Title of Invention

" PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF A CEPHALOSPORIN"

Abstract The present invention relates to a novel prosess for the preparation of cephalosporins having been deacylated at the 7-amino group, by fermentation of a cephalosporin producing microorganism in the presence of a side chain precursor, extraction of the N-substituted cephalosporin compound as present in the fermentation broth or fluid to an organic: solvent, back extraction of the N-substituted cephalosporin compound to water, treatment of the aqueous phase with a dicarboxylate acylase and isolation cf the crystalline cephalosporin compound according to formula l from the conversion solution, characterized in that the fermentation broth or fluid is incubated at acidic conditions and an elevated temperature prior to extraction of the N-substituted cephalosporin compound to an organic solvent. Further improvements of the process are obtained by washing the first organic solvent extract with acidified water and/or by extraction of the side chain to an organic solvent and/or by treating an aqueous cephalosporin solution produced at one or more stages in the process of the invention with carbon dioxide.
Full Text The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a cephalosporin of the formula 1.
(Formula Removed)
Semi-synthetic routes to prepare cephalosporins mostly start from
fermentation products such as penicillin G, penicillin V and cephalosporin C,
which are converted to the corresponding p-lactam nuclei, for instance in a
manner as is disclosed in K. Matsumoto, Bioprocess, Techn., 16, (1993), 67-88,
J.G. Shewale & H. Sivaraman, Process Biochemistry, August 1989, 146-154,
T.A. Savidge, Biotechnology of Industrial Antibiotics (Ed. E.J. Vandamme)
Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984, or J.G. Shewale et al., Process Biochemistry
International, June 1990, 97-103. The obtained p-lactam nuclei are
subsequently converted to the desired antibiotic by coupling to a suitable side chain, as has been described in inter alia EP 0 339 751, JP-A-53005185 and CH-A-640 240. By making different combinations of side chains and P-lactam nuclei, a variety of penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics may be obtained.
7-Amino desacetoxy cephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) and 7- amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) are known to be the most important intermediaes for the production of antibiotics used in the pharmaceutical industry.
7-ADCA is for example obtained by chemical or enzymatic cleavage (deacylation) of phenylacetyl-7-ADCA yielding 7-ADCA and phenylacetic acid. Phenylacetyl-7-ADCA is normally produced by chemical treatment of penicillin G sulfoxide, which is formed from penicillin G. In this production process a large amount of chemicals are required to ensure that the desired reaction takes place. This is both expensive and places a heavy burden on waste management. Moreover, the total yield of the process is not as high as would be desired.
To overcome some of the drawbacks of the chemical process a fermentative process has been disclosed for the production of
7-ADCA and 7-ACA, involving fermentative production of N-substituted jS-lactams, such as adipyl-7-ADCA or adipyl-7-ACA, by a recombinant peniolollum chrysogenum scrain capable of expressing a desacetoxycephalosporanic acid {synthase (DAOCS) also known as "expandase" from a transgene (EP 0 532 341, EP 0 540 210, WO 93/08287, WO 95/04148, WO 95/04149). The expandase takes care of the expansion of the 5-membered ring of certain N-acylated penicillanic acids, thereby yielding the corresponding N-acylated desacetoxycephalosporanic acids.
Known processes for recovering chemically or enzyroatically produced penicillanic and cephalosporanic acids acids are not effective for the recovery of the N- substituted ß-lactam intermediates and deacylated amino-ß- lactams. The main problem with the recovery of the fermentatively producsd N-substituted cephalosporin compounds mentioned hereinabove is the complexity of the broth, or culture filtrate. The broth usually comprises various penicillanic acids, such as a-aminoadipyl- € -penicillanic acid, α-hydroxyadipyl-6-penicillanic acid, 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) , various cephalosporanic acids including or-aminoadipyl- and a-hydroxyadipyl-7-ADCA and a lot of proteinaceous material. Known recovery procedures do not give an acceptable quality of the cephalosporanic acid product in terms of purity.
