis experiments have shown that the binding sites for LIFR and OSMR are almost identical but that a single amino acid mutation can discriminate between the two.
OSM is synthesised as a proprotein containing a hydrophobic 25 amino acid (AA) N terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal propeptide of 33 AA, both of which are cleaved to generate mature OSM. The OSM proprotein does have biological activity but this is significantly increased by cleavage of the C terminal propeptide (see Bruce A.G. et a/(1992) Prog.Growth Factor Res. 4: 157-170, Malik N et al (1989) Mol.Cell Biol. 9: 2847-2853). OSM has been described as a "compact, barrel-shaped molecule" with dimensions of approximately 20A x 27A x 56A. There are four alpha helical regions (helix A 10-37AA, helix B 67-90AA, helix C 105-131 AA and helix D 159-185AA, numbering of AA starts after removal of the signal sequence). Helices A and C contain "kinks". The helices are
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joined by two overhand loops (AB loop 38-66AA, CD loop 130-158 AA) and are arranged as two anti-parallel pairs (A-D and B-C). (See Deller M.C et al (2000) Structure 8; 863-874).
It appears that OSM binding via Site II to gp130 allows binding of another OSM molecule to gp130 by a Site III interaction. OSM will also bind to either LIFR or OSMR via Site III. Thus OSM forms a complex with its receptor consisting of; one gp130, one LIFR or OSMR, and two OSM molecules. (See Sporeno E (1994) J.Biol.Chem.269:10991-10995, Staunton D et al (1998) Prot.Engineer 11:1093-1102 and Gearing D.P (1992) Science 225:306-312).
Using mutagenesis, the important residues for Site II OSM-gp130 binding areGln20p Gly120, Gln16 and Asn124. For Site III OSM-OSMR binding, the important residues are Phe160 and Lys163. The OSM Site II interaction is therefore dependent on Gln20, Gly120, Asn124 and to a lesser extent Gln16 on hOSM. Three complementary residues in gp130 (Phe169, Tyr196 and Glu282) have been identified as of particular note in the interaction between OSM and gp130. (See Deller M eta\ (2000) Structure 8:863-874, Aasland D et al (2002) J.Mol.Biol.315: 637-646, Timmermann A et a! (2000) FEBS Lett.468:120-124).
The amino acid sequence starting at position 1 for hOSM is set forth as SEQ.I.D.NO:13
MGVLLTQRTLLSLVLALLFPSMASMAAIGSCSKEYRVLLGQLQKfiTDLMQD TSRLLDPYIRIQGLDVPKLREHCRERPGAFPSEETLRGLGRRGFLQTLNAT LGCVLHRLADLEQRLPKAQDLERSGLNIEDLEKLQMARPNILGLRKTHIYCM AQLLDNSDTAEPTKAGRGASQPPTPTPASDAPQRKLEGCRPLHGYHRPMHS
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VGRVFSKWGESPNRSRRHSPHQALRKGVRRTRPSRKGKRLMTRGQLPR.
(SEQ.I.D.N0:13).
Site II residues of particular note are highlighted in bold and underlined A cDNA encoding hOSM is set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO:14.
ATGGGGGTACTGCTCACACAGAGGACGCTGCTCAGTCTGGTCCTTGCACTC
CTGTTTCCAAGCATGGCGAGCATGGCGGCTATAGGCAGCTGCTCGAAAGAG
TACCGCGTGCTCCTTGGCCAGCTCCAGAAGCAGACAGATCTCATGCAGGAC
ACCAGCAGACTCCTGGACCCCTATATAGGTATCCAAGGCCTGGATGTTCCT
AAACTGAGAGAGCACTGCAGGGAGCGCCCCGGGGCCTTCCCCAGTGAGGAG
ACCCTGAGGGGGCTGGGCAGGCGGGGCTTCCTGCAGACCCTCAATGCCACA
CTGGGCTGCGTCCTGCACAGACTGGCCGACTTAGAGCAGCGCCTCCCCAAG
GCCCAGGATTTGGAGAGGTCTGGGCTGAACATCGAGGACTTGGAGAAGCTG
CAGATGGCGAGGCCGAACATCGTCGGGCTCAGGAACAACATCTACTGCATG
GCCCAGCTGCTGGACAACTCAGACACGGCTGAGCCCACGAAGGCTGGCCGG
GGGGCCTCTCAGCCGCCCACCCCCACCCCTGCCTCGGATGCTTTTCAGCGC
AAGCTGGAGGGCTGCAGGTTCCTGCATGGCTACCATCGCTTCATGCACTCA
GTGGGGCGGGTCTTCAGCAAGTGGGGGGAGAGCCCGAACCGGAGCCGGAGA
CACAGCCCCCACCAGGCCCTGAGGAAGGGGGTGCGCAGGACCAGACCCTCC
AGGAAAGGCAAGAGACTCATGACCAGGGGACAGCTGCCCCGGTAG
(SEQ.I.D.NO:14)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) comprises a syndrome of distinct but interconnected pathogenic processes. These are: local and systemic inflammation, proliferation of synovial celis, angiogenesis and matrix deposition leading to formation of pannus tissue which invades and destroys cartilage and bone, resulting in deformity and disability. Underpinning this pathology is the chronic release of cytokines and inflammatory mediators from cells that enter and take up residence in the
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inflamed joint and from endogenous joint tissue cells (See Firestein G
(2003) in Rheumatology. Eds Hochberg, Silman, Smolen, Weinblatt and
Weisman. Pub. Mosby. 855-884). The initiating events in RA are unknown
but a wealth of evidence suggests that they involve activation of T
lymphocytes by either a foreign or autologous "self antigen (See Firestein
G (2004) J Clin Invest 114: 471-4). The extent to which T cells are
required to maintain the ongoing disease processes once they have been
initiated is also uncertain although therapeutic agents such as CTLA4lg,
which specifically target T cells can be effective in advanced disease (See
Kremer JM et al (2003) New Engl J Med 349:1907-15, Moreland L et al
(2004) Annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology Abstract
1475).
The earliest events in the development of rheumatoid synovitis involve recruitment of mononuclear and polymorphonuciear cells to cross the endothelium in capillaries in the synovial-lining layer. While the polymorphs migrate into synovial fluid (SF) the lymphocytes remain close to the capillaries and may subsequently become organised Into ectopic lymphoid follicles. This influx of immune cells is followed by proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Unlike their normal counterparts, RA FLS appear to have escaped from the regulatory processes that result in arrest of proliferation and apoptosis leading to their continuing accumulation (See Yamanishi Y et al (2004) Arthritis Res Ther 7:12-18). Furthermore, the emerging pannus tissue now develops new blood vessels supported by extracellular matrix to allow further expansion. This process involving fibroblast proliferation, matrix-remodelling and angiogenesis closely resembles an uncontrolled wound-healing event. Monocytes migrate into the developing pannus tissue and undergo differentation into macrophages with a chronically activated phenotype. Similarly B cells undergo terminal differentiation to form long-lived plasma
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cells which secrete antibodies including rheumatoid factors. The ability of the inflamed synovium to sustain local differentation of myeloid and lymphoid cells is based, in part, on local production of growth factors such as GMCSF and IL-6. Both the FLS and resident mononuclear leukocytes release soluble factors that stimulate further recruitment of inflammatory cells from the blood and, critically, drive the next step in the disease process - the destruction of articular cartilage and re-modelling of bone. Pannus tissue is invasive. Its leading edge secretes destructive enzymes such as MMPs and cytokines that alter the phenotype of cells which maintain the structural integrity of cartilage and bone, As a result, proteoglycans are lost and type II collagen is irreversibly cleaved leading to weakening and loss of cartilage. Bone also undergoes a number of profound changes, which include focal erosions, sub-chondral osteoporosis. Ultimately these changes result in the characteristic deformity and subluxation of the joints seen in advanced RA (See Gordon D and Hastings D (2003) in Rheumatology. Eds Hochberg, Silman, Smolen, Weinblatt and Weisman. Pub. Mosby. 765-780).
RA is a systemic disease, probably as a result of the passage of inflammatory mediators from the joint into the blood. This affects many organ systems in the body including skin, eyes, liver, kidneys, brain and the vascular lining, leading to increased morbidity and mortality (See Matteson EL (2003) in Rheumatology. Eds Hochberg, Silman, Smolen, Weinblatt and Weisman. Pub. Mosby. 781-792). Much of the excess mortality is due to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis since many of the pathogenic processes involved in the development of rheumatoid synovitls are common to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
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Treatments for RA aim to control pain reduce inflammation and arrest the processes that result in tissue destruction. Traditionally RA has been treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAiDS), low doses of steroids and so-called disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS). Low levels of efficacy, slow onset, toxicity, poor tolerability and increasing resistance over time plague the use of these treatments which include methotrexate (MTX), sulphasalazine, gold and Leflunomide. More recently, the introduction of biologic drugs such as Enbrel(tm), Remicide(tm) and Humira(tm), which inhibit the cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF), have been a significant advance (See Roberts L and McColl GJ (2004) Intern Med J 34:687-93).
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a therapeutic approach to the treatment of RA and other diseases and disorders, particularly chronic inflammatory diseases and disorders such as osteoarthritis and psoriasis. In particular it is an object of the present invention to provide immunoglobulins, especially antibodies that specifically bind OSM (e.g. hOSM, particularly Site II thereof) and modulate (i.e. inhibit or block) the interaction between OSM and gp130 in the treatment of diseases and disorders responsive to modulation of that interaction.
There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that modulating OSM-gp130 interaction maybe of benefit in the treatment of such diseases and disorders.
Clinical Evidence
OSM is found in the SF of human RA patients (See Hui W etal (1997) 56: 184-7). These levels correlate with; the number of neutrophils in SF,
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levels of TNF alpha (sometimes "TNF") in SF, and markers of cartilage destruction (Manicourt DH et al (2000) Arthritis Rheum 43: 281-288). Furthermore, the synovial tissue from RA patients secretes OSM spontaneously ex vivo (See Okamoto H et ai (1997) Arthritis and Rheumatism 40:1096-1105). It has also been demonstrated that OSM is present in synovial macrophages (Cawston TE et ai (1998) Arthritis Rheum 41: 1760-1771) and as discussed earlier, OSM receptors and gp130 are expressed on endothelial cells, synovial fibroblasts, chonodrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, ceils infiltrating atherosclerotic plaques and aortic aneurysms express OSM suggesting an association of this cytokine with chronic inflammation (See Mirshahi F et al (2001) Ann NY Acad Sci 936: 621-4).
In Vitro evidence
Endothelial cells express ten to twenty times the number of OSM receptors than other cell types (See Brown TJ et al (1991) J Immunol 147: 2175-2180, Linsley PS et al (1989) J Biol Chem 264: 4282-4289). OSM alone, or synergistically in combination with other cytokines, activates endothelium to release cytokines and chemokines and bind neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes mediating their extravasation into synovial tissue (See Modur Vetal (1997) J Clin Invest 100: 158-168). OSM has also been demonstrated to be a potent stimulator of angiogenesis (See Vasse M et al (1999) Aterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 19:1835-1842) and activation and proliferation of synovial fibroblast (FLS) cells (thus facilitating the formation of pannus tissue, the release of IL-6, MMPs) and acts synergistically with TNF and IL-1 to induce this mediator release (See Langdbn C etal (2000)Am J Pathol 157:1187-1196). OSM has also been demonstrated to induce (with IL-1) collagen and proteoglycan release from cartilage (See Cawston T et al (1995) Biochem Biophys Res
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Commun 215: 377-385). Furthermore, OSM induces acute phase protein release and production of IL-6 receptor from hepatocytes (See Cichy J et ai (1997) J Immunol 159: 5648-5643, Kurash JK (2004) Exp Cell Res 292: 342-58) and may therefore contribute to the systemic effects of rheumatoid inflammation including fatigue. In addition, OSM induces osteoclast differentiation and activity in vitro (See Palmqvist P et al (2002) J Immunol 169: 3353-3362).
In Vivo evidence
Adenoviral expression of murine OSM (mOSM) in the joints of normal mice results in a severe inflammatory and erosive arthritis (See Langdon Cet al (2000) Am J Pathol 157:1187-1196). Similarly aggressive disease is seen in knockout mice lacking TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and iNOS following adenovirai mOSM delivery (See de Hooge ASK et al (2003) Arthritis and Rheumatism 48:1750-1761), demonstrating that OSM can mediate all aspects of arthritis pathology. Mouse OSM expression using an adenovirally expressed mOSM vector causes damage to the growth plate typical of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (See de Hooge ASK et al (2003) Arthritis and Rheumatism 48:1750-1761). In an experimental model of collagen induced arthritis, an anti-OSM antibody administered therapeutically to mice prevented all further progression of disease. Similar results were seen when anti-OSM was administered prophylatically to mice with pristane induced arthritis, a relapsing/remitting model reminiscient of the human disease (See Plater-Zyberk C et al (2001) Arthritis and Rheumatism 44: 2697-2702). In monkeys, OSM injected subcutaneousiy induces an acute phase response and local chronic inflammation (See Loy JK et al (1999) Toxicol Pathol 27: 151-155). OSM has been demonstrated to induce mononuclear and PMN infiltration and proteoglycan release when injected into goat joints (See
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Bell MC et al (1999) Arthritis Rheum 42: 2543-2551). Transgenic over-expression of mOSM in mouse lymph nodes results in extrathymic T cell maturation, proliferation of memory T cells and failure to deplete autoimmune T cells (See Louis I et al (2003) Blood 102:1397-1404). Transgenic over-expression of OSM in the pancreas causes extensive fibrosls similar to that seen in advanced RA synovium (See Malik N et al (1995) Mol Cell Blol 15: 2349-2358).
In WO99/48523, we disclose the use of OSM antagonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and disorders. This disclosure used an anti-mouse OSM antibody in a murine model of arthritis.
All patent and literature references disclosed within the present specification are expressly and entirely incorporated herein by reference.
Summary of the Invention
The present inventors postulate that modulating (in particular blocking) the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130, with an antibody that specifically binds hOSM will modulate signalling by all of the potential OSM receptor complexes, effectively neutralising the biological activity of the cytokine to a therapeutically significant degree. Notwithstanding this, the present inventors have found that blockade .of both the Site II and Site III sites of hOSM surprisingly improves neutralisation of this cytokine. Furthermore, the present inventors have found that the glycosylation of hOSM plays an unexpected role in the binding event between hOSM and an antibody that specifically binds hOSM.
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The present invention therefore provides a therapeutic antibody 15E10 or 10D3 (which maybe chimaeric, human, humanised, bispecific or antigen binding fragments thereof) which specifically binds hOSM and interacts with Site II of hOSM. See Table A below.
In one embodiment of the present invention there is provided a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates (i.e inhibits or blocks) the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130. In some embodiments, the therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof specifically binds Site II of hOSM.
In another embodiment, there is provided a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and comprises the following CDRH3: SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 or SEQ.I.D.NO:42.
In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a
therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically
binds to hOSM and comprises the following CDRs:
CDRH1: SEQ.I.D.NO: 1
CDRH2: SEQ.I.D.NO: 2
CDRH3: SEQ.I.D.NO: 3
CDRL1: SEQ.I.D.NO: 4
CDRL2: SEQ.I.D.NO: 5
CDRL3: SEQ.I.D.NO: 6
In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds to hOSM and comprises the following CDRs: CDRH1:SEQ.i.D.NO:40
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CDRH2:SEQ.i.D.NO:41 CDRH3:SEQ.I.D.NO:42 CDRL1:SEQ.I.D.NO:43 CDRL2: SEQ.I.D.NO; 44 CDRL3:SEQ.l.D.NO:45
Throughout this specification, the terms "CDR", "CDRL1", "CDRL2", "CDRL3", "CDRH1", "CDRH2", "CDRH3" follow the Kabat numbering system as set forth in Kabat et al; Sequences of proteins of Immunological Interest NIH, 1987. Therefore the following defines the CDRs according to the invention: CDR: Residues CDRH1: 31-35B CDRH2: 50-65 CDRH3: 95-102 CDRL1: 24-34 CDRL2: 50-56 CDRL3: 89-97
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a murine therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH domain having the sequence: SEQ.I.D.NO: 7 and a VL domain having the sequence: SEQ.I.D.NO: 8.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a murine therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH domain having the sequence: SEQ.I.D.NO: 46 and a VL domain having the sequence: SEQ.I.D.NO: 47.
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In one embodiment of the invention there Is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.l.D.NO: 9 and a VL domain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO:10.
In one embodiment of the invention there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.l.D.NO: 48 and a VL domain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO:49.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody, which antibody comprises a heavy chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.l.D.NO: 11 and a light chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO:12.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody, which antibody comprises a heavy chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.l.D.NO: 50 and a light chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.1.D,NO:51.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between hOSM and gp'130.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an isolated VH domain of an antibody comprising (or consisting essentially of) SEQ.l.D.NO: 7 or SEQ.I.D.NO:9 or SEQ.I.D.NO:46 or SEQ.I.D.NO:48.
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In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH domain selected from the group consisting of; SEQ.I.D.NO: 7, SEQ.I.D.NO:9, SEQ.I.D.NO:46, SEQ.I.D.NO:48.
In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which competitively inhibits the binding of the therapeutic antibody comprising a CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO:3.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which competitively inhibits the binding of the therapeutic antibody comprising CDRs of SEQ.I.D. NO: 1,2,3,4, 5 and 6 with hOSM.
In another embodiment there is provided therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which competitively inhibits the binding of the therapeutic antibody comprising a heavy chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:11 and a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:12 with hOSM.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a method of treating a human patient afflicted with a disease or disorder responsive to modulation of the interaction between hOSM and gp130 which method comprises the step of administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of the therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein.
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In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a method of treating a human patient afflicted with an inflammatory disease or disorder which method comprises the step of administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of the therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein.
In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a method of treating a human patient afflicted with an arthritic disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile onset arthritis or osteoarthritis which method comprises the step of administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of the therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a method of reducing or preventing cartilage degradation in a human patient afflicted with (or suspectfble to) such degradation which method comprises the step of administering a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof to said patient as described herein.
In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a method of reducing TNF alpha production in a patient afflicted with a disease or disorder responsive to TNF alpha reduction which method comprises administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a method of treating the extraarticular manifestations of an arthritic disease or disorder which method comprises the step of administering a therapeutically
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effective amount of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein to the human patient afflicted with the extraarticular manifestations of an arthritic disease or disorder.
In another embodiment of the present invention there is provided a method of treating a human patient afflicted with a disease of endothelial cell origin which method comprises the steps of administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein.
Use of the therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of diseases and disorders as described herein is also provided.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided a process for the manufacture of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein.
In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an assay (particularly an ELISA assay) for studying the interaction between OSM (particularly hOSM) and an interacting partner (such as gp130, LIFR, OSMR), which assay comprises the step of providing for said studying, a sample of glycosylated OSM (typically glycosylated by a vertebrate host cell such as mammalian host cell e.g. CHO glycosylated).
In a further embodiment of the present invention we provide a therapeutic antibody that specifically binds native glycosylated hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between native glycosylated hOSM
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and an interacting partner selected from the group consisting of gp130, LIFR, OSMR(.
We further provide a method of producing a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between hOSM and gp130 which method comprises the steps of;
(a) providing a candidate antibody;
(b) providing glycosylated OSM (particularly hOSM produced by a
recombinantly transformed or transfected mammalian host cell
such as a recombinantly transformed CHO cell and/or native
glycosylated hOSM);
(c) contacting the antibody of step (a) with hOSM of step (b) under
conditions permissive for binding;
(d) determining whether the antibody of step (c) modulates the
interaction between hOSM and gp130;
(e) optionally humanising said antibody of step (a) or (d);
(f) incorporating said antibody of step (d) or (e) into a pharmaceutical
composition,
Other aspects, objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the description below.
Brief Description of the Drawings
Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of the interaction between OSM and gp130, LIFR and OSMR(.
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Figure 2 illustrates the gp130 inhibition ELISA using hOSM (upper panel) and cOSM (lower panel) following the protocol of set forth below of the examples using the 15E10 and 10D3 chimaeric antibodies. See the description below for further details.
Figure 3 illustrates the KB cell assay using hOSM (upper panel) and cOSM (lower panel) following the protocol of the examples using the 15E10 and 10D3 chimaera antibodies of the examples.
Figure 4 illustrates gp130 inhibition ELISA against hOSM (upper panel) and cOSM (lower panel) wherein % inhibition as a function of antibody concentration for four humanised antibodies (B1L1, B1L2, B4L1, B4L2) and the chimaeric 15E10 is plotted.
Figure 5 illustrates the gp130 inhibition ELISA of the examples where various humanised antibodies (B2L2, B3L2, B4L2) are compared to chimaeric 15E10 for binding to CHO produced hOSM.
Figures illustrates the assay of figure 5 using cOSM instead of hOSM,
Figure 7 illustrates the assay of figure 5 using CHO produced hOSM in 25% human AB serum.
Figure 8 illustrates the assay of figure 7 using cOSM instead of hOSM.
Figure 9 Illustrates the gp130 inhibition ELISA of neutrophil OSM from four different human samples using humanised antibodies B2L2, B3L2, B4L2 and chimaeric 15E10.
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Figure 10 illustrates the gp130 inhibition ELlSA using three humanised antibodies (B2L2, B3L2, and B4L2) and 15E1 0 chimaeric antibody against hOSM isolated from the synovial fluid of hum an RA patients.
Figures 11 to 16 illustrate the results of the conditions of figures 5 to 10 in the KB cell assay instead of gp130 inhibition ELlSA with the exception that the KB cell assay of neutrophii OSM of figure 15 used a single human sample of neutrophii OSM. Thus Figure 11 illustrates the KB assay of CHO produced hOSM, figure 12 of CHO produced cOSM, figure 13 of CHO produced hOSM in 25% human AB serum, figure 14 of CHO produced cOSM in 25% human AB serum, figure 15 of neutrophii OSM, figure 16 of OSM isolated from cells SF of RA patients.
Figure 17 illustrates the gp130 inhibition ELlSA of the parent murine 15E10, the chimaeric 15E10, a humanised antibody construct B3L2, and a Fc lytic mutant of B3L2 against CHO produced hOSM, See description for more detail.
Figure 18 illustrates the assay of figure 17 using cOSM.
Figure 19 illustrates the KB cell assay of the parent murine 15E10,15E10 chimaera, humanised construct B3L2 and a Fc lytic mutant of B3L2 against CHO produced hOSM.
Figure 20 is a schematic illustration of the cornpetition assay of the examples.
Figure 21 illustrates the inhibition of 15E10 (B3L2 humanised construct) by murine 10D3 competitor antibody of the examples. The percentage inhibition of 15E10 by 10D3 competitor at equimolarity (0.15ug/ml):62.3%.
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Figure 22a illustrates a typical standard curve in the gp130-OSMELISA using non-glycosylated OSM.and where the gp130 concentration for coating the ELISA plate is 1µg/ml.
Figure 22b illustrates the increased sensitivity of the gp130-OSM ELISA when the gp130 concentration used for coating the plate is increased to 4ug/ml
Figure 22c illustrates that the gp130-OSM ELISA works with both glycosylated and non-giycosylated OSM. Non-glycosylated OSM; filled circles, glycosylated OSM; open triangles. Note the sensitivity of the ELISA is greater for non-glycosylated OSM, possibly as a result of glycosylation masking epitopes recognised by the detection antibody used.
Figure 23a illustrates the effect of the OSM neutralising antibody, Mab295 (R&D Sytems) in the gp130-OSM ELISA. OSM only; open circles, OSM + Mab296; filled triangles, OSM + MAb295 but with no gp130 on the ELISA plate; filled squares.
Figure 23b is a schematic illustration of how Mab295 might potentiate the OSM signal in the gp130-OSM ELISA.
Figure 24 illustrates data from the KB cell assay showing the effectiveness of OSM neutralisation by Mab 295. Cells were stimulated with 1 ng/ml OSM only, or this concentration of OSM mixed with various concentrations of Mab295 before the assay. OSM only; filled triangles, OSM + Mab295; open circles, no OSM stimulation; filled squares.
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Figure 25 illustrates the effect of an OSM site III specific antibody, OM4-11.31 in the gp130-OSM ELISA. OSM only; open circles, OSM- Isotype control IgG; Filled inverted triangles, OSM + site II OSM specific antibody; open squares, OSM + OM4-11.31; filled circles.
Figure 26 illustrates the inhibition of binding of a complex of OSM with a site III specific antibody (OM4-11.17) to go130 by a site II specific OSM antibody, OM4-5.3.12.5ng/ml OSM only; solid bar, OSM+OM4-11.17; diagonal line bar, OSM+OM4-11.17+ control IgG; cross hatched bar; OSM+OM4-11.17+ OM4-5.3; stippled bar.
Figure 27 illustrates the emergence of site II and non-site II specific OSM antibodies in sera of mice immunised with human OSM, as detected using the gp130-OSM ELISA. Analysis of sera after first, second and third boosts with human OSM; a, b and c respectively. OSM+pre-immune serum; open circles, OSM+antisera from immunised mouse; filled inverted triangles, OSM+antiserum from immunised mouse, but without gp130 on ELISA plate; inverted open triangle.
Figure 28 illustrates the synergy in OSM neutralisation between a site II OSM specific antibody ("hum 15E10", humanised 15E10) and a site lil specific OSM antibody, (17H10) as measured in a KB ceil assay. OSM neutralisation by 17H10 alone (a) or hum 15E10 alone (b); filled circles, OSM neutralisation by the antibody combination; open triangles
Figure 29 illustrates the efficacy of humanised 15E10 antibody i n inhibiting OSM stimulated IL-6 secretion from RA synovial fibrobiasts. Each symbol refers to a fibrobiasts obtained from different patients.
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Figure 30 illustrates the inhibition of OSM binding to gp130 by anti OSM antibody OM4-5.3. OSM (25ng/ml) was pre-incubated with the concentrations of OM4-5.3 indicated before addition to the ELISA plate. OSM only; solid circles, OSM+OM4-5.3; open circles.
Figure 31a illustrates the difference in potency of OM4-41.5 in i nhibiting glycosylated and non-glycosylated OSM binding to gp130. Non-glycosylated OSM; solid circles, glycosylated OSM; open triangles.
Figure 31b illustrates the difference in potency of OM4-5.3.1 in inhibiting glycosylated and nooglycosylated OSM binding to gp130. Non-glycosylated OSM; solid circles, glycosylated OSM; open triangles.
Figure 32 shows the activity of two site II OSM specific antibodi es (a; 15E10, b; 5H2) against glycosylated (filled circles) and non-glycosylated (open triangles) in the gp130-OSM ELISA
Figure 33 illustrates the correlation between serum and synovial fluid [OSM] in paired serum and SF samples taken from RA patients-.
Figure 34a, 34b and 35 illustrate the OSM concentrations measured in OA synovia! fluid using the OSM ELISA of the examples. Fig.34b II lustrates that two samples had particularly high OSM synovial fluid concentrations.
Figure 36 illustrates the OSM concentration found in OA patient sera over a 12 month clinical trial period. #number is the patient identifier-
Figure 37 illustrates a typical OSM standard curve in 25% human AB serum
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Detailed Description of the Invention 1. Antibody Structures 1.1 Intact Antibodies
Intact antibodies are usually heteromultimeric glycoproteins comprising at least two heavy and two light chains. Aside from IgM, intact antibodies are heterotetrameric glycoproteins of approximately 150Kda, composed of two identical light (L) chains and two identical heavy (H) chains. Typically, each light chain is linked to a heavy chain by one covalent disulfide bond while the number of disulfide linkages between the heavy chain s of different immunoglobulin Isotypes varies. Each heavy and light chain also has intrachain disulfide bridges. Each heavy chain has at one end a variable domain (VH) followed by a number of constant regions. Each light chain has a variable domain (VL) and a constant region at its other end; the constant region of the light chain is aligned with the first constant region of the heavy chain and the light chain variable domain is aligned with the variable domain of the heavy chain. The light chains of antibodies from most vertebrate species can be assigned to one of two types called Kappa and Lambda based on the amino acid sequence of the constant region. Depending on the amino acid sequence of the constant region of their heavy chains, human antibodies can be assigned to five different classes, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM. IgG and IgA can be furthar subdivided into subclasses, lgG1, lgG2, lgG3 and lgG4; and lgA1 and !gA2. Species variants exist with mouse and rat having at least lgG2a,
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lgG2b. The variable domain of the antibody confers binding specificity upon the antibody with certain regions displaying particular variability called complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The more conserved portions of the variable region are called framework regions (FR). The variable domains of intact heavy and light chains each comprise four FR connected by three CDRs. The CDRs in each chain are held together in close proximity by the FR regions and with the CDRs from the other chain contribute to the formation of the antigen binding site of antibodies. The constant regions are not directly involved in the binding of the antibody to the antigen but exhibit various effector functions such as participation in antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), phagocytosis via binding to Fc( receptor, half-life/clearance rate via neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and complement dependent cytotoxicity via the C1q component of the complement cascade.
In one embodiment therefore we provide an intact therapeutic antibody that specifically binds hOSM, which antibody modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130. The antibody may specifically bind Site II of hOSM and inhibit or block the interaction between hOSM and its corresponding residues on gp130 involved in OSM interaction. The ELISA protocol of the examples may be used to determine whether any particular antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130. The intact therapeutic antibody may comprise a constant region (either heavy or iight) of any isotype or subclass thereof described supra. In one embodiment, the antibody is of the IgG isotype, particularly lgG1. The antibody may be rat, mouse, rabbit, primate or human. In one typical embodiment, the antibody is primate (such as cynomolgus, Old World monkey or Great Ape, see e.g. WO99/55369, WO93/02108) or human.
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
In another embodiment there is provided an intact therapeutic antibody comprising a CDRH3 of SEQ.l.D.NO: 3 or SEQ.I.D.NO:42. In another embodiment there is provided an intact therapeutic antibody comprising a variable region having CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6 or a variable region of SEQ.I.D.NO:40, 41,42,43,44 and 45.
In another embodiment, there is provided a murine intact therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH domain having the sequence of SEQ.I.D.NO: 7 and a VL domain of the sequence of SEQ.I.D.NO: 8.
In another embodiment, there is provided a murine intact therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH domain having the sequence of SEQ.I.D.NO: 46 and a VL domain of the sequence of SEQ.I.D.NO: 47.
1.1.2 Human antibodies
Human antibodies may be produced by a number of methods known to those of skill in the art. Human antibodies can be made by the hybridoma method using human myeloma or mouse-human heteromyeloma cells fines see Kozbor J.Immunol 133, 3001, (1984) and Brodeur, Monoclonal Antibody Production Techniques and Applications. pp51-63 (Marcel Dekker Inc, 1987). Alternative methods include the use of phage libraries or transgenic mice both of which utilize human V region repertories (see Winter G, (1994), Annu.Rev.lmmunol 12,433-455, Green LL (1999), J.lmmunoi.rnethods 231, 11-23).
Several strains of transgenic mice are now available wherein their mouse immunoglobulin loci has been replaced with human immunoglobulin gene
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
segments (see Tomizuka K, (2000) PNAS 97,722-727; Fishwild D.M (1996) Nature Biotechnol. 14,845-851, Mendez MJ, 1997, Nature Genetics, 15,146-156). Upon antigen challenge such mice are capable of producing a repertoire of human antibodies from which antibodies of interest can be selected.
Of particular note is the Trimera(tm) system (see Eren R ef a/, (1998) Immunology 93:154-161) where human lymphocytes are transplanted into irradiated mice, the Selected Lymphocyte Antibody System (SLAM, see Babcook et at, PNAS (1996) 93:7843-7848) where human (or other species) lymphocytes are effectively put through a massive pooled in vitro antibody generation procedure followed by deconvulated, limiting dilution and selection procedure and the Xenomouse II(tm) (Abgenix Inc). An alternative approach is available from Morphotek Inc using the Morphodoma(tm) technology.
Phage display technology can be used to produce human antibodies (and fragments thereof), see McCafferty; Nature, 348, 552-553 (1990) and Griffiths AD et al (1994) EMBO 13:3245-3260. According to this technique antibody V domain genes are cloned in frame into either a major or minor coat of protein gene of a filamentous bacteriophage such as M13orfd and displayed (usually with the aid of a helper phage) as functional antibody fragments on the surface of the phage particle. Selections based on the functional properties of the antibody result in selection of the gene encoding the antibody exhibiting those properties. The phage display technique can be used to select antigen specific antibodies from libraries made from human B cells taken from individuals afflicted with a disease or disorder described above or alternatively from unimmunized human donors (see Marks; J.Mol.Bio. 222,581-597, 1991). Where an intact human antibody is desired comprising a Fc domain It Is
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necessary to redone the phage displayed derived fragment into a mammalian expression vectors comprising the desired constant regions and establishing stable expressing cell lines. The technique of affinity maturation (Marks; Bio/technol 10,779-783 (1992)) may be used to improve binding affinity wherein the affinity of the primary human antibody is improved by sequentially replacing the H and L chain V regions with naturally occurring variants and selecting on the basis of improved binding affinities. Variants of this technique such as "epitope imprinting" are now also available see WO 93/06213. See also Waterhouse; Nuci.Acids Res 21, 2265-2266 (1993).
Thus in another embodiment there is provided a human intact therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between hOSM and gp130. In another embodiment there is provided a human intact therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds Site II of hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between hOSM and gp130.
In another aspect there is provided a human intact therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 or SEQ.l.D.NO:42 which specifically binds hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between hOSM and gp130. In another embodiment there is provided a human intact therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a variable region having CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1,2, 3,4, 5 and 6 or a variable region having SEQ.I.D.NO:40, 41,42,43,44 and 45.
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1.2 Chimaeric and Humanised Antibodies
The use of intact non-human antibodies in the treatment of human diseases or disorders carries with it the now well established problems of potential immunogenicity especially upon repeated administration of the antibody that is the immune system of the patient may recognise the non-human intact antibody as non-self and mount a neutralising response. In addition to developing fully human antibodies (see above) various techniques have been developed over the years to overcome these problems and generally involve reducing the composition of non-human amino acid sequences in the intact therapeutic antibody whilst retaining the relative ease in obtaining non-human antibodies from an immunised animal e.g. mouse, rat or rabbit. Broadly two approaches have been used to achieve this. The first are chimaeric antibodies, which generally comprise a non-human (e.g. rodent such as mouse) variable domain fused to a human constant region. Because the antigen-binding site of an antibody is localised within the variable regions the chimaeric antibody retains its binding affinity for the antigen but acquires the effector functions of the human constant region and are therefore able to perform effector functions such as described supra. Chimaeric antibodies are typically produced using recombinant DNA methods. DNA encoding the antibodies (e.g. cDNA) is isolated and sequenced using conventional procedures (e.g. by using oligonucleotide probes that are capable of binding specifically to genes encoding the H and L chains of the antibody of the invention, e.g. DNA encoding SEQ.I.D.NO 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 described supra). Hybridoma cells serve as atypical source of such DNA. Once isolated, the DNA is placed into expression vectors which are then
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transfected into host cells such as E.Coli, COS cells, CHO cells or myeloma cells that do not otherwise produce immunoglobulin protein to obtain synthesis of the antibody. The DNA may be modified by substituting the coding sequence for human L and H chains for the corresponding non-human {e.g. murine) H and L constant regions see e.g. Morrison; PNAS 81, 6851 (1984).
The second approach involves the generation of humanised antibodies wherein the non-human content of the antibody is reduced by humanizing the variable regions. Two techniques for humanisation have gained popularity. The first is humanisation by CDR grafting. CDRs build loops close to the antibody's N-terminus where they form a surface mounted in a scaffold provided by the framework regions. Antigen-binding specificity of the antibody is mainly defined by the topography and by the chemical characteristics of its CDR surface. These features are in turn determined by the conformation of the individual CDRs, by the relative disposition of the CDRs, and by the nature and disposition of the side chains of the residues comprising the CDRs. A large decrease in immunogenicity can be achieved by grafting only the CDRs of a non-human (e.g. murine) antibodies ("donor" antibodies) onto a suitable human framework ("acceptor framework") and constant regions (see Jones ef a/ (1986) Nature 321,522-525 and Verhoeyen M et a/(1988) Science 239, 1534-1536). However, CDR grafting per se may not result in the complete retention of antigen-binding properties and it is frequently found that some framework residues of the donor antibody need to be preserved (sometimes referred to as "backmutations") in the humanised molecule if significant antigen-binding affinity is to be recovered (see Queen C et al (1989) PNAS 86, 10,029-10,033, Co, M ef a/(1991) Nature 351, 501-502). In this case, human V regions showing the greatest sequence homology (typically 60% or greater) to the non-human donor antibody maybe chosen
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from a database in order to provide the human framework (FR). The selection of human FRs can be made either from human consensus or individual human antibodies. Where necessary key residues from the donor antibody are substituted into the human acceptor framework to preserve CDR conformations. Computer modelling of the antibody maybe used to help identify such structurally important residues, see WO99/48523.
Alternatively, humanisation maybe achieved by a process of "veneering". A statistical analysis of unique human and murine immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable regions revealed that the precise patterns of exposed residues are different in human and murine antibodies, and most individual surface positions have a strong preference for a small number of different residues (see Padlan E.A. etal; (1991) Mol.lmmunol.28,489-498 and Pedersen J.T. et a! (1994) J.Mol.Biol. 235; 959-973). Therefore it is possible to reduce the immunogenicity of a non-human Fv by replacing exposed residues in its framework regions that differ from those usually found in human antibodies. Because protein antigenicity can be correlated with surface accessibility, replacement of the surface residues may be sufficient to render the mouse variable region "invisible" to the human immune system (see also Mark G.E. et a! (1994) in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology vol. 113: The pharmacology of monoclonal Antibodies, Springer-Verlag, pp105-134). This procedure of humanisation is referred to as "veneering" because only the surface of the antibody is altered, the supporting residues remain undisturbed. A further alternative approach is set out in WO04/006955.
Thus another embodiment of the invention there is provided a chimaeric therapeutic antibody comprising a non-human (e.g. rodent) variable domain fused to a human constant region (which maybe of a IgG isotype
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e.g. lgG1) which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130.
In another embodiment there is provided a chimaeric therapeutic antibody comprising a non-human (e.g. rodent) variable region and a human constant region (which maybe of an IgG isotype e.g. IgG1) which specifically binds hOSM, which antibody further comprises a CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO:3 or SEQ.I.D.NO:42. Such antibodies may further comprise a human constant region of the IgG isotype, e.g. lgG1
In another embodiment there is provided a chimaeric therapeutic antibody comprising a non-human (e.g. rodent) variable region and a human constant region (which maybe of a IgG isotype e.g. lgG1) which specifically binds hOSM having the CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6 or SEQ.I.D.NO:40, 41,42,43,44 and 45.
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130.
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and comprises a CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 or SEQ.I.D.NO:42. Such antibodies may comprise a human constant region of the IgG isotype, e.g. IgGl
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and comprises CDRs of SEQ. I.D.NO: 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6 or
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SEQ.l.D.NO:40, 41,42,43,44 and 45. Such antibodies may comprise a human constant region of the IgG isotype, e.g. lgG1.
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130 and comprises (or consists essentially of) the heavy chain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 11 and a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 12.
in another embodiment there is provide a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130 which antibody comprises (or consists essentially of) a heavy chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:50 and a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:51.
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130 wherein said antibody or fragment thereof comprises CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 optionally further comprising CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1,2,4,5 and 6 wherein the residues at positions 28,29,30,71 and 94 of the human acceptor heavy chain framework region and positions 49 and 71 of the human acceptor light chain framework are substituted by the corresponding residues found in the donor antibody framework from which CDRH3 is derived.
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130 wherein said antibody or fragment thereof comprises CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO: 42 optionally further comprising CDRs of SEQ.i.D.NO: 40,41,43,44,45
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wherein the residues at positions 28,44,48,67,69,71,73 of the human acceptor heavy chain framework region and positions 36,38,46,47,71 of the human acceptor light chain framework are substituted by the corresponding residues found in the donor antibody framework from which CDRH3 is derived
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the term "derived" is intended to define not only the source in the sense of it being the physical origin for the material but also to define material which is structually identical to the material but which does not originate from the reference source. Thus "residues found in the donor antibody from which CDRH3 is derived" need not necessarily have been purified from the donor antibody.
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM wherein said antibody or fragment thereof comprises CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 optionally further comprising CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1,2,4,5 and 6 wherein the human heavy chain framework comprises one or more (e.g. all) of the following residues (or a conservative substitute thereof):

Position
Residue
28
S
29
L
30
T
71
K
94
K
and the human light chain comprises either or both of the following
residues (or conservative substitute thereof);
Position Residue
49 E
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71 Y
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds hOSM wherein said antibody or fragment thereof comprises CDRs of SEQ.l.D.NO: 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 wherein the human heavy chain framework comprises one or more (e.g. all) of the following residues (or a conservative substitute thereof):

Position
Residue
28
S
29
L
30
T
71
K
94
K
and the human light chain comprises either or both of the following
residues (or conservative substitute thereof);
Position Residue
49 E
71 Y
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds to hOSM wherein said antibody or fragment thereof comprises CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO:42 optionally further comprising CDRs of SEQ.l.D.NO: 40,41,43,44,45 wherein the human heavy chain framework comprises one or more (e.g. all) of the following residues (or a conservative substitute thereof):
Position Residue
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
28 I
48 I
44 K
67 A
69 L
71 V
73 K
and the human light chain comprises one or more (e.g. all) of the following
residues (or conservative substitute thereo-f);
Position Residue
36 F
38 K
46 R
47 W
71 Y
In another embodiment there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds to hOSM wherein said antibody or fragment thereof comprises CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 40,41,42,43,44,45 wherein the human heavy chain framework comprises one or more (e.g. ail) of the following residues (or a conservative substitute thereof):
Position Residue
28 I
48 I
44 K
67 A
69 L
71 V
36

WO 2005/095457

PCT/GB2005/001147

73 K
and the human light chain comprises one or more (e.g.all) of the following
residues (or conservative substitute thereof);
Position Residue
36 F
38 K
46 R
47 W
71 Y
It is well recognised in the art that certain amino acid substitutions are regarded as being "conservative". Amino acids are divided into groups based on common side-chain properties and substitutions within groups that maintain all or substantially all of the binding affinity of the antibody of the invention or antigen binding fragment thereof are regarded as conservative substitutions, see the following table:

Side chain
Members
Hydrophobic
met, ala,val,leu,IIe
neutral hydrophilic
cys, ser, thr
Acidic
asp, glu
Basic
asn, gln, his, lys, arg
residues that influence chain orientation
gly, pro
aromatic
trp, tyr, phe
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1.3 Bispecific antibodies
A bispecific antibody is an antibody having binding specificities for at least two different epitopes. Methods of making such antibodies are known in the art. Traditionally, the recombinant production of bispecific antibodies Is based on the coexpression of two immunoglobulin H chain-L chain pairs, where the two H chains have different binding specificities see Millstein et al, Nature 305 537-539 (1983), WO93/08829 and Traunecker et al EMBO, 10,1991, 3655-3659. Because of the random assortment of H and L chains, a potential mixture often different antibod y structures are produced of which only one has the desired binding specificity. An alternative approach involves fusing the variable domains with the desired binding specificities to heavy chain constant region comprising at least part of the hinge region, CH2 and CH3 regions. It is prefe rred to have the CH1 region containing the site necessary for light chain binding present in at least one of the fusions. DNA encoding these fusions, and if desired the L chain are inserted into separate expression vectors and are then cotransfected into a suitable host organism. It is possible though to insert the coding sequences for two or all three chains into one expression vector. In one preferred approach, the bispecific antibody is composed of a H chain with a first binding specificity in one arm and a H-L chain pair, providing a second binding specificity in the other arm, see WO94/04690. See also Suresh et al Methods in Enzymology 121, 210,1 986.
In one embodiment of the invention there is provided a bispecific therapeutic antibody wherein at least one binding specific! ty of said antibody is for hOSM, wherein said antibody modulates (i. e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp13O. Such
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antibodies may further comprise a human constant region of the Ig G isotype, e.g. lgG1
In one embodiment of the invention there is provided a bispecific therapeutic antibody wherein at least one binding specificity of said antibody is for hOSM, wherein said antibody comprises at least one CDRH3 of SEQ.LD.NO: 3 or SEQ.I.D.NO:42. Such antibodies may further comprise a human constant region of the IgG isotype, e.g. 1 gG1.
In one embodiment of the invention there is provided a bispecific therapeutic antibody wherein at least one binding specificity of said antibody is for hOSM, wherein said antibody comprises at least CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6 or SEQ.l.D.NO:40, 41,42,43,44 and -45. Such antibodies may further comprise a human constant region of the IgG isotype, e.g. lgG1.
1.4 Antibody Fragments
In certain embodiments of the invention there is provided therapeutic antibody fragments which modulate the interaction between OSM (particularly hOSM) and gp130. Such fragments may be functional antigen binding fragments of intact and/or humanised and/or chirnaeric antibodies such as Fab, Fd, Fab', F(ab')2, Fv, ScFv fragments of trie antibodies described supra. Traditionally such fragments are produced by the proteolytic digestion of intact antibodies by e.g. papain digestion (see for example, WO 94/29348) but may be produced directly from recombinantly transformed host cells. For the production of ScFv, see Bird et al ;{ 1988) Science, 242, 423-426. In addition, antibody fragments may be produced using a variety of engineering techniques as described below.
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Fv fragments appear to have lower interaction energy of their two chains than Fab fragments. To stablise the association of the VH and VL domains, they have been linked with peptides (Bird et al, (1988) Science 242, 423-426, Huston etal, PNAS, 85, 5879-5883), disulphide bridges (Glockshuber etal, (1990) Biochemistry, 29,1362-1367) and "knob in hole" mutations (Zhu et a/(1997), Protein Sci., 6, 781-788). ScFv fragments can be produced by methods well known to those skilled in the art see Whitlow et a/(1991) Methods companion Methods Enzymol, 2, 97-105 and Huston et al (1993) Int.Rev.lmmunol 10, 195-217. ScFv maybe produced in bacterial ceils such as E.Coli but are more typically produced in eukaryotic cells. One disadvantage of ScFv is the monovalency of the product, which precludes an increased avidity due to polyvalent binding, and their short half-life. Attempts to overcome these problems include bivalent (ScFv')2 produced from ScFV containing an additional C terminal cysteine by chemical coupling (Adams et al (1993) Can.Res 53, -4026-4034 and McCartney et a/(1995) Protein Eng. 8, 301-314) or by spontaneous site-specific dimerization of ScFv containing an unpaired C terminal cysteine residue (see Kipriyanov et a/(1995) Cell. Biophys 26, 187-204). Alternatively, ScFv can be forced to form muitimers by shortening the peptide linker to between 3 to 12 residues to form "diabodies", see Holiiger et al PNAS (1993), 90, 6444-6448. Reducing the linker still further can result in ScFV trimers ("triabodies", see Kortt et al (1997) Protein Eng, 10, 423-433) and tetramers ("tetrabodies", see Le Gall et a/(1999) FEBS Lett, 453,164-168). Construction of bivalent ScFV molecules can also be achieved by genetic fusion with protein dlmerizlng motifs to form "miniantibodies" (see Pack et a/(1992) Biochemistry 31, 1579-1584) and "minibodies" (see Hu et a/(1996), Cancer Res. 56, 3055-3061). ScFv-Sc-Fv tandems ((ScFV)2) may also be produced by linking
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two ScFv units by a third peptide linker, see Kurucz et al (1995) J.lmmol.154, 4576-4582. Bispecificdiabodies can be produced through the noncovalent association of two single chain fusion products consisting of VH domain from one antibody connected by a short linker to the V|_ domain of another antibody, see Kipriyanov et a/(1998), Int.J.Can 77,763-772. The stability of such bispecificdiabodies can be enhanced by the introduction of disulphide bridges or "knob in hole" mutations as described supra or by the formation of single chain diabodies (ScDb) wherein two hybrid ScFv fragments are connected through a peptide linker see Kontermannef al (1999) J.Immunol.Methods 226 179-188. Tetravalent bispecific molecules are available by e.g. fusing a ScFv fragment to the CH3 domain of an !gG molecule or to a Fab fragment through the hinge region see Coloma eta/(1997) Nature BiotechnoL 15,159-163. Alternatively, tetravalent bispecific molecules have been created by the fusion of bispecific single chain diabodies (see Alt et al, (1999) FEBS Lett 454, 90-94. Smaller tetravalent bispecific molecules can also be formed by the dimerization of either ScFv-ScFv tandems with a linker containing a helix-loop-helix motif (DiBi miniantibodies, see Muller et al (1998) FEBS Lett 432, 45-49) or a single chain molecule comprising four antibody variable domains (VH and VL) in an orientation preventing intramolecular pairing (tandem diabody, see Kipriyanov et al, (1999) J.Mol.Biol. 293, 41-56). Bispecific F(ab')2 fragments can be created by chemical coupling of Fab' fragments or by heterodimerization through leucine zippers (see Shalaby et al, (1992) J.Exp.Med. 175, 217-225 and Kostelny et a/(1992), J.Immunol. 148, 1547-1553). Also available are isolated VH and VL domains (Domantis pic), see US 6, 248,516; US 6,291,158; US 6, 172,197.
In one embodiment there is provided a therapeutic antibody fragment (e.g. ScFv, Fab, Fd, Fab1, F(ab')2) or an engineered antibody fragment as
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described supra) that specifically binds to hOSM and modulates (i.e. inhibits or blocks) the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130. The therapeutic antibody fragment may comprise a CDRH3 having the sequence of SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 optionally together with CDRs having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 1,2,4,5 and 6 or a therapeutic antibody fragment comprising a CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO:42 optionally together with CDRs having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 40,41,43,44 and 45.
1.5 Heteroconjugate antibodies
Heteroconjugate antibodies also form an embodiment of the present invention. Heteroconjugate antibodies are composed of two covalently joined antibodies formed using any convenient cross-linking methods. See US 4,676,980.
1.6 Other Modifications.
The interaction between the Fc region of an antibody and various Fc receptors (FcyR) is believed to mediate the effector functions of the antibody which include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), fixation of complement, phagocytosis and half-life/clearance of the antibody. Various modifications to the Fc region of antibodies of the invention may be carried out depending on the desired effector property. For example, specific mutations in the Fc region to render an otherwise lytic antibody, non-lytic is detailed in EP 0629 240B1 and EP 0307434B2 or one may incorporate a salvage receptor binding epitope into the antibody to increase serum half life see US 5,739,277. There are five currently recognised human Fc( receptors, Fc(R (I), Fc(Rlla, Fc(Rllb,
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Fc(Rllla and neonatal FcRn. Shields et al, (2001) J.BIol.Chem 276, 6591-6604 demonstrated that a common set of lgG1 residues is involved in binding all FcyRs, while FcyRII and Fc(RIII utilize distinct sites outside of this common set. One group of lgG1 residues reduced binding to all FcyRs when altered to aianine: Pro-238, Asp-265, Asp-270, Asn-297 and Pro-239. AH are in the igG CH2 domain and clustered near the hinge joining CH1 and CH2. While FcyRI utilizes only the common set of lgG1 residues for binding, FcyRIi and FcyRIII interact with distinct residues in addition to the common set. Alteration of some residues reduced binding only to FcyRII (e.g. Arg-292) or FcyRIII (e.g. Giu-293). Some variants showed improved binding to FoyRIl or FcyRIN but did not affect binding to the other receptor (e.g. Ser-267Ala improved binding to FcyRII but binding to FcyRIII was unaffected). Other variants exhibited improved binding to FcyRII or FcyRIII with reduction in binding to the other receptor (e.g. Ser-298Ala improved binding to FcyRIII and reduced binding to FcyRII). For FcyRllla, the best binding lgG1 variants had combined aianine substitutions atSer-298, Glu-333 and Lys-334. The neonatal FcRn receptor is believed to be involved in both antibody clearance and the transcytosis across tissues (see Junghans R.P (1997) Immunol.Res 16. 29-57 and Ghetie et a! (2000) Annu.Rev.lmmunoI. 18, 739-766). Human lgG1 residues determined to interact directly with human FcRn includes Ile253, Ser254, Lys288, Thr307, Gln311, Asn434 and His435. The present invention therefore concerns antibodies of the invention having any one (or more) of the residue changes detailed above to modify half-life/clearance and/or effector functions such as ADCC and/or complement lysis. In a further aspect of the present invention there is provided a humanised therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130 having aianine (or other disrupting) substitutions at positions 235 (e.g. L235A) and 237 (e.g. G237A). In a further embodiment of the invention there is provided a
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humanised therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and comprises a heavy chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:61 and a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:12.
Other modifications include glycosylation variants of the antibodies of the invention. Glycosylation of antibodies at conserved positions in their constant regions is known to have a profound effect on antibody function, particularly effector functioning such as those described above, see for example, Boyd efa/(1996), Mol.Immunol. 32,1311-1318. Glycosylation variants of the therapeutic antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof of the present invention wherein one or more carbonhydrate moiety is added, substituted, deleted or modified are contemplated. Introduction of an asparagine-X-serine orasparagine-X-threonine motif creates a potential site for enzymatic attachment of carbonhydrate moieties and may therefore be used to manipulate the giycosylation of an antibody. In Raju et al (2001) Biochemistry 40, 8868-8876 the terminal sialyation of a TNFR-IgG immunoadhesin was increased through a process of regalactosylation and/or resialylation using beta-1, 4-gaiactosyltransferace and/or alpha, 2,3 sialyltransferase. Increasing the terminal sialylation is believed to increase the half-life of the immunoglobulin. Antibodies, in common with most glycoproteins, are typically produced in nature as a mixture of glycoforms. This mixture is particularly apparent when antibodies are produced in eukaryotic, particularly mammalian cells. A variety of methods have been developed to manufacture defined glycoforms, see Zhang et al Science (2004), 303, 371, Sears et al, Science, (2001) 291, 2344, Wacker et al (2002) Science, 298 1790, Davis et al (2002) Chem.Rev. 102,579, Hang et a/(2001) Acc.Chem.Res 34, 727. Thus the invention concerns a plurality of therapeutic (typically monoclonal) antibodies (which maybe of the IgG isotype, e.g. lgG1) as described herein comprising a defined number (e.g. 7 or less, for example 5 or less
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such as two or a single) glycoform(s) of said antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof.
Further embodiments of the invention include therapeutic antibodies of the invention or antigen binding fragments thereof coupled to a non-proteinaeous polymer such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol or polyoxyalkylene. Conjugation of proteins to PEG is an established technique for increasing half-life of proteins, as well as reducing antigenicity and immunogenicity of proteins. The use of PEGylation with different molecular weights and styles (linear or branched) has been investigated with intact antibodies as well as Fab' fragments, see Koumenis l.L. et at (2000) Int.J.Pharmaceut. 198:83-95.
Delivery of therapeutic proteins to the brain has been hampered by the presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Where it is desired to deliver an antibody of the invention or antibody fragment of the invention across the BBB various strategies have been proposed to enhance such delivery where needed.
In order to obtain required nutrients and factors from the blood, the BBB posseses some specific receptors, which transport compounds from the circulating blood to the brain. Studies have indicated that some compounds like insulin (see Duffy KR et al (1989) Brain Res. 420:32-38), transferin (see Fishman JB et a/(1987) J.Neurosci 18:299-304) and insulin like growth factors 1 and 2 (see Pardridge WM (1986) Endocrine Rev.7:314-330 and Duffy KR et a/(1986) Metabolism 37:136-140) traverse the BBB via receptor-mediated transcytosis. Receptors for these molecules thus provide a potential means for antibodies of the invention and/or antibody fragments of the invention to access the brain using so -called "vectored" antibodies (see Pardridge WM (1999) Advanced Drug
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Delivery Review 36:299-321). For example, an antibody to transferrin receptor has been shown to be dynamically transported into the brain parenchyma (see Friden PM et a/(1991) PNAS 88:4771-4775 and Friden PM et al (1993) Science 259:373-377). Thus one potential approach is to produce a bispecific antibody or bispecific fragment such as described supra wherein a first specificity is towards Site II of hOSM (e.g. the first specificity comprises CDRH3 of SEQ.I.D.NO: 3 optionally together with CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO: 1,2,4,5 and 6 or comprises a CDRH3 of SEQJ.D.NO:42 optionally together with CDRs of SEQ.I.D.NO:40,41,43,44,45) and a second specificity towards a transport receptor located at the BBB e.g. a second specificity towards the transferrin transport receptor.
2. Competing immunoglobulins
The present invention also provides immunoglobulins, antibodies and antigen binding fragments of antibodies and other protein entities such as immunoadhesins which specifically bind hOSM and competitively inhibit, the binding between hOSM and the therapeutic antibody of the invention or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a heavy chain of SEQXD.NO:11 and a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:12 . The competing Irnmunoglobutin, antibody and antigen binding fragments of antibodies and other protein entity such as immunoadhesin displays, at equimolar concentrations, at least 25% inhibition, typically 35% or greater, more typically at least 50% inhibition.
Thus in one embodiment of the invention there is provided a method of screening a candidate antibody or antibody fragment to determine whether the candidate antibody or antibody fragment is a competing antibody as herein described which method comprises the steps of;
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(a) incubating the candidate antibody or antibody fragment with a
therapeutic antibody comprising a heavy chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:11 and a
light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:12 or antigen binding fragment thereof;
(b) determining whether the candidate antibody or antibody fragment
thereof of step (a) competitively inhibits the binding between the
therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof and OSM and in
particular hQSM. Typically an ELISA based assay is employed such as
the ELISA set forth in the examples. Typically the OSM and/or hOSM are
glycosylated. Typically the OSM and/or hOSM has been glycosylated by
a mammalian cell such as a recombinantly transformed CHO, NSO cell or
human cell. In other embodiments, OSM and hOSM has been
glycosylated by a native cell from which it is derived, i.e. hOSM has been
glycosylated by a human cell (for example hOSM may be isolated from the
human body).
Thus there is also provided a competing therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which competitively inhibits the binding of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprises CDR having the sequences set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 1,2,3,4,5 and 6.
There is also provided a competing therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which competitively inhibits the binding of a therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprises a heavy chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:11 and a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO:12.
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A competing therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof maybe of any of the above antibody structures. For example, the competing therapeutic antibody may be a primate or human intact antibody or a humanised antibody typically of an IgG isotype e.g. lgG1 or lgG4. Competing therapeutic antibody fragments maybe Fab, Fab', Fd, F{ab')2, ScFv and the like. A competing therapeutic antibody may be produced according to the methods disclosed within this present specification.
A typical protocol for the screening method described supra, is set forth in of the examples below.
10D3 is an example of a competing antibody of the invention. See Table A below.
2.1 Other Screening methods
A further aspect of the present invention Is based In part on a finding that the glycosylation of hOSM plays an unexpected role in the binding event between an anti-hOSM antibody and hOSM. The present invention therefore extends to a method of screening an antibody which specifically binds hOSM which method comprises incubating said antibody with glycosylated OSM, particularly hOSM, under conditions permissive for binding and measuring the binding affinity of the antibody. The ELISA protocol detailed below enables such a method. Antibodies (which maybe any of the structures detailed above) maybe selected on the basis of having a binding affinity (Kd) greater than 1uM, typically greater than 100nM, more typically greater than 1nM e.g. 100pM or greater.
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Antibodies may be further selected on the basis of their ability to bind non-glycosylated OSM, e.g. hOSM. Thus antibodies are typically selected on the basis that they are capable of binding glycosylated OSM e.g.hOSM and further also capable of binding non-glycosylated OSM, e.g. hOSM, to the same or similar degree (e.g. have same or similar binding affinity as measured in a Biacore(tm) assay).
Antibodies selected according to the present method maybe further engineered {e.g. humanised if necessary by for example manipulation of polynucleotides encoding the antibody) and incorporated into a pharmaceutical composition. Antibodies selected by the present method and polynucleotides encoding such antibodies form an embodiment of the present invention. Thus the present invention provides a method of screening an antibody that putatively binds OSM, particularly hOSM (e.g. an antibody which has been raised against OSM/hOSM), which method comprises;
(a) Incubating said antibody with glycosylated OSM, particularly
glycosylated hOSM under conditions permissive for binding;
(b) measuring the binding affinity of said antibody;
(c) selecting said antibody if said antibody has a binding affinity of greater
than 1uM, typically greater than 100nM;
(d) providing a polynucleotide encoding said antibody of step (c) and
transforming or transfecting a mammalian host cell with a vector
comprising said polynucleotide;
(e) culturing said host cei! of step (d) under conditions permissive for
secretion of said antibody into the culture media;
(f) optionally purifying the culture media of step (e);
(g) incorporating the antibody of step (e) or (f) into a pharmaceutical
composition.
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Use of an antibody identified by this method in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of diseases or disorders detailed below is also provided.
Use of an antibody (e.g. intact, human, humanised, chimaeric) which specifically binds native glycosylated hOSM (particularly binds a Site II epitope of native glycosylated hOSM) and modulates the interaction between said native glycosylated hOSM and gp130 in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a disease or disorder detailed betow is also provided. Further provided are antibodies which specifically bind native glycosylated hOSM with the same or similar binding affinity as non-glycosylated hOSM under the same experimental conditions. One embodiment of the invention is antibodies that specifically bind glycosylated OSM, particularly those that bind native glycosylated hOSM. Antibody 15E10 is an example of an antibody that specifically binds glycosylated hOSM.
In some embodiments, the method uses hOSM glycosylated by a mammalian host cell such as CHO or NSO. In other embodiments, the method uses hOSM that has been glycosylated by a human cell e.g. a recombinantly transformed ortransfected human host cell or native hOSM that has been isolated from the human body (for example hOSM made by cells found in the synovial fluid of an arthritic (e.g. RA) human patient).
3. Production Methods
Antibodies of the invention maybe produced as a polyclonal population but are more typically produced as a monoclonal population (that Is as a substantially homogenous population of identical antibodies directed against a specific antigenic binding site). Antibodies of the present
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chain and/or heavy chain of a therapeutic antibody of the invention. See Table A below.
In other embodiment of the invention there is provided a polynucleotide encoding a murine VH domain having the sequence set forth as SEQ.I.D.NO:15 or SEQ.l.D.NO:52
!n another embodiment of the invention there is provided polynucleotide encoding a murine VL domain having the sequence set forth as SEQ.LD.NO: 16 or SEQ.I.D.NO:53.
In another embodiment there is provided a polynucletotide encoding a humanised VH domain having the sequence set forth as SEQ.LD.NO: 17 or SEQ.l.D.NO:54.
In another embodiment there is provided a poiynucleotide encoding a humanised VL chain having the sequence set forth as SEQ.I.D.NO: 18 or SEQ.I.D.NO:55.
In another embodiment there is provided a polynucleotide encoding a humanised heavy chain having the sequence set forth as SEQ.I.D.NO: 19 orSEQ.I.D.NO:56.
In another embodiment there is provided a polynucleotide encoding a humanised light chain having the sequence set forth as SEQ.l.D.NO:20 or SEQ.l.D.NO:57.
It will be immediately apparent to those skilled in the art that due to the redundancy of the genetic code, alternative polynucleotides to those
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disclosed herein are also available that will encode the polypeptides of the invention.
3.1 Signal sequences
Antibodies of the present invention maybe produced as a fusion protein with a heterologous signal sequence having a specific cleavage site at the N terminus of the mature protein. The signal sequence should be recognised and processed by the host cell. For prokaryotic host cells, the signal sequence may be an alkaline phosphatase, penicillinase, or heat stable enterotoxin II leaders. For yeast secretion the signal sequences may be a yeast invertase leader, a factor leader or acid phosphatase leaders see e.g. WO90/13646. In mammalian cell systems, viral secretory leaders such as herpes simplex gD signal and a native immunoglobulin signal sequence (such as human Ig heavy chain) are available. Typically the signal sequence Is ligated In reading frame to DNA encoding the antibody of the invention.
3.2 Origin of replication
Origin of replications are well known in the art with pBR322 suitable for most gram-negative bacteria, 2µ plasmid for most yeast and various viral origins such as SV40, polyoma, adenovirus, VSV or BPV for most mammalian cells. Generally the origin of replication component Is not needed for mammalian expression vectors but the SV40 may be used since it contains the early promoter.
3.3 Selection marker
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Typical selection genes encode proteins that (a) confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxins e.g. ampicillin, neomycin, methotrexate or tetracycline or (b) complement auxiotrophic deficiencies or supply nutrients not available in the complex media. The selection scheme may involve arresting growth of the host cell. Cells, which have been successfully transformed with the genes encoding the therapeutic antibody of the present invention, survive due to e.g. drug resistance conferred by the selection marker. Another example is the so-called DHFR selection marker wherein transformants are cultured in the presence of methotrexate. CHO cells are a particularly useful cell line for the DHFR selection. Methods of amplifying and selecting host cells using the DHFR system are well established in the art see Kaufman R.J. et al J.Mol.Biol. {1982)159, 601-621, for review, see Werner RG, Noe W, Kopp K.Schluter M," Appropriate mammalian expression systems for biopharmaceuticals", Arzneimittel-Forschung. 48(8):870-80,1998 Aug. A further example is the gtutamate synthetase expression system (Lonza Biologies). A suitable selection gene for use in yeast is the trp1 gene; see Stinchcomb et al Nature 282, 38, 1979.
3.4 Promoters
Suitable promoters for expressing antibodies of the invention are operably linked to DNA/polynucleotide encoding the antibody. Promoters for prokaryotic hosts include phoA promoter, Beta-lactamase and lactose promoter systems, alkaline phosphatase, tryptophan and hybrid promoters such as Tac. Promoters suitable for expression in yeast cells include 3-phosphoglycerate kinase or other glycolytic enzymes e.g. enolase, glyceralderhyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, pyruvate
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decarboxyiase, phosphofructokinase, glucose 6 phosphate isomerase, 3-phosphoglycerate mutase and glucokinase, Inducible yeast promoters include alcohol dehydrogenase 2, isocytochrome C, acid phosphatase, metallothionein and enzymes responsible for nitrogen metabolism or maitose/galactose utilization.
Promoters for expression in mammalian cell systems include viral promoters such as polyoma, fowlpox and adenoviruses (e.g. adenovirus 2), bovine papilloma virus, avian sarcoma virus, cytomegalovirus (in particular the immediate early gene promoter), retrovirus, hepatitis B virus, actin, rous sarcoma virus (RSV) promoter and the early or late Simian virus 40. Of course the choice of promoter is based upon suitable compatibility with the host cell used for expression.
3.5 Enhancer element
Where appropriate, e.g. for expression in higher eukaroytics, an enhancer element operably linked to the promoter element in a vector may be used. Suitable mammalian enhancer sequences in elude enhancer elements from globin, elastase, albumin, fetoprotein and insulin. Alternatively, one may use an enhancer element from a eukaroytic cell virus such as SV40 enhancer (at bp100-270), cytomegalovirus early promoter enhancer, polyma enhancer, baculoviral enhancer or m urine lgG2a locus (see WO04/009823). The enhancer is typically located on the vector at a site upstream to the promoter.
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3.6 Host cells
Suitable host cells for cloning or expressing vectors encoding antibodies of the invention are prokaroytic, yeast or higher eukaryotic cells. Suitable prokaryotic cells include eubacteria e.g. enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia e.g. E.Coli (for example ATCC 31,446; 31,537; 27,325), Enterobacter, Erwinia, Ktebsiella Proteus, Salmonella e.g. Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia e.g. Serratia marcescans and Shigella as well as Bacilli such as B.subtilis and B.licheniformis (see DD 266 710), Pseudomonas such as P.aeruginosa and Streptomyces, Of the yeast host cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces (e.g. ATCC 16,045; 12,424; 24178; 56,500), yarrowia (EP402, 226), Pichia Pastoris (EP183, 070, see also Peng et al J.Biotechnol. 108 (2004) 185-192), Candida, Trichoderma reesia (EP244, 234J, Penicillin, Tolypocladium and Aspergillus hosts such as A.nidulans and A.niger are also contemplated.
Although Prokaryotic and yeast host cells are specifically contemplated by the invention, typically however, host cells of the present invention are vertebrate cells. Suitable vertebrate host cells include mammalian cells such as COS-1 (ATCC No.CRL 1650) COS-7 (ATCC CRL 1651), human embryonic kidney line 293, baby hamster kidney cells (BHK) (ATCC CRL.1632), BHK570 (ATCC NO: CRL 10314), 293 (ATCC NO.CRL 1573), Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO (e.g. CHO-K1, ATCC NO: CCL 61, DHFR-CHO cell line such as DG44 (see Urlaub et al, (1986) Somatic Cell Mol.Genet.12, 555-556)), particularly those CHO cell lines adapted for suspension culture, mouse sertoli cells, monkey kidney cells, African green monkey kidney ceils (ATCC CRL-1587), HELA cells, canine kidney
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cells (ATCC CCL 34), human lung cells (ATCC CCL 75), Hep G2 and myeloma or lymphoma cells e.g. NSO (see US 5,807,715), Sp2/O, Y0.
Thus in one embodiment of the invention there is provided a stably transformed host cell comprising a vector encoding a heavy chain and/or light chain of the therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein. Typically such host cells comprise a first vector encoding the light chain and a second vector encoding said heavy chain.
Bacterial fermentation
Bacterial systems are particularly suited for the expression of antibody fragments. Such fragments are localised intracellularly or within the periplasma. Insoluble periplasmic proteins can be extracted and refolded to form active proteins according to methods known to those ski lied in the art, see Sanchez ef al (1999) J.Biotechnoi. 72,13-20 and Cupit PM et al (1999) Lett Appi Mlcroblol, 29, 273-277.
3.7'Cell Culturing Methods.
Host cells transformed with vectors encoding the therapeutic antibodies of the invention or antigen binding fragments thereof may be cultured by any method known to those skilled in the art. Host cells may be cultured in spinner flasks, roller bottles or hollow fibre systems but it is preferred for large scale production that stirred tank reactors are used particularly for suspension cultures. Typically the stirred tankers are adapted for aeration using e.g. spargers, baffles or low shear impellers. For bubble columns and airlift reactors direct aeration with air or oxygen bubbles maybe used. Where the host cells are cultured in a serum free culture media it is preferred that the media is supplemented with a cell protective agent such
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as pluronic F-68 to help prevent cell damage as a result of the aeration process. Depending on the host cell characteristics, either mi crocarriers maybe used as growth substrates for anchorage dependent cell lines or the cells maybe adapted to suspension culture (which is typical). The culturing of host cells, particularly vertebrate host cells may utilise a variety of operational modes such as fed-batch, repeated batch processing (see Drapeau et at (1994) cytotechnology 15:103-109), extended batch process or perfusion culture. Although recombinantly transformed mammalian host cells may be cultured in serum-containing media such media comprising fetal calf serum (FCS), it is preferred that such host cells are cultured in synthetic serum -free media such as disclosed in Keen et al (1995) Cytotechnology 17:153-163, or commercially available media such as ProCHO-CDM or UltraCHO(tm) (Cambrex NJ, USA), supplemented where necessary with an energy source such as glucose and synthetic growth factors such as recombinant insulin. The serum-free culturing of host cells may require that those cells are adapted to grow in serum free conditions. One adaptation approach is to culture such host cells in serum containing media and repeatedly exchange 80% of the culture medium for the serum-free med ia so that the host cells learn to adapt In serum free conditions (see e.g. Scharfenberg K et al (1995) in Animal Cell technology: Developments towards the 21st century (Beuvery E.G. etaleds), pp619-623, Kluwer Academic publishers).
Antibodies of the invention secreted into the media may be recovered and purified from the media using a variety of techniques to provide a degree of purification suitable for the intended use. For example the use of therapeutic antibodies of the invention for the treatment of hu man patients typically mandates at least 95% purity, more typically 98% or 99% purity compared to the culture media comprising the therapeutic antibodies. In
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the first instance, cell debris from the culture media is typically removed using centrifugation followed by a clarification step of the supernatant using e.g. microfiltration, ultrafiltration and/or depth filtration. A variety of other techniques such as dialysis and gel electrophoresis and chromatographic techniques such as hydroxyapatite (HA), affinity chromatography (optionally involving an affinity tagging system such as polyhistidine) and/or hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC, see US 5, 429,746) are available. In one embodiment, the antibodies of the invention, following various clarification steps, are captured using Protein A or G affinity chromatography followed by further chromatography steps such as ion exchange and/or HA chromatography, anion or cation exchange, size exclusion chromatography and ammonium sulphate precipitation. Typically, various virus removal steps are also employed (e.g. nanofiltration using e.g. a DV-20 filter). Following these various steps, a purified (typically monoclonal) preparation comprising at least 75mg/ml or greater e.g. 100mg/ml or greater of the antibody of the invention or antigen binding fragment thereof is provided and therefore forms an embodiment of the invention. Suitably such preparations are substantially free of aggregated forms of antibodies of the invention.
4. Pharmaceutical Compositions
Purified preparations of antibodies of the invention (particularly monoclonal preparations) as described supra, may be incorporated into pharmaceutical compositions for use in the treatment of human diseases and disorders such as those outlined above. Typically such compositions further comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable (i.e. inert) carrier as known and called for by acceptable pharmaceutical practice, see e.g. Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16th ed, (1980), Mack Publishing
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Co. Examples of such carriers include sterilised carrier such as saline, Ringers solution or dextrose solution, buffered with suitable buffers to a pH within a range of 5 to 8. Pharmaceutical compositons for injection (e.g. by intravenous, intraperitoneal, intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular or intraportal) or continuous infusion are suitably free of visible particulate matter and may comprise between 0.1 ng to 100mg of antibody, typically between 5mg and 25mg of antibody. Methods for the preparation of such pharmaceutical compositions are well known to those skilled in the art. In one embodiment, pharmaceutical compositions comprise between 0.1ng to 100mg of therapeutic antibodies of the invention in unit dosage form, optionally together with instructions for use. Pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be lyophilised (freeze dried) for reconstitution prior to administration according to methods well known or apparent to those skilled in the art. Where embodiments of the invention comprise antibodies of the invention with an lgG1 isotype, a chelator of copper such as citrate (e.g. sodium citrate) or EDTA or histidine may be added to the pharmaceutical composition to reduce the degree of copper-mediated degradation of antibodies of this isotype, see EP0612251.
Effective doses and treatment regimes for admnistering the antibody of the invention are generally determined empirically and are dependent on factors such as the age, weight and health status of the patient and disease or disorder to be treated. Such factors are within the purview of the attending physican. Guidance in selecting appropriate doses may be found in e.g. Smith et al (1977) Antibodies in human diagnosis and therapy, Raven Press, New York but will in general be between 1mg and 10OOmg. In one embodiment, the dosing regime for treating a human patient afflicted with RA is 100mg or thereabout (i.e. between 50mg to
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200mg) of antibody of the invention (or antigen binding fragment thereof) administered subcutaneously per week or every two weeks. Compositions of the present invention may also be used in prophylatically.
Depending on the disease or disorder to be treated, pharmaceutical compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the antibody of the invention may be used simultaneously, separately or sequentially with an effective amount of another medicament such as an anti-inflammatory agent for example a NSAID, methotrexate, bucillamine, sodium thiomalate or one or more of an anti-TNF alpha treatment such a s Enbrei(tm) (etanercept), Remicade(tm) (infliximab), Humira(tm) (adalimumab) and/or CDP870. Antibodies of the invention maybe used in combination with an effective amount of an anti-TNF-alpha receptor antibody, see Davis MWef a/(2000) Ann Rheum Dis59(Suppl 1): 41-43. In other embodiments, antibodies of the invention maybe used in combination with an effective amount of an agent directed against; IL-1/IL-1R (e.g. Kineret(tm)), CTLA4-lg, IL-6 (see Choy et al, (2002) Ann.Rheum.Dis 61(suppl 1): 54), IL-8, IL-15, VEGF, IL-17, IL-18 (see Taylor et a! (2001) Curr.Opin.Immunol. 13:611-616), anti-ICAM and/or anti-CD4 antibodies, agents directed against a member of the MMP family e.g. MMP-1, 2,3 and/or 13. Antibodies of the invention may also be used in combination with an agent that ablates cells known to be involved in the inflammatory process, e.g. CD20 positive B cells using for example Mabthera(tm). Othe r therapies in combination with antibodies of the invention include antl-angiogenic therapies such as antagonists of the integrin ccyp3, Kringles 1-5 (see Sumariwalla P et al (2003), Arthritis Res Ther 5:R32-R39.), solubl e Flt-1 (see Miotla et al, (2000) Lab.lnvest 80:1195-1205) or an anti-COX-2 agent. Conveniently, a pharmaceutical composition comprising a kit of parts of the antibody of the invention or antigen binding fragment thereof
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together with such another medicaments optionally together with instructions for use is also contemplated by the present invention. The invention furthermore provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of monoclonal therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as described herein for use in the treatment of diseases responsive to modulation of the interaction between Site II OSM and gp130. Also provided is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a monoclonal therapeutic antibody which antibody comprises a heavy chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 11 and a light chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 12.
Also provided is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a monoclonal therapeutic antibody which antibody comprises a heavy chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 50 and a light chain having the sequence set forth in SEQ.I.D.NO: 51.
4.1 Pharmceutical compositions for the modulation of both Site II and Site III interaction.
One aspect of the present invention is based, at least in part, on the unexpected finding that modulating the interaction of both Site II and Site III of the hOSM with their respective interacting partners (i.e. for Site II, gp130, for Site 111 OSMR( and/or LIFR,, and/or gp130 for binding of a second OSM molecule) displays synergy compared to modulating the interaction of either of these two sites alone.
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The present invention therefore provides a method of modulating the interaction between hOSM and gp130 and LIFR and/or OSMR( which method comprises providing a Site II antagonist capable of modulating (i.e. inhibiting or blocking) the interaction between Site II of hOSM with gp130 and providing a Site III antagonist capable of modulating (i.e. inhibiting or blocking) the interaction between Site III of hOSM and OSMR and/or LIFR, and gp130 (for binding of a second OSM molecule). ) displays synergy compared to modulating the interaction of either of these two sites alone.
The present invention therefore provides a method of modulating the interaction between hOSM and gp130 and LiFR and/or OSMR( which method comprises providing a Site II antagonist capable of modulating (i.e. inhibiting or blocking) the interaction between Site II of hOSM with gp130 and providing a Site III antagonist capable of modulating (i.e. inhibiting or blocking) the interaction between Site III of hOSM and OSMR and/or LIFR.
In one embodiment there is provided a pharmaceutical composition comprising a first therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and gp130 (a Site II antibody, examples of which are provided by this specification) and a second therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between hOSM and OSMR and/or LIFR (a Site III antibody, an example of which is commercially available as MAB295, R&D systems). The second therapeutic antibody may be recognised by its ability to modulate (i.e. inhibit or block) the Interaction between hOSM and OSMR( and/or LIFR in an ELISA based assay or as set forth in the examples, i.e. by its ability to neutralise OSM in the KB assay .of the examples and not inhibit the binding of OSM and gp130 in the ELISA assay of the examples.
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A Site II antibody maybe recognised by its ability to inhibit OSM binding in the ELISA assay of the examples. Typically both the first and second therapeutic antibodies are monoclonal. It will of course be apparent to those skilled in the art that it is not necessary that the pharmaceutical composition comprises two antagonist entities (e.g. two therapeutic antibody entities) since it is possible to provide e.g. a bispecific antibody that specifically binds hOSM and modulates both the interaction of Site II and Site III with their respective interacting partners.
In another embodiment there is provided a kit-of-parts comprising a first pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130 and a second pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutic antibody which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between Site III of hOSM and OSMR( and/or LIFR optionally together with instructions for use.
In another embodiment there is also provided a method of treating a human patient afflicted with a disease or disorder responsive to the modulation of the interaction between hOSM and its interacting partners (e.g. gp130 and OSMR( and/or LIFR) such as an inflammatory disease or disorder (e.g. arthritic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis) which method comprises administering simultaneously, sequentially or separately a therapeutically effective amount of a first therapeutic antagonist (e.g. antibody) which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130 and a therapeutically effective amount of a second antagonist (e.g. antibody) which specifically binds hOSM and modulates the interaction between Site 111 of hOSM and OSMR( and/or LIFR.
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It will of course be apparent to those skilled in the art that at least a first antagonist (such as an antibody) that binds gp130 and modulates (e.g. blocks) the interaction between (a) gp130 and hOSM and also (b) OSMR( and/or LIFR and hOSM may achieve the same objective as set forth above.
5. Clinical uses.
Antibodies of the invention may be used to treat a variety of diseases or disorders responsive to treatment that modulates the interaction between Site II of hOSM and gp130. Particular mention is made of diseases or disorders involving the production of pathological levels of TNF alpha (i.e. a TNF alpha mediated disease or disorder) and those diseases or disorders characterised by the breakdown or destruction of cartilage, particular articular cartilage. As described in detail supra, antibodies of the invention may be used in the treatment of inflammatory arthropathies such as RA either as a monotherapy or in combination with another treatment for such arthropathy. Antibodies of the invention may be used to treat a clinically established form of the disease in question or to prevent onset in susceptible patients or to slow or halt the progress of the disease towards clinical significance. For the treatment of RA, antibodies of the invention maybe used to prevent relapse once remission from the disease has occured. Where the patient is afflicted with an intermittent form of the disease, antibodies of the invention may be used to prolong the time interval between acute phases of the disease. Antibodies of the invention may also be used to treat the extra-articular manifestations of RA, e.g Feltys syndrome and/or treat the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. For the treatment of RA, combinations of antibodies of the invention together with me.dicaments described supra may be used. Other arthritic diseases that may benefit from the administration of an antibody
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of the invention include Juvenile Onset arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitls.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disease of unknown origin characterised by the gradual loss of articular cartilage and joint function. It is classified currently into two groups. Primary OA maybe localised or generalised, the latter more commonly found in post-menopausal women, with the development of Heberdens nodes. Secondary OA has an underlying cause such as trauma, obesity, Paget's disease or inflammatory arthritis. Loss of articular cartilage is often accompanied by hypertrophic bone changes with osteophyte formation, subchrondral bone thickening and inflammation of the synovial membrane. Of particular concern is the disability afflicted to weight bearing joints such as the knee, hands and hip. OA is an extremely debilitating disease that at its severest requires joint replacement to restore mobility and to stop joint pain. Osteoarthritis of the hip has been divided into hypertrophic and atrophic forms (see Solomon L (1976) J Bone Joint Surg 58,176) on the basis of a patient's tendency to develop large osteophytes; other joints may respond similarly to the presence of the diease. Hypertrophic OA maybe associated with pyrophosphate crystal deposition and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Current treatments include the use of nonopioid analgesics such as acetaminophen, and Tramadoi, NSAIDS such as a Cox-2 specific inhibitor e.g. celecoxib, rofecoxib, opioid analgesics and glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate. Thus in one embodiment of the invention there is provided a method of treating osteoarthritis (e.g primary or secondary) in a human patient afflicted with such disease, which method comprises administering to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic antibody or fragment thereof of the invention as described herein. The invention also concerns a combination of the therapeutic antibody of the invention together with
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another treatment particularly one or more of the treatments of OA described above.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with significant morbidity that affects approximately 2% of the Caucasian population. While for many it may be a relatively mild disease, it can have profound effects on those affected. The disability of hospital treated patients with psoriasis has been shown to be similar to that of patients with angina and approaches that of patients with cardiac failure (Finlay et al, (1990); Br.J.Dermatol, 123, 751). The commonest form of psoriasis is chronic plaque disease. This presents as well-defined red scaly plaques typically distributed over the scalp, lower back and extensor aspects of the limbs. Clinical variants include guttate psoriasis, sebopsoriasis and pustular forms of the disease. A minority of patients also develop seronegative inflammatory arthritis. Microscopically, lesional skin shows increased proliferation and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes, infiltration by activated T-helper lymphocytes and neutrophils and activation of the cutaneous vasculature. These changes correspond to overexpression of growth factors and their receptors, proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic peptides. However, despite Intensive investigation the aetiology and pathogenesis of this disease remains obscure although a central role played by activated T cells has been demonstrated in animal model systems (see Nickoloff et a/(1999) Arch.Dermatol.135, 546-552). Current treatments include topical treatments such as Vitamin D analogues, corticosteroids, dithranol, and retinoids such as Tazarotene gel. Phototherapy includes the use of ultraviolet B or psoralen and ultraviolet A, and excimer lasering. Systemic retinoid treatments include Etretinate and acitretin, isotretinoin, liarozole. Other treatments include methotrexate, hydroxyurea, cyclosporin and calcineurin antagonists, 6-thioguanine, azathioprine, sulfasalazine and
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fumartc acid esters. More recently, biological treatments such as Ontak(tm) (Denileukin Diftitox), Zenapax(tm) (Daclizumab), Basiliximab, anti-CD4 antibodies, Efalizumab, Alefacept(tm), Siplizumab, IDEC-114 and BMS 188667 (CTLA4lg) have been proposed or demonstrated to be useful In the treatment of this disease. Furthermore, anti-TNF alpha treatments such as Enbrel(tm) (etanercept), Remicade(tm) (infliximab), Humira(tm) (adalimumab) and/or CDP870 may be used in combination with antibodies of the invention for the treatment of psoriasis (including clinical variants . thereof).
Evidence for the role of OSM in psoriatic lesions is found in Boifati eta! (1998) Arch.Dermatol. Res 290:9, 13. Oncostatin M is secreted spontaneously by short-term organ cultures of leslonal psoriatic skin (See Bonifati C et al ibid). Furthermore constitutive activation of STAT3, the major signalling molecule down-stream of the OSM receptor, in mouse keratinocytes results in spontaneous development of psoriatic lesions. (See Sano S et al (2005) Nature Medicine 11:43-49).
Antibodies of the present invention may therefore be used in the treatment of psoriasis (chronic plaque, guttate, sebopsoriasis, pustular, seronegative inflammatory arthritis associated psoriasis), atopic dermatitis/eczema, acne, ichythosis, pemphigus, viral warts either as a monotherapy or in combination with these treatments described supra.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by production of auto-antibodies, immune complex formation and Immunoiogicaily mediated tissue damage (Reviewed in Rheumatology (2003). Eds Hochberg, Silman, Smolen, Weinblatt and Weisman. Pub. Mosby.1291-1430). Pathologic manifestations include fibrinoid necrosis, hemotoxylin bodies, vascular injury, and disruption of
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the dermal-epidermal junction of skin, inflammatory arthritis and glomerulonephritis. SLE can present at any age including in neonates. It Is is one of the most common disorders affecting women of child-bearing age, is significantly more common in women than men and affects people of .African origin significantly more frequently than Caucasians. Its incidence has been estimated between 1.8 and 7.6 cases per 100,000 person-years in the US. SLE is associated with increased mortality, principally from infection, and renal and CNS complications. Treatment of lupus and its complications is determined by individual patient's needs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are an important first-line therapy for musculo-skeletal symptoms, constitutional signs and mild serositis. Anti-malarials (e.g hydroxychloquine, chloroquine and quinacrine) are used to treat musculo-skeletal symptoms and constitutional signs that are refractory to nos-steroidals and low-dose steroids. Most clinical manifestations of SLE respond to treatment with steroids but the side effects of these drugs may limit both dose and duration of treatment. Immunosuppressive drugs, notably Azathioprine, may be used for more severe disease. Recently, treatment with the B cell depleting antibody Rituxan has shown promising results in SLE (Reviewed in Looney RJ et al (2005) Curr Dir Autoimmune 8:193-205). Oncostatin M has been found at elevated levels In serum for SLE patients and levels shown to correlate with disease activity (See Robak E et al (1997) Eur Cytokine Netw 8: 281-286). Thus the invention concerns use of antibodies of the invention in the treatment (either as a monotherapy or in combination with one or more of the current SLE treatments detailed above) of SLE.
Systemis sclerosis (SS) which includes variants of scleroderma and Raynauds phenomenon is a generalised disorder of the skin and internal organs. It is characterised by extracellular matrix accumulation in the skin and viscera. Oncostatin M can stimulate excessive extracellular matrix
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accumulation (See Bamber B et al (1997) J Mol Med Abstract Vol 76: 61-69). Oncostatin M is produced spontaneously from cultured mononuclear cells from patients with systemic sclerosis (See Hasegawa M et al (1999) Rheumatology (Oxford) 38: 612-617) and is found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from pulmonary fibrosis in scleroderma (Reviewed in Atama SP and White B (2003) Cytokine growth Factor Rev 14: 537-550). Thus the invention concerns the use of antibodies of the invention in the treatment of SS and variants thereof either as a monotherapy or in combination with another medicament.
OSM has been detected in the bronchoaveolar lavage fluid of patients during acute lung injury, particularly in cases of pneumonia (Tamura S et a/(2002) Develop Dyman 225:327-331). Neutrophils appear to be the cellular source of OSM in these patients, and OSM concentrations in the BAL fluid correlate with PMN numbers. Since neutrophils are a source of OSM, and upon activation secrete OSM, it is probable that OSM will be present in the lungs of any patient where neutrophils are a significant component of airway inflammation, including COPD and severe asthma. In addition, OSM is also expressed by (mouse) tissue eosinophils and could be a significant source of OSM during inflammation see Tamura ibid).
Overexpression of OSM in mouse airways using an adenoviral vector induced profound eosinophilic inflammation and matrix deposition (see Langdon C et a/ (2003) J.Immunol. 170:548-555 and also TIMP-1 expression (see Kerr C et ai (1999) J.lnterfer.Cytokine Res., 19:1195-1205. Exposure of mouse lung fibroblasts to OSM stimulated release of eotaxin, a potent eosinophil chemoattractant. Moreover, OSM stimulates the proliferation, induces collagen production and prevents apoptosis of
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human lung fibroblasts (see Scaffidi, A.K. et a/(2002) Brit.J.Pharamco] 136:793-801). Although the mechanisms behind these observations are unknown, matrix deposition could, in part, be the result of a strong, specific upregulation of a1 proteinase inhibitor synthesis (see Cichy, J. et al (1998) Biochem.J 329:335-339). OSM has also been found to promote fibroblast dependent mast cell proliferation and a marked increase in histamine content (see Gyotoku E et a/(2001) Arch.Dermatol.Res 293:508-514). Direct instillation of OSM in isolated rat lungs induced rapid and sustained IL-6 secretion (see Li, H.L. (2002) J.DrugTarg 10:55-62). Thus the present invention concerns the use of antibodies of the invention (either as a monotherapy or in combination with another medicament) in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder).
OSM has been detected in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, where it localises to microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating leukocytes (see Ruprecht K et al Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology. 60(11): 1087-98,2001 Nov). OSM induces IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion from cerebral endothelial cells, and addition of TNFa with OSM causes a synergistic response. OSM also induces ICAM1 expression on cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, which could enhance leukocyte infiltration into brain tissue (Ruprecht K et al ibid). In addition to promoting inflammation in the brain, OSM may directly contribute to neuron loss. HIV patient's monocyte supernatants cause profound inhibition of neuroblast growth and also neuronal cell death, and the mediator of these effects was shown to be Oncostatin M. Since many HIV patients suffer from brain atrophy caused by neuronal cell loss, OSM may be one mediator of this pathology. Clearly, OSM could also play a role in other CNS diseases where neuronal loss occurs. Interestingly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), (1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) is one of the amyloid associated proteins and its
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expression is dramatically increased in disease areas, perhaps facilitating deposition of abnormal proteins in amyloid plaques and neutrofibrillary tangles. OSM, which is known to be secreted by both infiltrating activated T cells and monocytes, and microglia, is a potent inducerof ACT, and could thereby contribute to the AD pathology (see Kordula T et al (1998) J Biol.Chem. 273:4112-4118 and Korduia T Journal of Neuroscience. 20(20): 7510-6, 2000).
Work by Tamura et al suggests that OSM may be involved in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain (see Tamura S. et al (2003) Eur.J.Neurosci. 17:2287-2298). Their studies revealed a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons that express the OSMfJ receptor. All the OSMpR +ve neurons also expressed VR1 and P2X3 receptors, which have been shown to be crucial for development of both neuropathic and inflammatory pain (see Jarvis M.F. et al (2002) PNAS 99:179-184 and Walker K.M et al (2003) J. Pharmacol. Exp, Ther 304, 56-62), Furthermore OSM-/- mice have reduced noxious responses to chemical, thermal, visceral and mechanical pain, correlating with a reduction of VR1+ve P2X3+ve small neurons (see Morlkawa, Y. et al (2004): J Neurosci 24, 1941-1947).
Thus the present invention also concerns the use (either as a monotherapy or in combination with another medicament) of antibodies of the invention In the treatment of central nervous system diseases or disorders such as described supra such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias and furthermore concerns the use in the treatment of pain, particularly neuropathic and/or inflammatory pain.
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OSM is found in tissue macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions (see Modur V. et al J.Clin Invest. 100,158-168) and as an angiogenic factor may promote the neovascularisation characteristic of atherosclerotic plaques that is thought to contribute to vessel wall fragility. As well as the angiogenic response, OSM causes induction of both lL-6 secretion in endothelial cells, where its effects are additive or synergistic with 11-1 and TNFa respectively, and COX-2 expression (see Brown J.T (c)fa/(1991) J.lmmunol.147: 2175-2180). Endothelial cell induction of COX2 is necessary for the angiogenic properties of OSM (see Brown J.T et al, ibid). However, OSM also induces expression other angiogenic factors In endothelial ceils; VEGF (Vasse, M et ai (1999) Arterioscler Thromb Vase Bid. 19:1835-1842) and bFGF (Wijelah E.S.ef a/(1997) J.Cell Sci 110:871-879) Interestingly, human endothelial cells have about 10-20 fold greater OSM receptor density than other cells (see Modur V. et ai ibid).
In addition to effects on endothelium, OSM also induces IL-6 and COX-2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) as well as causing striking changes in cell morphology (Bernard C. et a! (1999) Circ.Res. 85:1124-1131). Calcium deposits are usually found in advanced atherosclerotic lesions where macrophages are the predominant inflammatory cell. Macrophages are a major source of OSM and interestingly, this cytokine can induce bone-type alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition in VSMC cultures (Shioi A. et al (2002) Circ.Res. 91:9-16). OSM also respectively induces and depresses tissue factor (TF) and TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) secretion from VSMCs, resulting in a potent procoagulant activity in VSMC culture supernatants (Mirshahi F. et al (2002) Blood Coag.Fibrinol. 1 3:449-455). Furthermore, OSM affects von-Willebrand factor, tissue-type plasminogen activator and PAI-1 secretion from endothelial cells in a way that suggests that "OSM could play a key
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role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions" (Portau J et a/ (1998) Blood Coag.Fibrinol. 9,609-615).
Plasma levels of fibrinogen are an important vascular risk factor and OSM is a potent inducer of fibrinogen secretion in studies with a hepatoma cell line (Vasse.M etal (1996) Haernostasis 26, Suppl 4, 331-339). However, at high concentrations (50 ng/ml) OSM also increased human LDL receptor expression (Liu et a/(2O03) Aterio.Thromb.Vasc.Biol.23: 90-96). Finally, OSM promotes cholesterol esterification in J774 monocyte-macrophages, and may therefore contribute to this process during Foam cell development in atherosclerotic lesions (Maziere C et al (1996) Biochem. Biophys Acta 1300, 3O-34).
Thus the present invention concerns the use of antibodies of the invention in the treatment of diseases or disorders of the cardiovascular system. Also contemplated is use of anti bodies of the invention in the treatment of atherosclerosis and diseases of endothelial ceil origin. Further contemplated is the use of antibodies of the invention in treating patients afflicted with HIV, particularly to treat conditions resulting from infection with the virus such as Karposi sarcoma.
Antibodies of the invention may also be used In diseases of cell cycle regulation e.g. cancer (such as prostate cancer), myeloma.
Although the present invention has been described principally in relation to the treatment of human diseases or disorders, the present invention may also have applications in the treatment of similar diseases or disorders in non-human mammals.
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Table A