In the enzymatic deacylation this leads to problems in terms of reduced enzyme half-life, slower bioconversion rate and more expenses in the recovery after bioconversion and/or unacceptable contaminant levels. Moreover, af(:er deacylation, such impurities prevent or at least hamper the recovery of the desired deacylated cephalosporin compound with the desired specifications.
Therefore the known procedures penicillins and cephalosporins do not give an acceptable quality of end product: the end product, e.g. 7-ADCA or 7-ACA, contains an unacceptable amount of penicillin components as impurities

Description of the invention
The present invention relates to an improved process for the production of deacylated p-lactams, for instance 7-ADCA or 7-ACA, from a fermentation broth of a cephalosporin producing microorganism.
According to the present invention, there is provided a process for the preparation of a cephalosporin of the formula (1)
(Formula Removed)
wherein Ro is hydrogen or C1-3 alkoxy; Y is CH2, oxygen, sulfur, or an oxidized form of sulfur; and Ri is any of the groups selected from hydrogen, hydroxy, halogen, C1-3 alkoxy, optionally substituted or one or more heteroatoms, saturated or unsaturated, branched or straight C1-5 alkyl, preferably methyl, one or more heteroatoms C5-8 cycloalkyl, substituted aryl or heteroaryl, or substituted benzyl, which process comprises
a) extracting in a conventional manner an N-substituted cephalosporin into an organic solvent of the kind as herein described from a fermentation broth of a cephalosporin producing microorganism, said fermentation having been conducted in the presence of a dicarboxylic acid cephalosporin N-side chain precursor, to obtain an organic solvent extract containing the N-substituted cephalosporin;
b) back-extracting in a conventional manner the N-substituted cephalosporin into an aqueous phase, thus obtaining an aqueous phase containing the N-substituted cephalosporin and
c) treating said aqueous phase containing an N-substituted cephalosporin with a dicarboxylate acylase to convert said N-substituted cephalosporin into the compound of formula (1); and
d) optionally isolating said compound of formula (1) by crystallization; wherein the fermentation broth in step (a) or the aqueous phase containing N-substituted cephalosporin or the compound of formula (1) in step (c) is incubated at a pH lower than 4 and at an elevated temperature between 20 and
0
140 C and the residence time for incubation is from several days to several months.
extraction of the fermentation broth or fluid with an organic solvent or prior to further processing of the back extract.
Additional improvements of the process are obtained by washing the first organic solvent extract containing the N-substituted cephalosporin compound with acidified water and/or by treating aqueous cephalosporin solutions produced at one or more stages in the process of the invention with carbon dioxide and/or by extracting the enzymatically released side chain to an organic solvent prior to crystallization of the deacylated cephalosporin.
The process according to the invention will give a better overall yield and product quality than the currently known processes.
In the novel recovery processes, applied to obtain a deacylated cephalosporin compound from its N-acylated counterpart, e.g. 7-ADCA from adipyl-7-ADCA or 7-ACA from adi-pyl-7-ACA, the following steps are described in more detail.
A fermentation broth is obtained from any suitable fermentation process, e.g from a fermentation using a strain of Penicillium chrysogenum in the presence o£ a suitable side chain precursor, as mentioned hereinabove.
The biomass is separated from the fermente.tion broth using any suitable technology, such as centrifugation or filtration, yielding a cephalosporin-containing fermentation fluid. Preferably, a filtration step is applied to obtain said separation. The residual solids optionally ar« washed.
One of the obstacles of producing N-substituted cephalosporanic acid is the presence of unwanted contaminating ß-lactam components, especially 6-amino penicillanic acid (6-APA) , N-substituted 6-APA or α-aminoadipyl-7-iVDCA.
In a proforred embodiment of the invenbtion, contamillations.
are remarkedly reduced by incubating an aqueous solution containing the N-substituted cephalosporin compound produced at any stage in the process of the invention under acidic conditions and an elevated temperature. The aqueous solution containing the N-substituted cephalosporin compound is acidified to a pH which is lower than 4, preferably lower than 3, using
one or more known acids, for instance sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid or nitric acid or a combination thereof. The operating temperature is in the range of 20 to 140°c, preferably at 60 to 80°C. The residence time at these conditions is in the range of several days to several minutes, preferably less than 60 minutes, mora preferably 1 to 3 0 min.