Protein or Polynucleotide (PN)
Antibody 15E10
Antibody 10D3
CDRH1
SEQ.I.D.NO:!
SEQ.i.D.NO:40
CDRH2
SEQ.I.D.NO:2
SEQ.i.D.NO:41
CDRH3
SEQ.I.D.NO:3
SEQ.I.D.NO:42
CDRL1
SEQ.I.D.NO:4
5EQ.I.D.NO:43
CDRL2
SEQ.I.D.NO:5
SEQ.I.D.NO:44
CDRL3
SEQ.I.D.NO:6
SEQ.I.D.NO:46
VH domain (murine)
SEQ.I.D.NO:7
SEQ.I.D.NO:46
VL domain (murine)
SEQ.I.D.NO:8
SEQ.I.D.NO:47
VH domain (humanised, B3)
SEQ.I.D.NO:9
SEQ.I.D.NO:48
VL domain (humanised,L2)
SEQ.!.D.NO:10
SEQ.I.D.NO:49
Heavy chain (humanised)
SEQ.I.D.NO:11
SEQ.I.D.NO:50
Light chain (humanised)
SEQ.I.D.NO:12
SEQ.I.D.NO:51
VH domain (murine, PN)
SEQ.I.D.NO:15
SEQ.I.D.NO:52
VL domain (murine, PN)
SEQ.I.D.NO:16
SEQ.].D.NO:53
VH domain (humanised, PN.B3)
SEQ.I.D.NO:17
SEQ.I.D.NO:54
VL domain (humanised, PN, L2)
SEQ.I.D.NO:18
SEQ.i.D.NO:55
Heavy chain (humanised, PN)
SEQ.I.D. NO:19
SEQ.I.D.NO:56
Light chain (humanised, PN)
SEQ.l.D.NO:20
SEQ.!.D.NO:57
VH domain (B4, humanised)
SEQ.I.D.NO:21
N/A
Heavy chain (humanised, Fc mutated
SEQ.I.D.NO:61
N/A
Heavy chain (humanised, Fc mutated, PN)
SEQ.I.D.NO:62
N/A
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The present invention is now described by way of example only-. The appended claims may include a generalisation of one of more of the following examples.
Exemplification
Examples 1 to 6 concern the production and engineering of antibody 15E10. Example 7 concerns the production and engineering of antibody 10D3.
1. Generation of monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridoma cells generally In accordance with the method set forth in E Harlow and D Lane, Antibodies a Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1988. The result of the fusion of mouse myeloma cells with B-lymphocytes from mice immunised with the target antigen. The hybridoma cell is immortalised by the myeloma fusion partner while the capacity to produce antibodies is ' provided by the B lymphocyte.
Four SJL-mice were immunised by intraperitoneal injection with glycosylated human OSM (hOSM) produced in CHO cells suspended in RIBI adjuvant (Sigma). The mice were boosted with hOSM only after 2 weeks then with hOSM neutralised with anti-site Ml monoclonal antibody (OM4/11.17; OSM: Mab 1:1.5 wt: wt) to drive the immune response towards Site II after a further 2 weeks then again with the OSM-MAb complex after another 2.5 weeks and finally with OSM only after 5 weeks. Three months after initial immunisation, spleens were removed and B lymphocytes fused with mouse myeloma cells derived from P3X cells
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using PEG1500 (Boehringer) to generate hybridomas. Individual hybridoma" cell lines were cloned by limiting dilution (E Harlow and D Lane). Wells containing single colonies were identified microscopically and supernatants tested for activity. Cells from the most active clones were expanded for cryopreservation, antibody production etc. Initial OSM antibody selection was on the basis of specificity and potency in neutralising human glycosylated OSM assessed in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and the KB cell assay, (see below) the latter providing a check of OSM specificity. After identification of antibodies of sufficient potency and correct specificity, further selection criteria were applied:
1/ cross-reactivity against cynomolgus monkey OSM
2/ maintenance of activity against human OSM in the presence of pooled
human AB serum
3/ maintenance of activity against a human neutrophil OSM library and
against RA synovial fluid cell-derived OSM
1920 hybridomas were screened in the gp130 inhibition ELISA. 43 gave
more than 50% inhibition and limited dose response experiments were
done on 15 from which 6 were selected for further study. These were
subcloned and master clones were selected.
Two antibodies, clone 15E10 and clone 10D3 (see example 7) were
selected on the basis of potency. 15E10 murine antibody was consistently
more potent in the gp130 inhibition ELISA but had potency similar to 10D3
in the KB cell assay when human OSM was the target antigen. However,
15E10 murine antibody was much more potent than 10D3 against
cynomolgus monkey OSM in both assays.
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2. CLONING OF VARIABLE REGIONS OF CLONE 15E10
Total RNA was extracted from clone 15E10 hybridoma cells and the cDNA of the heavy and light variable domains was produced by reverse transcription using primers specific for the murine leader sequence and the antibody constant regions according to the pre-determined isotype (lgG2a/k). The cDNA of the variable heavy and light domains was then cloned Into vector pCR2.1 for sequencing.
2.1 RNA extraction
Total RNA was extracted from pellets of 106 cells of hybridoma clone 15E10 using the SV Total RNA Isolation System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions.
2.2 Reverse transcription
RNA was reverse transcribed to produce cDNA of the variable heavy and light domains using primers specific for the murine leader sequences and murine lgGy2a/k constant regions. The mixture of primers used is set forth in Jones ST and Bendig MM Bio/technology 9:88-89 (1991)
Pools of murine VH and VL leader sequence forward primers were prepared at 50µM. Solutions of the murine (2a and K constant region reverse primers were also prepared at 50µM.
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2.3 Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR)
Reverse transcription of the RNA encoding the variable heavy and light regions was carried out in duplicates using the Access RT-PCR System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions. VH and VL forward and reverse primers were as described above.
3. Cloning of PCR product of 2.3
3.1 Gel purification
The products of RT-PCR (2XVH and 2XVL) were loaded in gel loading solution on a preparative'1% agarose ge! containing 0.01% ethidlum bromide and run in TAE buffer at 100V for 1hour and the V region bands excised. A 10Obp DNA ladder was also run on the gel to allow identification of the VH and VL bands.
The DNA fragments were extracted and purified from the gel using the QIAquick (tm)Gel extraction kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
3.2 Ligation
The purified RT-PCR fragments (2xVH and 2XVL) were cloned into the pCR2.1 vector using the TA cloning kit from Invitrogen according to manufacturer's instructions.
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3.3 Transformation
Ligated plasmids were transformed into TOP10F1 cells according to TA cloning kit instructions. 50|xl and 200jal of transformed cells were spread on L-agar plates containing 100jig/ml ampicillin and coated with 8(j.l of 500mM IPTG solution and 16pJ of 50mg/ml X-Gal solution in DMF. Plates were incubated overnight at 37°C.
3.4 Sequencing
5 white colonies were cultured overnight at 37°C in 5ml LB medium
supplemented with 100jxg/ml ampicillin.
pCR2,1 plasmids containing 15E10 VH and VL domains were extracted
and purified using the Qiagen QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit according to
manufacturer's instructions,
The VH and VL domains were sequenced using primers T7, M13 for and
M13rev.
15E10 VH domain amino acid sequence (consensus of 10 clones from 2
RT-PCR reactions): SEQ.I.D.NO:7
15E10 VL domain amino acid sequence (consensus of 10 clones from 2 RT-PCR reactions): SEQ.I.D.NO:8
4. Chimaeric antibody
A chimaeric antibody consisting of parent murine V regions of 3.4 grafted onto human igG1/k wild type C regions was designed to confirm the cloning of the correct murine V regions and also to be used as a reference
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when testing humanised constructs. The chimaeric antibody was expressed in CHO cells, purified and tested for affinity to OSM site tl in the gp!30 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay (see below). The cloned murine V regions were amplified by PCR to introduce restriction sites required for cloning into mammalian expression vectors Rid and Rln. Hind II! and Spe I sites were designed to frame the VH domain and allow cloning into a modified Rid vector containing the human 7I wild type C region. Hind III and BsiW I sites were designed to frame the VL domain and allow cloning into a modified Rln vector containing the human K C region.
4.1 PCR amplification
VH forward primer:
5'-GAT -GAA GCT TGC CAC CAT GGC TGT CCT AGG GCT ACT C-3
(SEQ.I.D.NO:22)
The Hind III restriction site is underlined and Kozak sequence in bold.
VH reverse primer:
5'-GAT GGA CTA GTG TCC CTG TGC CCC AGA C-3' (SEQ.I.D.NO:23)
The Spe I restriction site is underlined. VL forward primer:
5'-GAT GAA GCT TGC CAC CAT GGA TTT TCA GGT GCA GAT T-31 (SEQ.I.D.NO:24)
The Hind III restriction site is underlined and Kozak sequence in bold. VL reverse primer:
5'-GAT GCG TAC GTT TGA TTT CCA ACT TTG TCC C-3' (SEQ.I.D.NO:25)
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The BsiW I restriction site is underlined
PCR reaction: water 66µl
10xPCR buffer .10µl
dNTP(2mM) 10µl
primer 1 (5µN\) 4pµl
primer 2 (5µM) 4µl
AmpliTaq polymerase 2µl
purified plasmid 4µl
total vol 100µl
Primer 1: VH or VL forward primer Primer 2: VH or VL reverse primer
Purified plasmid: pCR2.1 VH or VL plasmid purified by Qiagen Minipreps
(diluted 200x)
PCR cycle: 1- 95°Cfor4min
2-95°Cfor1min
3-55°Cfor1mln
4-720Cfor1min
5-72°Cfor7min steps 2 to 4: were repeated 30 times
4.2 Cloning Into mammalian expression vectors
The PCR products were purified using the MinElute PCR Purification kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
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4.2.1 Restriction digests
The VH PCR product and Rid hC(1wt mammalian expression vector were digested Hind fll-Spe I:
10x buffer (NEBuffer2) 5µ1
BSA100x(NEB) 0.5µl
DNA 5µl
Hind lll(Promega) 2µl
Spe I (NEB) 2µ
water 35.5µl
total vol 50µl
DNA: purified VH PCR product or Rid hC(1wt vector (at 0.25mg/ml) Incubated at 2h at 37°C.
The VL PCR product and Rln hCK mammalian expression vector were digested Hind MI-BsiW I:
10x buffer (NEBuffer2) 5\xDNA 5\iHind II) (Promega) 2uJ
water 38pJ
total vo! 50>l
DNA: purified VL PCR product or Rln hCK vector (at 0.25mg/ml) Incubated at 2h at 37°C. 2µl of BsiW I (NEB) was added and incubated 2h at 55°C.
4.2.2 Gel purification
The products of restriction digests were loaded in gel loading solution on a preparative 1% agarose gel containing 0.01% ethidium bromide and run in TAE buffer at 100V for 1hour and the Rid and Rln vector as well as VH and
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VL PCR fragment bands were excised. A 100bp DNA ladder was also run on the gel to allow identification of the VH, VL and vector bands. The DNA was extracted and purified from the gel using the QIAquick Gel extraction kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
4.2.3 Liqation
The VH PCR fragment Hind Ill-Spe I digested was ligated into the Rid
hCyiwt vector Hind Ill-Spe I digested.
The VL PCR fragment Hind III-BsiW I digested was ligated into the Rln
hCK vector Hind 111-BsiW i digested.
The ligation was carried out using the LigaFast Rapid DNA Ligation
System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions providing:
VH: vector: Rid hCyiwt Hind Ill-Spe I digested
insert: VH PCR fragment Hind Ill-Spe I digested VL: vector: Rln hCK Hind III-BsiW I digested
insert: VL PCR fragment Hind III-BsiW I digested
4.2.4 Transformation
Ligated products were transformed into DH5oc competent cells: 200µl DH5cc vials were thawed on ice. 50µl aliquots were prepared in transformation tubes. 2µl of ligation mixture was added and mixed gently with a pipette tip followed by incubation for 30min on ice. The mixture was incubated for 45 sec at 42°C without shaking. This was then transferred to ice for 2min.
450µl SOC medium was added and the tubes incubated for 1h at 37°C on shaker incubator.
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100µl of culture was spread on L-agar plates supplemented with 100µg/ml ampicillin and incubated overnight at 37°C.
4.2.5 Sequencing
VH and VL clones were cultured overnight at 37°C in 5ml LB medium
supplemented with 100µg/ml ampicillin.
Rid and Rln plasmids containing VH and VL domains respectively were
extracted and purified using the QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit from Qiagen
according to manufacturer's instructions.
The VH region was sequenced using forward primers in the Rid vector and
signal sequence and reverse primer in the human C(1 region.
The VL region was sequenced using forward primers in the Rln vector and signal sequence and reverse primer in the human CK region.
Clones with the correct VH and VL sequences were identified and plasmids prepared for expression in CHO cells.
4.3 Chimaeric antibody expression In CHO cells
Rid and Rln plasmids containing 15E10 VH and VL domains respectively were transiently co-transfected into CHO cells and expressed. The chimaeric antibody produced was purified from cell culture supernatant by affinity chromatography on rProtein A Sepharose and its affinity for OSM was evaluated in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay (see below).
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4.3.1 Plasmid purification
DH5a cells containing Rld-15E10VH and Rln-15E10VL plasmids were
cultured in 5ml of LB media supplemented with 100jag/ml ampicillin for 8h
at 37°C in a shaker incubator.
200ml of LB media supplemented with 100µg/ml ampicillin was inoculated
with 1ml of day culture and incubated overnight at 37°C in a shaker
incubator.
The plasmids were extracted and purified using the QIAfilter Plasmid Maxi
kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions. The ethanol
pellet was resuspended in 200µl TE buffer and plasmid concentration was
measured by absorbance at 260nm after 100-fold dilution of stock
solution.
4.3.2 Transfection
CHO cells were cultured to confluence in Dulbecco's MEM with Glutamax-
1 (DMEM) media supplemented with Ultra Low Fetal Bovine Serum and
1% Penicillin-Streptomycin in 4x175cm2 BD Falcon tissue culture flasks at
37°C.
For each flask, in a 50ml Falcon tube, the following were added and
mixed:
8ml Optimem 1 with Glutamax-1
20^g Rld-15E10VH purified plasmid
20jxg Rln-15E10VL purified plasmid
240(xl TransFast Transfection Reagent under vortex The mixture was incubated for 10-15min at room temperature (RT). DMEM media was removed from flask then the mixture was vortexed and added to flask.
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The mixture was incubated at 37°C for 1h. 32ml Optimem was added to the flask and incubated at 37°C for 48-72h.
4.3.3 Purification of chimaeric antibody
Media from all 175cm2 flasks were pooled and centrifuged at 1500rpm for
3min on an MSE Mistral 2000 and supernatant passed through a 5G0mL
Filter System 0.22^im CA.
The antibody was purified from clarified supernatant on an Amersham
Biosciences Akta Explorer using Unicorn software.
The column used was a 1ml HiTrap rProtein A Sepharose FF.
The flow rate was 1ml/min.
The column was equilibrated with 10CV of Dulbecco's PBS then loaded
with clarified supernatant through pump A.
The column was washed with 20CV of Dulbecco's PBS, pump A was
washed to waste and a further 10CV of Dulbecco's PBS was passed
through the column to ensure complete clearance of supernatant.
The antibody was eluted with 10CV of lmmunoPure igG Elution Buffer
(Pierce) and collected in 1ml fractions containing 100^1 of 1M Trizma-HCI
pH8.0 neutralisation buffer.
The column was re-equilibrated with 5CV of Dulbecco's PBS.
Antibody in eluate fractions was quantified by reading the absorbance at
280nm against a blank solution containing 10 volumes of lmmunoPure
IgG Elution Buffer + 1 volume of 1M Trizma-HCI pH8.0 and fractions with
sufficient amounts of pure antibody were pooled and stored in 100^1
aliquotsat-20°C.
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4.4 Analysis of chlmaeric antibody
Purified 15E10 and 10D3 (see below) chlmaeric antibodies was analysed in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB eel! assay for their potency in neutralising both human and cynomolgus OSM (hOSM and cOSM). Protocols for the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay are set forth below.
Table 1:C50 fug/ml) values for ISE10 and 1OD3 murine and chimeric antibodies


gp130 ELISA
KB cell assay
15E10 murine
0.059
0.195
15E10 chimaeric
0.030
0.110
10D3 murine
0.107
0.114
10D3 chimaeric
0.057
0.107
Both 15E10 and 10D3 chirnaeric antibodies neutralise hOSM and cOSM in the gp13O inhibition ELISA (Fig.2) and KB cell assay (Fig. 3). Chimaeric 15E10 has a higher affinity for cynomolgus OSM than chimaeric 10D3 as observed with the parent murine antibody. Both chimaeric antibodies have curve profiles and IC50 values similar to the parent murine antibodies (Table 1). The amino acid sequence and a cDNA sequence for cynomolgus OSM (cOSM) is set forth as SEQ.I.D.NO:63 and 64 respectively;
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SEQ.I.D.NO: 63:
MGVPLTRRTLLSLILALLFPSMASMAAMGSCSKEYRMLLGQLQKQTDLMQDTSR LLDPYIRIQGI-DIPKLREHCRESPGAFPSEETLRGLGRRGFLQTLNATLGCVLH RIADLEQHLPKAQDLERSGINIEDLEKLQMARPNVLGliRtn5VYCMAOliU)NSDM TEPTKAGRGTPQPPTPTPTSDVPQRKLEGCSFIRGYHRFMHSVGRXFSKWGESP NTR3RKHSPHQALRKGVRRTRPSRKGNRLMPRGQLPR
SEQ.I.D.NO: 64:
ATGGGGGTACCGCTCACACGGAQGACGCTGCTCAGTCTGATCCTTGCACTCCTG TTTCCAAGCATGGCAAGCftTGGCGGCTATGGGCAGCTGCtCGAAXGAGTACCGC ATGCTCCTTGGCCAGCTCCAGAAGCAGACAGATCTCATGCAGGACACCAGCAGG CTCCTGGACCCCTATATAO3TATCCAAGGCCTGGATATTCCTAAACTGAGAGAG CAGTGCAGAGAGAGCCCTGOGGCCTTCCCCAGCGAGGA.GACCCTGAGGQGGCTG GGCAGGCGGGGCTTCCTACAGACGCTCAATGCCACACTGGGCTGCGTCGTGCAC AGACTGGCCGACXTAGAGCAGCATCTCCCCAAGGCCCAGGACTTGGiAGAGGTCT GGGCTGAACATAGAGGACTTAGAGAAGCTGCAGATGGCGAGGCCGAATGTCCTC GGGCTCAGGAACAACGTCTACTGCATGGCCCAGCTGCTGGACAACTCAGACATG ACTGAGCCCACGAAGGCCGGCCGG0GGACCCCTCAGCCGCCCACCCCCACCCCT ACCTCAGATGTTTTTCAGCGCAAGCTGGAGGGCTGCAGTTTGCTGCGTGGCTAG CATCGCTTCATGCACTCAGTGGGGCGGATCTTCAGCAAGTGGGGGGAGAGCCCQ AACCGGAGCCGGAGACACAGCCCCCACCAGGCCCTGGGGAAGGaGGTGCGCAGG ACGAGACCCTCCAGGAAAGGCAATAGACTCATGCCCAGGGGAGAGCTGCCCCGG TAG
These results confirm that the correct 15E10 variable regions have been cloned successfully to produce an antigen binding chimaeric antibody capable of binding both human and cynomologus OSM site II. The 15E10 variable heavy and light domains can now be humanised.
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5.1.1 Search of the mouse database
15 mouse sequences with the highest homology for the 15E10 VH amino
acid sequence and 10 mouse sequences with the highest homology for
the VL amino acid sequence were identified by searching a peptide
database.
The 15E10 VH amino acid sequence was compared to all 15 mouse
sequences from the database search and the following framework
residues were identified as significant:

Position
15E10VH
mouse
occurence
75
R
K
15/15
105
T
Q
14/15
Position is according to the Kabat et al numbering system, supra The 15E10 VL amino acid sequence was compared to 10 mouse sequences from the database search and the following framework residues were identified as significant:

Position
15E10VL
mouse
o ecu re nee
9
T
A
8/10
38
E
Q
10/10
49
E
Y
10/10
60
A
V
10/10
5.1.2. Search of the human database
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Human framework sequences with the highest homology to 15E10 VH and VL frameworks were identified using the EasyBlast in a peptide database.
Two sets of human sequences were identified for 15E10 VH:
Group A of which the following framework was selected for humanisation:
QVQLQESGPGLVKPSETLSLTCTVSGGSISSYYWSWIRQPPGKGLEVJIGYIYYS
GSTNYNPSLKSRVTISVDT5KMQFSLKLSSVTAADTAVYYCARSPSSGSYYYYY
YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS (SEQ.I.D.NO:26)
The CDRs are underlined.
And
Group B of which the following was selected for humanisation:
QVQLVESGGQWQPGR5LRL5CAASGFTFSSYGMHWVRQAPGKGLEWVAVIWYD GSNKYYAPSVKGRFTIS RDNSKNTLYLQMNS LRAEDTAVYYCARDLGGPLYWYF DLWGRGTLVTVSS (SEQ.I.D.NO:27)
The CDRs are underlined
The following framework residues were identified as potentially important
in recovering affinity and may need to be backmutated:

Position (Kabat#)
15E10VH
Group A
Group B
27
F
G
U_
28
S
S
T
29
L
I
Ll_
30
T
S
S
48
L
i
V
49
G
G
A
67
L
V
F
71
K
V
R
73
N
T
N
78
V
F
L
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94 K R R
8 humanised VH constructs with different backmutations were designed, 4 based on group A human frameworks (A1, A2, A3 and A4) and 4 based on group B human frameworks (B1, B2, B3 and B4).
One set of human sequences was identified for 15E10 VL of which the following was selected for humanisation:
EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSKYLAWYQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASNR ATGIPARPSGSGSGTDFTLTISNLEPEDFAVYYCQQRSNWPPTFGQGTKLEI
(SEQ.I.D.NO:28)
The CDRs are underlined.
The following residues were identified as potentially important in
recovering affinity and may need to be backmutated:
Position (Kabat#) 15E10 VL Human VL
49 E Y
71 Y F
Two constructs were designed, one as a straight graft (L1), the other with
backmutations at both residues (L2).
Humanised VH construct A1:
QVQLQESGPGLVKPSETLSLTCTVSGFSLTNYGVHWIRQPPGKGLEWIGVIWRG GSTDVNAAFMSRVTISVDTSKNQVSLKLSSVTAADTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD
VWGQGTTS (SEQ.l.D.NO:29) Humanised VH construct A2:
QVQLQESGPGLVKPSETLSLTCTVSGFSLTNYGVHWIRQPPGKGLEWIGVIWRG GSTDYNAAFMSRVTISKDTSKNQVSLKLSSVTAADTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD
VWGQGTTS (SEQ.I.D.NO:30)
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Humanised VH construct A3:
QVQLQESGPGLVKFSETLSLTCTVSGFSLTNYGVHWIRQPPGKGLEWIGVIWRG GSTDTNAAFMSRVTISKDNSKWQVSLKLSSVTAADTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYPD VWGQGTTS (SEQ.!.D.NO:31)
Humanised VH construct A4;
QVQLQESGPGLVKPSETLSLTCTVSGFSLTNYGVHWIRQPPGKGLEWIGVIWRG
GSTDYNAAFMSRLTISKDNSKNQVSLKLSSVTAADTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD VWGQGTTS (SEQ.I.D.NO:32)
Humanised VH construct B1:
QVQLVESGGGWQPGRSLRLSCAASGFSLTNYGVHWVRQAPGKGLEWVAVIWRG GSTDYNAAFMSRFTISRDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCARSPNSNFYWYFD VWGRGTLV (SEQ.I.D.NO:33) Humanised VH construct B2:
QVQLJVESGGGWQPGRSLRLSCAASGFSLTNYGVHWVRQAPGKGLEWVAVIWRG GSTDYNAAFMSRFTISRDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD VWGRGTLV (SEQ.!.D.NO:34)
Humanised VH construct B3:
QVQLVESGGGVVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFSLTNYGVHWVRQAPGKGLEWVAVIWRG GSTDYNAAFMSRFTISKDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD
VWGRGTLV (SEQ.I.D.NO:35) Humanised VH construct B4:
QVQL, VESGGGWQPGRSLRLSCAASGFSLTNYGVHWVRQAPGKGLEWVAVIWRG
GSTDYWAAFMSRLTISKDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD VWGRGTLV (SEQ.I.D.NO:36)
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Humanised VL construct L1:
EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCSGSSSVSYMYWYQQKFGQAPRLLIYDTSNLA
SGIPARFSGSGSGTDFTLTISNLEPEDFAVYYCQQWSSYPPTFGQGTKLEIK
(SEQ.I.D.NO:37)
Humanised VL construct L2;
EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCSGSSSVSYMYWYQQKPGQAPRLLIEDTSNLA
SGIPARFSGSGSGTDYTLTISNLEPEDFAVYYCQQWSSYPPTFGQGTKLEIK
(SEQ.I.D.NO:38)
5.2 Humanisatlon of 15E10
Humanised VH and VL constructs were prepared de novo by build up of overlapping oligonucleotides including restriction sites for cloning into Rid and Rln mammalian expression vectors as well as a human signal sequence. Hind III and Spe I restriction sites were introduced to frame the VH domain containing the human signal sequence for cloning into Rid containing the human y1 wild type constant region. Hind 111 and BsiW I restriction sites were introduced to frame the VL domain containing the human signal sequence for cloning into Rln containing the human kappa constant region.
Human signal sequence: MGWSCIILFLVATATGVHS (SEQ.I.D.NO:39) Eight humanised VH constructs and two humanised VL constructs were designed. This would result in 16 different chain combinations. Since oligo build up of variable regions is time consuming, it was decided initially to prepare only the least and most backmutated constructs for the VH domain (A1, A4, B1 and B4) and produce humanised antibodies in combination with the two humanised VL constructs.
10 oligonucleotides 60 bases long with a minimum of 18 base overlap were designed for build up.
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5.2.1 Oligonucleotide Build-up
Oligonucleotide pool solutions were prepared from 5p,l of each oligo stock solution at 100fiM. Synthesis of the humanised VH and VL genes by build up of overlapping oligonucleotides was carried out generally according to StemmerWPetal (1995) Gene 164(1 ):49-53 using software described in Ertl PF et al (2003) Methods 31:199-206.
5.2.1.1 Assembly PCR reaction:
water 41.5µl
lOxProofStart PCR buffer 5µl
dNTP(10mM) 1.5µl
oligo pool 1µl
ProofStart DNA Polymerase 1µL
total vol 50µl
Assembly PCR cycle: 1 - 94°C for 2min
2- 94°C for 30sec
3-40°C for 2min
4-72°Cfor10sec
5-94cCfor15sec
6- 40°C for 30sec
7- 72°C for 20sec + 3sec/cycle
steps 4 to 7 were repeated 25 times
5.2.1.2 Recovery PCR
Primers 1 and 2 were the first upper and lower oligonucleotides used in the assembly PCR. The recovery PCR allows the amplification of the complete V gene,
Recovery PCR reaction:
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water
42µl

10xProofStart PCR buffer
4µl

dNTP(10mM)
1.5µl

primer 1 (100nM)
0.5µl

primer 2 (lOO^M)
0.5µl

assembly PCR reaction
1µl

ProofStart DNA Polymerase 0.5µl

total vol
50µl

primer 1
primer 2
15E10-A1/A4
15E10-A4-U1
15E10-A4-L1
15E10-B1
15E10-B1-U1
15E10-B1-L1
15E10-B4
15E10-B1-U1
15E10-B4-L1
15E10-L1/L2
15E10-L1-U1
15E10-L1-L1
Recovery PCR cycle: 1- 94°C for 2min
2- 94°C for 45sec
3- 60°C for 30sec
4- 72°C for 2min
5-72°Cfor4min
steps 2 to 4 were repeated 25 times
The recovery PCR products were purified using the MinElute PCR Purification kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
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5.2.2 Restriction digests
Humanised 15E10 VH constructs A1, A4, B1 and were digested Hind III-Spe I and two humanised 15E10 VL were digested Hind-ltl-BsiW ! as described in 4.2.1.
5.2.3 Gel purification
The products of restriction digest were purified as in 4.2.2.
5.2.4 Ligatfon
The 15E10 humanised VH fragments Hind Ill-Spe I digested were ligated
into the Rid hCyiwt vector Hind Ill-Spe ! digested.
The 15E10 humanised VLfragments Hind MI-BsiW I digested were ligated
into the Rln hck vector Hind M-BsiW I digested.
The ligation was carried out using the LigaFast Rapid DNA Ligation
System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions.
5.2.5 Transformation
As in 4.2.5
5.2.6 Sequencing
Colonies from each reaction plate were cultured overnight at 37°C in 5ml LB medium supplemented with 100ng/ml ampicillin. Plasmids were extracted and purified using the QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions and sequenced using primers described in 4.2.5.
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Clones with the correct humanised VH and VL sequences were identified and plasmids prepared for expression in CHO cells.
6. Expression of humanised antibodies in CHO cells
Four humanised VH constructs (A1, A4, B1 and B4) and two humanised VL constructs (L1 and L2) were prepared in Rid hCyiwt and Rln h&c mammalian expression vectors. Eight plasmid heavy chain-light chain combinations (A1L1, A1L2, A4L2, B1L2, B4L1 and B412) were transiently co-transfected into CHO cells and expressed at small scale to give 8 different humanised antibodies. The antibodies produced in supernatant were analysed in the gp130 inhibition ELISA (see below).
6.1 Plasmid purification
DH5a cells containing one of the plasmids of section 6 were cultured in
5ml of LB media supplemented with 100µg/ml ampicillin for 8h at 37°C in a
shaker incubator.
200ml of LB media supplemented with 100µg/ml ampicillin was inoculated
with 1ml of day culture and incubated overnight at 37°C in a shaker
incubator.
The plasmids were extracted and purified using the QIAfilter Plasmid Maxi
kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions. The ethanol
pellet was resuspended in 200µl TE buffer and plasmid concentration was
measured by absorbance at 260nm after 100 fold dilution of stock
solution.
6.2 Transfection
9 wells of Corning Costar 3506 6-well plates were seeded with 106 CHO cells and cultured overnight in Dulbecco's MEM with Glutamax-1 (DMEM)
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media supplemented with Ultra Low Fetal Bovine Serum and 1%
Penicillin-Streptomycin at 37°C.
For each well, the following were added in a 5ml Bijou
1ml Optimem 1 with Glutamax-1
5µg plasmid carrying humanised VH
5µg plasmid carrying humanised VL
30µg TransFast Transfection Reagent under vortex so that each transfection contained a diffferent combination of light and heavy chains. Incubation took place for 10-15min at room temperature. DMEM media was removed from wells then vortex mixture and added to the appropriate well. Incubation took place at 37°C for 1h. 2ml Optimem was added per well and incubated at 37°C for 48-72h.
6.3 Analysis of humanised antibodies
Media from each well was recovered and centrifuged at 13000rpm for 1min on an Eppendorf 5415R bench centrifuge and supernatant passed through a 0.2\im Pall Acrodisc 25mm syringe filter. 8 humanised antibodies (4 based on the group A human frameworks, 4 based on the group B human frameworks) and the 15E10 chimaeric antibodies were analysed in the gp130 inhibition ELISA for their potency in neutralising both hOSM and cOSM (see fig.4).
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Table 2: IC50 values for humanised antibodies B1L1, B1L2, B4L1 and B4L2 in the gp130 inhibition ELISA


Human OSM
CynomolgusOSM
B1L1
NA
NA
B1L2
0.334
0.110
B4L1
NA
0.167
B4L2
0.048
0.040
15E10 chimaera
0.070
0.060
IC50 values are expressed in jig/ml
NA: inhibition is less than 50%
The level of backmutations in expressed humanised antibodies had a direct effect on affinity for human and cynomologus OSM in the gp130 inhibition ELISA. The least backmutated antibody (B1L1) had no detectable affinity for cynomolgus OSM and just above background for human OSM. On the other hand, the most backmutated antibody (B4L2) had an affinity for human and cynomolgus OSM at least equivalent to that of chimaeric 15E10 antibody. The 2 humanised antibodies containing the backmutated light chain had higher affinity than the 2 humanised antibodies containing the straight graft light chain.
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None of the four humanised antibodies based on the human group A frameworks gave an inhibitory signal in the gp130 ELISA assay. In fact none of these antibodies could be detected in an ELISA for complete human lgG1 antibody (where the capture antibody is a poiyclonal raised against human y heavy chain in goats and the detecting antibody is a polyclonai raised against human K light chain in goats). Further analysis of supernatant containing these four antibodies in human IgG heavy chain specific and light chain specific ELISAs gave a positive signal in both assays. Both ELISAs used a capture antibody raised against human IgG heavy and light chains in goats while the detection antibody was raised against human IgG y chain for the heavy chain specific ELISA and against human IgG K chain in the light chain specific ELISA. These results suggest that humanised antibodies where the heavy chain was designed from group A human frameworks express both heavy and light chain but the two chains do not combine to produce a viable antibody.
The most backmutated VH construct based on human Group B frameworks (B4) in combination with the backmutated light chain (L2) proved to be the most potent humanised antibody. Three humanised antibodies comprising VH from Group B (B2L2, B3L2 and B4L2) were produced, purified and analysed to determine the humanised antibody most suitable for candidate selection.
6.4: Preparation of humanised VH constructs of 6.3
Two humanised constructs B2 and B3 were prepared as in 5.2.1 to 5.2.6
6.5 Expression of humanised antibodies in CHO cells
Three humanised VH containing plasmids (B2, B3 and B4) in combination with the most backmutated humanised VL containing plasmid (L2) from
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section 6 were transiently co-transfected into CHO cells and expressed. The 3 humanised antibodies produced were purified from cell culture supernatant by affinity chromatography on rProtein A Sepharose and their affinity for OSM was evaluated in gp130 inhibition ELISAand KB cell assay using 15E10 chimaeric antibody as reference. Plasmid purification was carried out as in 4.3.1. Transfection was carried out as in 4.3.2. Purification of humanised antibodies was carried out as in 4.3.3.
6.6 Analysis of humanised antibodies of section 6.5
Purified humanised antibodies from section 6.5 were analysed in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay (see below) for their potency in neutralising both human and cynomolgus OSM. Assays were conducted with human OSM from a variety of sources including CHO produced, CHO produced + 25% human AB serum, neutrophils and synovial fluid of RA patients.
gp130 inhibition ELISA: data from experiments are illustrated in Fig 5 to 10.
KB cell assay: data from experiments are illustrated in Fig 11 to 16., These results show that humanised antibodies (B3L2 and B4L2) have potency equivalent to 15E10 chimaeric antibody but higher than humanised antibody B2L2. This indicates that the humanisation strategy, especially the choice of backmutatlons resulted in complete recovery of affinity for antigen.
The amino acid sequence of the VH chain of B4 is
QVQLVESGGGWQPGRSLRLSCAASGFSLTNYGVHWVRQAPGKGLEWVAVIWRG
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GSTDYNAA.FMSRLTISKDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKSPNSNFYWYFD VWGRGTLVTVSS (SEQ.I.D.N0:21)
and the VL chain is SEQ.I.D.NO: 12.
A therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof comprising a VH chain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 21 and a VL chain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 12 may be considered a competing antibody of the invention and therefore forms an embodiment of the invention.
6.7 Comparison of B3L2 humanised antibody with chimaeric and parent murine antibodies
The humanised antibody B3L2 was compared to 15E10 chimaeric and parent murine antibodies in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay (see below) using human and cynomolgus OSM as target antigen. A humanised B3L2 antibody carrying 2 point mutations in the constant heavy chain (Ala replaces Leu at position 235 and Gly at position 237) was designed, expressed in CHO cells and purified. The mutations reduce the ability of the antibody to engage effector functions especially recruitment of complement factors. Humanised antibody candidate B3L2 with intact heavy chain is referred to as B3L2 wt (wild type) while the mutated B3L2 antibody is called B3L2 mut in the figures 17 to 19.
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Table 4: IC50 values for humanised B3L2 wild type compared with parent murlne and chimaeric antibodies in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay


gp130 ELISA
KB cell assay
Murine15E10 Chimaeric 15E10 B3L2wt
0.009 0.019 0.035
0.053 0.079 0.123
IC50 values are in ng/ml
These results confirm that the humanised B3L2 antibody has potency
equivalent to the parent murine antibody 15E10.
Amino acid sequence of humanised B3L2 heavy chain is set forth in
SEQ.I.D.NO:11 and humanised B3L2 light chain is set forth in
SEQ.I.D.NO:12.
Example 7 - Antibody 10D3
7.1. Generation of monoclonal antibodies
Hybridoma 10D3 was generated as detailed in Example 1 above.
7.2, CLONING OF VARIABLE REGIONS OF CLONE 10D3
Total RNA was extracted from clone 10D3 hybridoma cells and the cDNA of the heavy and light variable domains was produced by reverse transcription using primers specific for the murine leader sequence and the antibody constant regions according to the pre-determined isotype (IgGIAc). The cDNA of the variable heavy and light domains was then cloned into vector pCR2.1 for sequencing.
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7.2.1 RNA extraction
Total RNA was extracted from pellets of 106 ceils of hybridoma clone 10D3 using the SV Total RNA Isolation System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions.
7.2.2 Reverse transcription
RNA was reverse transcribed to produce cDNA of the variable heavy and light domains using primers specific for the murine leader sequences and murine lgGy2a/ic constant regions. The mixture of primers used is set forth in Jones ST and Bendig MM Bio/technology 9:88-89 (1991)
Pools of murine VH and VL leader sequence forward primers were prepared at 50µM. Solutions of the murine y2a and K constant region reverse primers were also prepared at 50µM.
7.2.3 Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR)
Reverse transcription of the RNA encoding the variable heavy and light regions was carried out In duplicates using the Access RT-PCR System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions. VH and VL forward and reverse primers were as described above.
7.3. Cloning of PCR product of 7.2.3
7.3.1 Gel purification
The products of RT-PCR (2xVH and 2xVL) were loaded in gel loading solution on a preparative 1% agarose gel containing 0.01% ethidium bromide and run in TAE buffer at 100V for 1hour and the V region bands excised. A 100bp DNA ladder was also run on the gel to allow identification of the VH and VL bands.
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The DNA fragments were extracted and purified from the gel using the QIAquick(tm) Gel extraction kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
7.3.2 Liqation
The purified RT-PCR fragments (2XVH and 2xVi_) were cloned Into the pCR2.1 vector using the TA cloning kit from Invitrogen according to manufacturer's instructions.
7.3.3 Transformation
Ligated piasmids were transformed into TOP10F1 cells according to TA cloning kit instructions. 50µl and 200µl of transformed cells were spread on L-agar plates containing 100µg/ml ampicillin and coated with 8µl of 500mM IPTG solution and 16µl of 50mg/m! X-Ga! solution in DMF. Plates were incubated overnight at 37C
7.3.4 Sequencing
5 white colonies were cultured overnight at 37°C in 5ml LB medium
supplemented with 100|ag/ml ampicillin.
pCR2.1 piasmids containing 10D3 VH and VL domains were extracted and
purified using the Qiagen QlAprep Spin Miniprep kit according to
manufacturer's instructions.
The VH and VL domains were sequenced using primers T7, M13 for and
M13rev.
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10D3 VH domain amino acid sequence (consensus of 10 clones from 2 RT-PCR reactions): SEQ.1.D.NO:46
10D3 VL domain amino acid sequence (consensus of 10 clones from 2 RT-PCR reactions): SEQ.I.D.NO:47
7.4. Chimaeric antibody
A chimaeric antibody consisting of parent murine V regions of 7.3.4 grafted onto human IgG1/k wild type C regions was designed to confirm the cloning of the correct murine V regions and also to be used as a reference when testi ng humanised constructs. The chimaeric antibody was expressed in CHO cells, purified and tested for affinity to OSM site II in the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay. The cloned murine V regions were amplified by PCR to introduce restriction sites required for cloning into mammalian expression vectors Rid and Rln. Hind III and Spe I sites were designed to frame the VH domain and allow cloning into a modified Rid vector containing the human y1 wild type C region. Hind III and BsiW I sites were designed to frame the VL domain and allow cloning into a modified Rln vector containing the human K C region.
7.4.1 PCR amplification
VH forward primer:
The Hind III restriction site is underlined and Kozak sequence in bold.
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VH forward: 5'-GAT GAA GCT TGC CAC CAT GGG ATG GAG CTG GGT
CTT T-3'(SEQ.I.D.NO:58)
VH reverse: 5'-GAT GGA CTA GTG TGC CTT GGC CCC AAT A-31
(SEQ.I.D.NO;65)
The Spe t restriction site is underlined.
Vi_ forward primer:
VL forward: 5'-GAT GAA GCT TGC CAC CAT GGA TTT ACA GGT GCA
GAT T-3'($EQ.I.D.NO:59)
The Hind III restriction site is underlined and Kozak sequence in bold.
VL reverse: 5'-GAT GCG TAC GTT TCA GCT CCA GCT TGQ TCC C-3' (SEQ.i.D.NO;60)
The BsiW 1 restriction site Is underlined
PCR reaction; water 66µl
10x PCR buffer 10µl
dNTP(2mM) 10µl
primer 1 (5^M) 4µl
primer 2 (5[iM) 4µl
AmpIITaq polymerase 2µl
purified plasmid 4µl
total voi 100µl
Primer 1: VH or VL forward primer Primer 2: VH or VL reverse primer
Purified plasmid: pCR2.1 VH orVi, plasmid purified by Qiagen Minipreps
(diluted 200x)
PCR cycle: 1 - 95°C for 4min
2-95°Cfor1min
3-55°Cfor1mIn
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5-72°Cfor7min steps 2 to 4: we re repeated 30 times
7.4,2 Cloning into mammalian expression vectors
The PCR products were purified using the MinElute PCR Purification kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
7.4.2.1 Restriction digests
The VH PCR product and Rid hCy1 wt mammalian expression vector were digested Hind lll-Spe ):
10x buffer (NEBuffer2) 5µl
BSA100x(NEB) 0.5µl
DNA 5µl
Hind III (Promega) 2µl
Spe I (NEB) 2µl
water 35.5µl
total vol 50µl
DNA: purified VH PCR product or Rid hCyiwt vector (at 0.25mg/ml) incubated at 2h at 37°C.
The VL PCR product and Rln hCK mammalian expression vector were digested Hind lll-BslW I:
10x buffer (NEBuffer2) 5µl
DNA 5µl
Hind ill (Promega) 2µl
water 38µl
total vol 50µl
DNA: purified VL PCR product or Rln ride vector (at 0.25mg/ml) Incubated at 2h at 37°C. 2µL of BsiW I (NEB) was added and incubated 2h at 55°C.
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7.4.2.2 Gel purification
The products of restriction digests were loaded in gel loading solution on a preparative 1% agarose gel containing 0.01% ethidium bromide and run in TAE buffer at 100V for 1 hour and the Rid and Rln vector as well as Vnand VL PCR fragment bands were excised. A 100bp DNA ladder was also run on the gel to allow identification of th(c) VH, VL and vector bands. The DNA was extracted and purified from the gel using the QIAquick Gel extraction kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions.
7.4.2.3 Ligation
The VH PCR fragment Hind Ill-Spe I digested was ligated into the Rid
hCyiwt vector Hind Ill-Spe I digested.
The VL PCR fragment Hind 111-BsiW I digested was ligated into the Rln
hCic vector Hind 111-BsiW I digested.
The ligation was carried out using the LigaFast Rapid DNA Ligation
System from Promega according to manufacturer's instructions providing:
VH: vector: Rid hCyiwt Hind Ill-Spe I digested
insert: VH PCR fragment Hind Ill-Spe 1 digested VL: vector: Rln hCic Hind 111-BsiW I digested
insert: VL PCR fragment Hind 111-BsiW 1 digested
7.4.2.4 Transformation
Ligated products were transformed into DH5a competent cells:
200I DH5a vials were thawed on ice.
50µl aliquots were prepared in transformation tubes.
2µl of ligation mixture was added and mixed gently with a pipette tip
followed by incubation for 30min on ice.
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The mixture was incubated for 45sec at 42°C without shaking. This was then transferred to ice for 2min.
450jal SOC medium was added and the tubes incubated for 1h at 37°C on shaker incubator.
100>i of culture was spread on L-agar plates supplemented with 100ng/ml ampicillin and incubated overnight at 3T°C.
7.4.2.5 Sequencing
VH and VL clones were cultured overnight at 37°C in 5ml LB medium
supplemented with 100>g/ml ampicillin.
Rid and Rln plasmids containing VH and VL domains respectively were
extracted and purified using the QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit from Qiagen
according to manufacturer's instructions.
The VH region was sequenced using forward primers in the Rid vector and
signal sequence and reverse primer in the human Cy1 region.
The VL region was sequenced using forward primers in the Rln vector and signal sequence and reverse primer in the human CK region.
Clones with the correct VH and VL sequences were identified and plasmids prepared for expression in CHO cells.
7.4.3 Chimaeric antibody expression in CHO cells
Rid and Rln plasmids containing 10D3 VH and VL domains respectively were transiently co-transfected into CHO cells and expressed. The chimaeric antibody produced was purified from cell culture supernatant by affinity chromatography on rProtein A Sepharose and its affinity for OSM
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was evaluated in the gp130 inhibition ELlSAand KB cell assay (see below).
7.4.3.1 Plasmid purification
DH5a cells containing Rld-10D3VH and Rln-10D3Vi_ plasmids were
cultured in 5ml of LB media supplemented with 100>g/ml ampicillin fo r 8h
at 37°C in a shaker incubator.
200ml of LB media supplemented with 100iig/ml ampicillin was inocul ated
with 1ml of day culture and incubated overnight at 37°C in a shaker
incubator.
The plasmids were extracted and purified using the QIAfilter Plasmid IVlaxi
kit from Qiagen according to manufacturer's instructions. The ethanol
pellet was resuspended in 200|al TE buffer and plasmid concentration was
measured by absorbance at 260nm after 100-fold dilution of stock
solution.
7.4.3.2 Transfection
CHO cells were cultured to confluence in Dulbecco's MEM with Glutamax-
1 (DMEM) media supplemented with Ultra Low Fetal Bovine Serum and
1% Penicillin-Streptomycin in 4x175cm2 BD Falcon tissue culture flasKs at
37°C.
For each flask, in a 50ml Falcon tube.the following were added and m ixed:
8ml Optimem 1 with Glutamax-1
20yg Rld-10D3VH purified plasmid
20^g Rln-10D3VL purified plasmid
240[il TransFast Transfection Reagent under vortex The mixture was incubated for 10-15min at RT.
DMEM media was removed from flask then the mixture was vortexed and added to flask. The mixture was incubated at 37°C for 1h.
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32ml Optimem was added to the flask and incubated at 37°C for 48-72h.
7.4.3.3 Purification of chimaeric antibody
Media from all 175cm2 flasks were pooled and centrifuged at 1500rpm for
3min on an MSE Mistral 2000 and supernatant passed through a 500mL
Filter System 0.22jim CA.
The antibody was purified from clarified supernatant on an Amers ham
Biosciences Akta Explorer using Unicorn software.
The column used was a 1ml HiTrap rProtein A Sepharose FF.
The flow rate was 1ml/min.
The column was equilibrated with 10CVof Dulbecco's PBS then loaded
with clarified supernatant through pump A.
The column was washed with 20CV of Dulbecco's PBS, pump A was
washed to waste and a further 10CV of Dulbecco's PBS was passed
through the column to ensure complete clearance of supernatant.
The antibody was eluted with 10CV of ImmunoPure IgG Elution B- uffer
(Pierce) and collected in 1ml fractions containing lOOjxl of 1M Triz:nna-HCI
pH8.0 neutralisation buffer.
The column was re-equilibrated with 5CV of Dulbecco's PBS.
Antibody in eluate fractions was quantified by reading the absorbance at
280nm against a blank solution containing 10 volumes of ImmunoPure
IgG Elution Buffer + 1 volume of 1M Trizma-HCI pH8.0 and fractions with
sufficient amounts of pure antibody were pooled and stored In 10O\ialiquotsat-20°C.
7.4.4 Analysis of chimaeric antibody
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The 10D3 chimaeric antibody was analysed in the gp130 inhibition ELISA
and KB cell assay (see below) for their potency In neutralising both human
and cynomolgus OSM.
Protocols for the gp130 inhibition ELISA and KB cell assay are set forth
below.
10D3 chimaeric antibodies neutralise OSM in the gp130 inhibition ELISA
and KB cell assay
These results confirm that the correct variable regions have been cloned
successfully to produce an antigen binding chimaeric antibody capable of
binding both human and cynomologus OSM site II.
The 10D3 variable heavy and light domains can now be humanised.
The murine variable regions were cloned and sequenced then grafted onto human y1/k constant regions to produce a chimeric antibody. The chimeric 10D3 antibody showed potency against human and cynomolgus OSM equivalent to that of the parent murine antibody in the gp130 ELISA and KB cell assays (see below).
The murine antibody was humanised using the "best fit" strategy. For the variable heavy domain, a sequence with 65% identity was selected and the murine CDRs grafted onto the human frameworks. A number of constructs were designed with various backmutations in the frameworks to recover affinity. These constructs are:
Construct Backmutations
A T28I
B T28I.R71V, T73K
C T28I, V67A, M69L, R71V, T73K
D T28I, M48I, G44K, V67A, M69L, R71V, T73K
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For the variable light domain, a sequence with 60.0% identity was selected and the murine CDRs grafted onto the human frameworks. A number of constructs were designed with various backmutations in the frameworks to recover affinity. These constructs are:
Construct Backmutations
LA none (straight graft)
LB L46R, L47W
LC Y36F, Q38K
LD Y36F, Q38K, L46R, L47W
LE Y36F, Q38K, L46R, L47W, F71Y
Only the least and most backmutated constructs (A, D, LA, LE) were synthesised by build up of overlapping oligos. Four humanised antibody combinations (ALA, ALE, DLA, DLE) were expressed at small scale in CHO ceils and the supernatant analysed for antibody affinity in the gp130 ELISA.
Only humanised antibodies ALE and DLE showed inhibition in the gp130 ELISA but the inhibition by ALE was not sufficient because of the low concentration of antibody in the supernatant so DLE was selected. Production of humanised antibody DLE was scaled up in CHO cells and the antibody purified and analysed in the gp130 ELISA and KB cell assay using 10D3 chimeric antibody as control.
IC50 values (gp130 ELISA) (ng/ml):
hOSM cOSM
chimera 0.032 0.246
DLE 0.021 0.059
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Humanised antibody 10D3 DLE is at least as potent if not more potent than the chimeric antibody against human OSM and cynomolgus OSM in thegp130EUSA.
Humanised 10D3 DLE and 10D3 chimeric antibodies were analysed in the KB cell assay.10D3 DLE gave IC50 values of 0.205^ig/ml against human OSM and 0.07p,g/ml against cynomolgus OSM.
In conclusion, anti-human OSM site II antibody 10D3 has been successfully humanised and shows potency equivalent to that of the parent murine antibody.
Materials
SV Total RNA Isolation System: Promega Z3100
Access RT-PCR System: Promega A1250
QIAquick Gel Extraction kit: Qiagen 28704
Gel loading solution: Sigma G7654
Agarose: Invitrogen 15510-019
Ethidium bromide: Sigma E1510
TAE buffer: in-house
10Obp DNA ladder: New England BioLabs N3231S
TA cloning kit: Invitrogen 45-0046
TOP10F1 cells: Invitrogen 44-0300
L-agar + 100^ig/ml ampicillin: in-house
X-Gal, 50mg/ml in DMF: Promega V394A
AmpliTaq DNA Polymerase: Applied Biosystems
10x PCR buffer: Applied Biosystems
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E-Gel 1.2% agarose: Invitrogen G501801
LB medium + 100µg/ml ampicillin: in-house
QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit: Qiagen 27106
MinElute PCR Purification kit: Qiagen 28004
NEBuffer2 10x cone: New England Biolabs B7002S
Purified BSA 100x cone: New England Biolabs B9001S
BsiW I: New England Biofabs R0553L
Hind III: Promega R604A
Spe I: New England Biolabs R0133S
LigaFast Rapid DNA Ligation System: Promega M8225
MAX Efficiency DH5a Chemically Competent cells: Invitrogen 18258-012
SOC media: in-house
QIAfilter Plasmid Maxi kit: Qiagen 12263
Dulbecco's MEM with Glutamax-1: Invitrogen 31966-021
Optimem 1 with Glutamax-1: Invitrogen 51985-026
TransFast Transfection Reagent: Promega E2431
1mi HiTrap rProtein A Sepharose FF; Amersham Biosciences 17-5079-01
Dulbecco's PBS: Sigma D8537
ImmunoPure IgG Elution Buffer: Pierce 21009
1M Trizma-HCI pH8.0: Sigma T2694
ProofStart DNA Polymerase: Qiagen 1016816
ProofStart PCR buffer: Qiagen 1016961
Example 8. qp130 inhibition ELISA
OSM binds sequentially to gp130 and either the OSM receptor or LIF receptor. The assay described here allows measurement of OSM (for example hOSM) bound to gp130 on an ELISA plate. In addition, the assay allows the measurement of inhibition of OSM binding to the gp130 receptor by antibodies raised against OSM site II.
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8.1 Materials
1. Nunc Immunoplate 1 F96 Maxisorp (Life Technologies, 4-39454A)
2. Human gp130-Fc 100µg/ml (R&D Systems, 671-GP-100)
3. PBS
4. BSA (Sigma A7030)
5. Human recombinant OSM 10µg/ml (R&D Systems, non-
glycosylated)
6. Biotinylated anti human OSM 50µg/ml (R&D Systems, BAF295)
7. Streptavidin HRP (Amersham RPN4401)
8. 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylene benzidine (TMB) (Sigma)
9. Sulphuric acid
10. Tween 20 (Sigma P7949)
8.2 Preparation of reagents
1. Preparation of plates: Dilute the human gp130-Fc to 1µg/ml in
PBS. Add 50µl/well, cover and incubate overnight at 4°C.
2. Wash buffer: to 1L PBS add 500µl Tween 20 (0.05%)
3. Blocking buffer: to 500ml PBS add 5g BSA (1 %)
8.3 Method
1. Wash plate using standard plate washer protocol and tap dry.
2. Add 200µl well blocking buffer and incubate for 1 hour at RT.
3. Wash as in step 1.
4. Add 50µl /welI OSM standard or sample. Cover and agitate for 2
hours at RT.
(OSM is diluted to 100, 50, 25,12.5, 6.25, 3.125,1.563 and 0 ng/ml in blocking buffer or tissue culture medium depending on the sample)
5. Wash as in step 1.
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6. Add 50µl/well biotinylated anti human OSM diluted to 30ng/ml in
blocking buffer. Cover and agitate for 1 hour at RT.
7. Wash as instep 1.
8. Add 50µl/well streptavidin HRPdiluted 1/4000 in blocking buffer.
Cover and agitate for 30 min. at RT.
9. Wash as in step 1.
10. Add 100µl/well TMB substrate. Cover and agitate for 30 minutes at
room temperature.
11. Add50ul/welMMH2SO4.
12. ReadOD450nm-
8.4 Use of assay for analysis of antibody mediated inhibition of qp130-OSM binding.
1) Mix 25 ng/ml OSM with various concentrations of anti-OSM antibody,
or various dilutions of antisera containing OSM antibodies. Incubate for
1hatRT.
2) Add 50pl/well of the antibody-OSM mixture to a 96 well plate
containing bound gp130, prepared as above.
3) Proceed with assay as described above.
9. KB assay
Introduction
KB cells (a human epithelial cell line) express mRNA for gp130 together with LIF and OSM receptors (Mosley, J. Biol Chem., 271 (50) 32635-32643). Both OSM and LIF induce IL-6 release from KB cells. This cell line has been used to identify monoclonal antibodies modulating the interaction between OSM and gp130.
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This assay allows the measurement of inhibition of binding of the humanised antibody having a heavy chain of SEQ.i.D.NO: 11 and a light chain having a light chain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 12 (for the purpose of this example denoted as 15E10-B3L2)to soluble glycosylated hOSM by a candidate non-human antibody that specifically binds to Site II of hOSM. A schematic illustration of the assay of this example is set forth in Fig. 20.
The plate is coated with anti-site III monoclonal antibody (referred to
herein as OM4-11.31).
For the standard curve: 15E10-B3L2 purified standard serially diluted from
1 fig/ml is incubated with soluble glycosylated human OSM at 50ng/ml.
The antibody binds to OSM through site II and the complex is then
captured on the plate by the primary antibody against site III.
For the competition assay: the candidate antibody serially diluted from
1µg/ml is incubated with soluble glycosylated human OSM at 50ng/ml and
15E10-B3L2 at 150ng/ml.
The presence of complexed 15E10-B3L2 is detected by an anti-human
gamma chain secondary antibody.
Method:
1/Coating
A Nunc Maxisorp Immunoplate was coated with 50fil per well of anti-human OSM site III antibody (OM4-11.31, in-house) at4u.g/ml in PBS. The plate was incubated overnight at 4°C.
2/ Blocking
The plate was washed 3 times with PBS + 0.05% Tween (PBST).
100^1 of 1% BSA (Sigma A7030) in PBS was added to each well.
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The plate was incubated at room temperature for 2h with shaking.
3/ Pre-incubation 15E10B3L2 standard:
A solution of 15E10-B3L2 antibody at 1 jig/ml in 50ng/mI human OSM in block buffer was prepared and 67µl added to 2 wells in row A of a non-adsorbent 96-welI plate. The antibody was serially diluted 1:3 in 50µl of 50ng/ml human OSM in block buffer from row B to G. Competing antibody:
A solution of competing antibody at Iµg/ml in 150ng/ml 15E10-B3L2 + 50ng/ml hOSM in block buffer was prepared and 100µl added to 2 wells in row A of a non-adsorbent 96-well plate. The antibody was serially diluted 1:1 in 50µl of 150ng/ml 15E10-B3L2 + 50ng/ml human OSM in block buffer from row B to G. Two wells were incubated with diluent without competing antibody.
The pre-incubation plate was incubated at room temperature for 1h under static conditions.
4/ Incubation
The coated plate was washed 3 times with PBST.
45µl of each standard and sample was transferred from the pre-incubation
plate to equivalent wells on the coated plate. PBS was added to blank
wells.
The plate was incubated at room temperature for 2h under shaking.
5/ Secondary antibody
The plate was washed 3 times with PBST.
50µl of goat anti-human y chain-peroxidase (Sigma A6029) diluted 2000
fold in block buffer was added to each well.
The plate was incubated at room temperature for 1 h under shaking.
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6/ Substrate
The plate was washed 3 times with PBST.
The OPD substrate (Sigma P9187) was prepared in water according to
manufacturer's instructions.
50µl was added to each well.
The plate was incubated at room temperature.
7/ Stop
Once the coloration had sufficiently developed, the chromogenic reaction
was stopped by addition of 10µl of 3M H2SO4 per well.
The plate was read at 490nm in a plate reader using blank wells as 0
absorbance.
The standard curve of absorbance at 490nm against 15E10 concentration was plotted.
The complexed 15E10 concentration in the samples containing competing antibody was read off the standard curve. % inhibition was calculated as:
100- [(15E10 cone in sample in ng/ml + 150ng/ml) x 100] The curve of % inhibition against competing antibody concentration was plotted and the % inhibition of 15E10 at equimoiarity of competing antibody (150ng/ml of competing antibody) was read off the curve.
Example 10.1:10D3 as competing antibody
Murine 10D3 clone E9 antibody at 267µg/rnl (stock) was used as the competitor of 15E10. 10D3 has the light and heavy chain CDRs as set forth in Table A above.
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Results:

10D3(µg/ml)
Complexed 15E10
% inhibition

(µg/ml)

1
0.019
87.3
0.5
0.029
80.7
0.25
0.044
70.7
0.125
0.062
58.7
0.062
0.092
38.7
0.031
0.132
12.0
0.016
0.146
2.7
% inhibition of 15E10 by 10D3 competitor at equimolarity (0.15µg/ml): 62.3%. See Fig.21.
Example 11 - Identification of antibodies that bind QSM and are specific for Site II or Site III of OSM.
For biological function, OSM has to interact with both gp130 and LIFR or OSMR(. The initial interaction of OSM with gp13O involves OSM site II, whilst OSM interaction with the OSMR( or LIFR occurs via site III. It follows that antibodies that target either site II or site III OSM sequences, or epitopes sufficiently near these sites such that antibody binding would occlude these sites, would neutralise OSM activity.
An assay for measuring OSM-gp130 binding is set forth in Example 8. A typical standard curve (at 1ug/ml, gp130) is set forth in Fig.22.
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By changing conditions of the assay (to 4 (µg/ml), the sensitivity could be greatly improved as illustrated in fig 22b.
Moreover, although the above data was generated using non-glycosylated OSM, glycosylated OSM also binds to gp130 in this assay. See fig.22c.
A commercially available neutralising anti OSM antibody (Mab 295, R&D Systems) was used in this assay to see if it would block OSM-gp130 interaction. Surprisingly, it potentiated the OSM signal, as illustrated in fig 23.
When Mab 295 (30ug/ml) is added to OSM it approximately doubles the OD reading from the ELISA compared with OSM alone for OSM concentrations > 10 ng/ml. If gp130 is omitted from the plate, then the signal generated by OSM + Mab295 is reduced to background. The inventors postulate the following interpretation; Mab295 does not bind to or block OSM site II. At low OSM concentrations, antibody molecules of MAB295 only bind one OSM, which however, is free also to bind to gp130, since site II is available. At higher concentrations, antibody molecules bind two OSM molecules, either of which is available for bind ing to gp130, thus giving a possible 2 OSM molecules bound for each gp130 molecule, one binding directly to gp130, and the other tethered as a consequence of the bivalent nature of the antibody. It is anticipated that any non- site li OSM antibody would have this effect, but since Mab 295 is a neutralising antibody (see fig 24), it must be binding to, or blocking OSM site III. Thus the use of the gp130-OSM ELISA assay of Example 8 and the KB cell assay of example 9 allows identification of neutralising OSM antibodies as site II or site 111 specific. More particularly a Site III antibody will neutralise OSM in the KB assay but will not neutralise OSM-gp130 binding in the
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
ELISA assay. A Site II antibody will neutralise OSM in both the EL1SA and KB assay.
The gp130-OSM ELISA assay was used as a primary hybridoma screen to detect antibodies generated in Example 1 that inhibited gp130-OSM interaction. In addition, hybridomas were also screened for detection of OSM binding activity. Hybridoma supernatants showing high OSM binding, but which did not inhibit OSM-gp130 binding in the ELISA assay of Example 8 were tested in the KB cell assay of Example 9 for OSM neutralisation. This identified a number of site III specific OSM antibodies. One such antibody is referred to as OM4-11.31.
When site III OSM specific antibodies were used in the gp130-OSM ELISA, they greatly increased the OSM signal as shown in fig 25.
The site II antibody, 1B5 (1µg/ml) completely inhibits OSM-gp130 binding. However, the site (II OSM antibody, OM4-11.3.1 causes a biphasic dose-dependent potentiation of OSM binding. At the highest OM4-11.3.1 concentration used the signal is approximately double the OSM only signal, but as antibody concentrations decrease, the signal increases, presumably as a result of formation of antibody-OSM complexes that can bind to gp130, until a peak value is reached. The isotype control IgG for OM4-11.31 had no effect on OSM-gp130 binding. Fig 25 demonstrates the great sensitivity of this ELISA in discriminating site II vs. non-site II specific antibodies, since the former inhibits, but the latter enhances OSM binding.
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
Example 11.1 - Effect of Site II and Site III specific antl-OSM antibodies in ELISA OSM-gp130 assay.
When site It and site 111 OSM specific antibodies are mixed together, the site II antibodies have a dominant effect in the gp130-OSM ELJSA of example 8, as shown in fig 26.
The OSM only signal is greatly enhanced by the site II! specific OSM antibody OM4-11.17. Whilst this enhancement is unaffected by addition of a control IgG, addition of the site II specific OSM antibody, OM4-5.3, greatly reduces the signal. It is believed that the small detectable signal in the far right column of Fig.26 is due to a sub-optimal incubation time for the Site II mAb and Site Ill-OSM complex prior to addition to the gp130 plate.
The gp130-OSM ELISA allows monitoring of the emergence of site II specific OSM antibodies in antisera of mice immunised with human OSM (see example 1), as illustrated in fig 27a, 27b and 27c.
After the first boost, predominantly non-site II antibodies were generated, but site II specific antibodies began to emerge after the second boost, and after the third boost, the dominance of the site II antibodies is clearly seen at the higher serum concentrations.
Example 11.2 - Synergy between OSM site II and site III specific antibodies for OSM neutralisation
Since OSM site II and site III are essential for OSM function, a combination of antibodies that target both sites may operate synergistically in OSM neutralisation. OSM site III is used not only for
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interaction with OSMR( and L1FR but also in the binding of a second OSM molecule to gp130 and this could contribute to the increased potency of site III specific antibodies, compared with those against site ii.
Figure 28a and 28b illustrates the KB assay in which the combination of a site II specific and site III specific antibody greatly increases the potency of OSM neutralisation when compared with either antibody alone.
The concentrations of antibodies used in the combinations are shown in the table below.

[17H100]
[hum 15E10]
ng/ml
ng/ml
20
120
7[ 40
2.2
13.3
0.7
0.31
4.4
1.5
0.082
0.5
0.027
0.165
0.0091
0.55
A comparison of the most active site II and site III specific antibodies showed that the latter were more potent in OSM neutralisation. However, cross reactivity of site II and site III antibodies with OSM from other species was found to be different, since all the potent site II antibodies neutralised Cynomolgus monkey OSM (in gp130-OSM EUSA and KB cell assays), whilst site III antibodies did not (only in the KB assay).
Blockade of OSM interaction with both gp130 and OSMR( or LIFR presumably underlies the synergistic effects of site II and site III antibodies in OSM neutralisation. However, it is also possible that binding of an
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
antibody could facilitate binding of another antibody directed at a different site.
Example 11.3 - Optimisation of OSM neutralisation by combination of site II and site III specific OSM antibodies
Since combination of site II and site III OSM antibodies greatly increased potency of neutralisation, a strategy for development of optimal concentrations can be envisaged, based on the binding affinities of the different antibodies. Example 11.3 is theoretical.
Initially the affinity of site II or site 111 specific antibodies for OSM, previously bound by site III or site II specific antibodies respectively, would be measured using plasmon resonance technology. If binding constants (Kd) are significantly different from binding of single antibodies to OSM, then a cooperative interaction in binding of site II and site III antibodies is occurring.
Based on data from these antibody-binding studies, concentrations of site li and site III antibodies would be prepared ranging from 10 fold greater than the Kd values to 10 fold less than the Kd, using doubling dilutions, in addition, combinations of both antibodies wouid be prepared such that each concentration of the site II antibody is combined with every concentration of site III antibody, allowing exploration of equal binding of site II or site III antibodies to OSM, and dominance in site II and site III antibody binding. All antibody dilutions and combinations would be tested for OSM neutralisation in a KB cell assay. Data from this assay would allow selection of the antibody combination that was most potent in OSM neutralisation.
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Example 12-Ability of anti site II OSM specific antibody to Inhibit OSM stimulation of RA svnovial fibroblasts.
Previously, we have shown that site II and site ill specific OSM antibodies can inhibit OSM stimulation of KB cells. However, these cells are epithelial, are transformed and may not be re presentative of cells found in the rheumatoid synovium. We therefore investigated the efficacy of site II specific OSM antibodies to inhibit OSM stimu lation of RA synovial fibroblasts.
Fibroblasts were seeded Into 96 well plates at 2 x 104 cells / well and cultured in 10% FCS in DMEM until nearly confluent, replacing the medium 3 times a week. Culture medium was then changed to fresh culture medium containing, either no OSM, 1 ng/ml OSM, or 1ng/ml OSM that had been pre-incubated for 1h with vario us concentrations of anti OSM antibody in the medium. After 48h, culture supernatants were removed and stored at -20°C until analysis of IL-6 concentrations by ELISA.
Figure 29 illustrates representative data from 4 RA synovial fibroblast strains. The OSM antibody caused complete Inhibition of OSM stimulated IL-6 secretion, although the potency of the antibody showed some variation between different strains.
Example 13- Effect of OSM qlvcosvlation on potency of neutralisation by anti-OSM antibodies.
Anti OSM antibodies were raised by immunis ing mice with non-glycosylated OSM using methods previously described. Screening of
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these antibodies led to Identification of a potent neutralising antibody (OM4-5.3) that interfered with OSM gp130 binding, as shown in fig.30.
It was anticipated that OM5-5.3 would have similar pote ncy against glycosylated OSM (CHO cell glycosylated). However, when the ability of a subclone of this antibody (OM4-5.3.1) to inhibit glycosylsted OSM (hOSM glycosylated by a CHO cell) binding to gp130 was measured, a marked loss of potency was observed, as shown in fig 31a. Moreover this loss of potency against glycosylated OSM compared with non-glycosylated OSM was also seen in other site II specific antibodies derived from immunisation of a mouse with non-glycosylated OSM as shown in fig 31b.
Furthermore, site III antibodies derived from immunisations with non-glycosylated OSM also showed an approximate 10 fold potency reduction against glycosylated OSM compared with non-glycosylated OSM in a KB cell assay - see Table 1 below.


Table 1

Since immunisation with non-glycosylated OSM resulted in antibodies that were more potent against non-glycosylated OSM rather than the gtycosylated form, we thought that immunisation with glycosylated OSM may yield antibodies of higher potency against this form of OSM. This indeed turned out to be the case. Figures 32a and 32b illustrate the activity against glycosylated and non-glycosylated OSM in the gp130-
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OSM ELISA of two site II specific OSM antibodies (15E1 O and 5H2) derived from glycosylated OSM immunisation.
Example 14 - Correlation between serum and svnovial fluid OSM levels in RA patients
One of the major sites of OSM production in RA patients is in arthritic joints, since high OSM levels can be measured in synovial fluid. In contrast, serum OSM levels in RA patients are very low, and it has only been possible to measure these accurately with the development of a high sensitivity ELISA as disclosed in example 16 below. We investigated the possible relationship between concentrations of OSM in arthritic joints and the circulation by measuring paired synovial fluid and serum samples from RA patients.
OSM levels in sera and synovial fluids as measured by the ELISA assay set forth below (OM4-11.31 antibody capture of OSM) are shown in the table below, and figure 33 illustrates the relationship between the two measurements. Samples were frozen following sampling and thawed just prior to these measurements. The correlation coefficient for these two parameters, as determined by linear regression is 0.9447

Patient
serum [OSM]
SF[OSM]
1
pg/ml
pg/ml 43724
101.445"


9.8


2
13.7


3
4
0
0


88.56
397
5 6
22.64 "18
142.12 147 A"
7
13
9.2
8
9
13.8
10.68
29.88




14.76
10
13.8
15.96
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
The good correlation between sera and SF OSM levels suggest that sites of OSM production other than arthritic joints have relatively little influence on circulating OSM levels, or that these sites modulate OSM production in a way that correlates with production in the joint. In any event, the inventors speculate that the correlation may allow prediction of joint OSM levels from measurement of serum OSM and could find utility in dose setting of a neutralising OSM antibody for treatment of RA patients.
Example 15 Measurement of OSM In svnovlal fluid (SF) and sera from OA patients
Since cartilage degradation is a characteristic of osteoarthritis and OSM, particularly in synergy with IL-1 and other cytokines can induce cartilage breakdown, we measured OSM levels in synovial fluids and sera from OA patients.
Cells were removed from SF samples by centrifugation. Supernatants were treated for 1h with 0.1U/ml hyaluronidase (Fluka, 53725) for 1h at room temperature after which they were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatants were removed, divided into aliquots and stored at-80°C until analysis.
OSM concentrations in OA SFs were analysed using the ELISA assay of Example 16 in two experiments shown in figure 34a and b and 35.
Although 13 of the 46 OA SFs had no detectable OSM, many contained OSM at relatively high levels (> 200pg/m!) and OSM concentrations of > 1000pg/ml were detected in three samples.
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
Example 15,1 - OSM concentrations in OA sera
The high concentrations of OSM in OA synovia) fluid were surprising, since previous reports suggest that OSM levels in OA synovia! fluid tend to be lower than in RA SF (see Manicourt DH et al (2000) Arthritis Rheum. 43(2): 281-88). We also measured OSM levels in sera from OA patients on a clinical trial at several different time points over a 12 month period using the ELISA assay of example 16 below. Figure 36 illustrates triat serum OSM concentrations were either low or non-detectable in these patients. However no correlation was made between OSM levels in sera and synovial fluid in OA patients as the samples were not paired.
Example 16- Sensitive ELISA for detecting OSM in biological samples at low concentrations.
We have developed a sensitive ELISA for measurement of OSM in biological samples using the site III OSM specific capture antibody OM4-11.31 This ELISA allows detection of OSM down to The protocol for using this ELISA with serum samples of synovial flu ids is given below.
OSM ELISA protocol
MATERIALS AND REAGENTS
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
11. Nunc Immunoplate F96 maxisorp (Life Technologies 4-39454A)
12. Monoclonal anti human OSM (OM4-11.31 GSK)
13. Glycosylated hOSM @ 420ug/ml (CHO cell glycosylated)
14. Biotinylated goat anti human OSM 50µg/mI (R&D Systems
BAF295)
15. Streptavidin HRP (Amersham RPN4401)
16. PBS (SIGMA D8537 1L)
17. BSA (SIGMA A7888 500g)
18. Phenol red solution 0.5% (SIGMA P0290 100ml)
19. TMB (SIGMA T-8665 1L)
20. Pooled AB normal male serum control (SIGMA H4522) Batch
#043K0500
21. SuIphuricacid@1M
22. PBS tablets (SIGMA P4417 100 tabs)
23. Tween 20 (Sigma P7949)
24. Plate sealers
PREPARATION OF REAGENTS
Preparation of plates- Dilute the monoclonal anti human OSM to 4µg/ml in
PBS
Add 50jil/well, cover with sealing strip and incubate overnight at 4°C
Wash buffer- To 5L deionised water add 25 PBS tablets + 2.5ml Tween 20 (0.05%)
Block buffer -
To 500ml PBS add 10g BSA (2%).
(add 800u! phenol red, and 5M NaOH until pH is neutral)
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
AB Blood serum control
Spin the 100ml in Sorvall centrifuge @ 16K, 30mins (used 4xOakridge
tubes balanced to 0.02g)
Pass supernatant through sterile gause (still cloudy but no particulates)
Aliquot and freeze.
On day of assay, thaw AB serum, microfuge 13K for 5 min, and dilute 1->
4 in PBS (Serum will be opaque but is fine to use)
Preparation of Standards
For analysis of serum make up standards in AB serum diluted 1-> 4 PBS
For analysis of SFs make up standards in 1 % BSA in PBS
If maximum sensitivity is desired:
Use standards at 112, 56, 28, 14, 7, 3.5 1.75 and 0 pg/ml OSM
METHOD
5. Wash the plate 4x with wash buffer and tap dry.
6. Add 200nl/well block buffer, seal plate and shake 2hrs @ RT, or
static overnight @+4
7. Wash as in step 1.
8. Add 50µl/well standard or sample. Cover and agitate 2hrs at room
temperature.
(Standard is diluted in 25% pooled AB serum if serum samples are to be analysed) 5. Wash as in step 1.
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
6. Add 50µl/well biotinylated anti human OSM diluted to 50ng/ml in
block buffer with 1% goat serum. Cover and agitate 1 hour at room
temperature.
7. Wash as in step 1.
8. Add 50µl/well streptavidin HRP 1/4000 in block buffer. Cover and
agitate 30mins at RT
9. Wash as in step 1.
10. Add 100ul TMB substrate. Cover and agitate 40mins @ RT
11. To stop assay add 50µl/well 1M H2SO4.
12. Read immediately @ 450nm after shaking plate
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WO 2005/095457 PCT/GB2005/001147
We claim:
1. An antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof which specifically binds to hOSM. and
comprises the following CDR's:
CDRHI of SEQ.I.D.NO: I
CDRH2of SEQ.I.D.NO:2
CDRH3of SEQ.I.D.NO:3
CDRLI of SEQ.I.D.NO:4
CDRL2 of SEQ.I.D.NO:5
CDRL3 of SEQ.I.D.NO:6
2. The antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as claimed in claim 1. wherein the
therapeutic antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof modulates the interaction between OSM
and gp 130.
3. The antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as claimed in claims 1 or 2. wherein the
antibody is selected from the group consisting of; intact, chimaeric, humanised, bispecific.
heterocon jugate.
4. The antibody as claimed in claim 3, wherein the antibody is an intact antibody.
5. The antibody as claimed in claim 4, wherein the intact antibody is murine, rat, rabbit.
primate or human.
6. The antibody as claimed in claim 5, wherein the intact antibody is human.
7. The antibody as claimed in claim 3. wherein the antibody is chimaeric or humanised.
S. The antibody as claimed in claim 7, wherein the antibody is humanised,
9. The antibody as claimed in claim 8, wherein residues 28,29,30,71 and 94 of the human
acceptor variable heavy chain framework region and positions 49 and 71 of the human acceptor
variable light chain framework are substituted by the corresponding residues in the donor antibody

framework from which CDRH3 is derived.
10. The antibody as claimed in claim 9. wherein the human heavy chain framework comprises
the following residues:
Position Residues
28 S
29 L
30 T
71 K
94 K.
and the human light chain comprises the following residues:
Position Residues
49 E
71 Y
11. The antibody as claimed in any preceding claim which comprises a Vh domain of
SEQ.l.D.NO: 9 and a VL domain of SEQ.l.D.NO: 10.
12. The antibody as claimed in any preceding claim which comprises a heavy chain of
SEQ.l.D.NO: 11 and a light chain of SEQ.l.D.NO: 12.
13. A antibody as claimed in any preceding claim further comprising a human heavy chain
constant region selected from the group consisting of; IgAI, lgA2, IgD, IgE, IgGl. lgG2, lgG3.
lgG4. IgM.
14. A antibody as claimed in claim 13, wherein the constant region is of an IgG isotype e.g.
IgGl or lgG4.
15. A antibody as claimed in claim 14, wherein the constant region is IgG I.
16. A antibody as claimed in claim 15, wherein the constant region is mutated to render the
antibody non-lytic.
17. The antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof of any preceding claim wherein said

antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof modulates the interaction between Site II of hOSM
and gpl30.
18. The antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as claimed in claim 17, wherein said
antibody inhibits said interaction.
19. The antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof as claimed in claim 18. wherein said
antibody blocks said interaction.
20. An antigen binding fragment as claimed in any preceding claim wherein said fragment is
selected from the group consisting of: Fab, Fab'. Fd. F(ab)2. ScFv.
21. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof
as claimed in any preceding claim.
22. The pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 21, for use in the treatment of
rheumatoid arthritis and/or osteoarthritis.
23. The pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 21, for use in the treatment of COPD.
24. The pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 21. for use in the treatment o\'
psoriasis.
25. The pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 21, for use in the treatment of
atherosclerosis.
26. A vector (e.g. plasmid) encoding the heavy chain andlor light chain of the therapeutic
antibody or antigen binding fragment of any one of claims I to 20. for example said vector
comprises a polynucleotide of any one of claims 27 to 30.
27. A polynucleotide encoding the VH domain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 9 said polynucleotide comprising
SEQ.I.D.N0:17.
28. A polynucleotide encoding the \\ domain of SEQ.I.D.NO: 10, said polynucleotide

comprising SEQ.l.D.NO: 18.
29. A polynucleotide encoding the heavy chain of SEQ.l.D.NO: 11, said polynucleotide
comprising SEQ.l.D.NO: 19.
30. A polynucleotide encoding the light chain of SEQ.l.D.NO: 12. said polynucleotide
comprising SEQ.l.D.NO: 20.
31. A process for the manufacture of an antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof
comprising the step of culturing a host cell.
32. An antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof of any preceding claim which in addition to
being capable of binding hOSM is also capable of binding cynomolgous OSM (cOSM).

The present invention concerns immunoglobulins, such as antibodies, which specifically bind Oncostatin M (OSM), particularly human OSM (hOSM) and modulate the interaction between OSM and gpl30. In typical embodiments, OSM is glyco-sylated. The invention also concerns antibodies that modulate the interaction between both Site 11 and Site III of OSM and their respective interacting partners. Further disclosed are pharmaceutical compositions, screening and medical treatment methods.

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02776-kolnp-2006 description(complete).pdf

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2776-KOLNP-2006-ABSTRACT.1.1.pdf

2776-KOLNP-2006-AMANDED PAGE OF SPECIFICARTION.pdf

2776-KOLNP-2006-CLAIMS.pdf

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2776-KOLNP-2006-SEQUENCE LISTING.pdf


Patent Number 243673
Indian Patent Application Number 2776/KOLNP/2006
PG Journal Number 45/2010
Publication Date 05-Nov-2010
Grant Date 29-Oct-2010
Date of Filing 22-Sep-2006
Name of Patentee GLAXO GROUP LIMITED
Applicant Address GLAXO WELLCOME HOUSE BERKELEY AVENUE GREENFORD, MIDDLESEX UB6 0NN
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 ELLIS JONATHAN HENRY GLAXOSMITHKLINE GUNNELS WOOD ROAD STEVENAGE HERTFORDSHIRE SG1 2 NY
2 GERMASCHEWSKI VOLKER GLAXOSMITHKLINE GUNNELS WOOD ROAD STEVENAGE HERTFORDSHIRE SG1 2 NY
3 PLUMPTON CHRISTOPHER GLAXOSMITHKLINE GUNNELS WOOD ROAD STEVENAGE HERTFORDSHIRE SG1 2NY
4 RAPSON NICHOLAS TIMOTHY C/O. GLAXOSMITHKLINE GUNNELS WOOD ROAD STEVENAGE HERTFORDSHIRE SG1 2 NY
5 WEST MICHAEL GLAXOSMITHKLINE GUNNELS WOOD ROAD STEVENAGE HERTFORDSHIRE SG1 2NY
6 EON-DUVAL ALEXANDRE C/O.GLAXOSMITHKLINE GUNNELS WOOD ROAD STEVENAGE HERTFORDSHIRE SG1 2NY
PCT International Classification Number C07K16/24; A61K39/395;A61K39/395
PCT International Application Number PCT/GB2005/001147
PCT International Filing date 2005-03-29
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 0407197.36 2004-03-30 U.K.
2 0407193.2 2004-03-30 U.K.