The above incubation step according to the invention can be applied to the fermentation broth or fluid or to the N-substituted cephalosporin-containing aqueous back extract. Preferably, the incubation step is applied to the fermentation broth or fluid. The incubation step can further be carried out either before or after separation of the biomass. Preferably, the incubation is carried out before filtration, to have an advantage in filtration.
The N-substituted cephalosporin compound is separated from the aqueous phase, i.e. the fermentation broth or fluid, by means of acidification of the fermentation broth or fluid and subsequent extraction of the N~ substituted cephalosporin compound to an organic solvent. Acidification typically occurs to a pH lower than 4, preferably lower than 3, and only in the case that the fermentation broth or fluid is not yet subjected to the above mentioned incubation under acidic conditions and an elevated temperature. A suitable de-emulsifier may be added to the fermentation broth or fluid to improve; the extraction significantly.
Preferably, the organic solvent is selected from the group of amyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone, iso-butanol or n-butanol.
The extraction with an organic solvent as described above has no satisfactory selectivity towards the unwanted jS-lactam products such as a-aminoadipyl-7-ADCA and 6-APA. Therefore, in a preferred embodiment of the invention a wash process is performed for specific removal of these compounds. The wash process is characterized by mixing the organic solvent-extract with a small amount of acidified water, followed by phase separation. The acidified water typically has a pE which is lower than 4, preferably lower than 3, more preferably lower than 2.
In addition, the phase ratio typically is in between 1:1 to 1:20 water:solvent, preferably 1:2 water:solvent.
The N-substituted cephalosporin compound is back extracted to water in conventional ways by extracting the organic phase with an alkaline solution, to yield an aqueous back extract with a pH within the range of 6 to 9. Typically, a phase ratio of 1:10 (water:solvent) is applied. The alkaline.1 solution is an aqueous solution containing a conventional mineral base, such as NaOH or NH3.
Extraction, washing and back extractior. are preferably performed in a series of continuous intensive contact extractors, for instance a combination of an intense mixer, for instance a high shear mixer, with a centrifugal separation, preferably 2 to 8, more preferably 3 to 6 and most preferably 4 to 5.
After phase separation, the aqueous phasse optionally is stripped to remove the solvent.
Subsequently, the aqueous solution is contacted with a suitable dicarboxylate acylase enzyme, to deacylate the N-substituted cephalosporin compound. For instance, to form 7-ADCA or 7-ACA from the corresponding N-adipyl derivatives.
Organisms that have been found to produce dicarboxylate acylase are Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Achromobacter, Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas species. More in particular, the following species produce highly suitable dicarboxylate acylases: Achromobacter xylosooxidans, Arthrobacter viscosis, Arthrobacter CA128, Bacillus CAiQ, Bacillus megateriuin ATCC53667, Bacillus csreus, Bacillus laterosporus Jl, Paecilomyces C2106, Pseudomonas diminuta sp N176, Pseudomonas diminuta sp V22, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas diminuta BL072 , Pseudomonas strain 0427, Pseudomonas sp SE83, Pseudomonas sp SE495, Pseudomonas ovalis ATCC950, Comamonas up SY77, Pseudomonas GK 16, Pseudomonas SY-77-1, Pseudomonas sp A14, Pseudomonas vesicularis B965, Pseudomonas syringae, Ps putida ATCC17390, Ps aeroginosa NCTC 10701, Proteus vulgaris ATCC9634, Ps tragi DSM3881, and B. subtiius IFO3025.
The dicarboxylate acylase may be obtained from the microorganism by which it is produced in any suitable manner, for
example as is described for the Pseudomonas sp :3E83 strain in US 4,774,179. Also, the genes for e.g. SE83 or SY77 dicarboxylate
eaylacoc may be oxprosed in a different suitable host, such as
E.coli as has been reported by Matsuda et al. in J. Bacteriology, 169, (1987), 5818-5820 for the SE83 strain, and in US 5,457,032 for the SY77 strain.
The enzymes isolated from the above sources are often referred to as glutaryl acylases. However, the aide chain specificity of the enzymes is not limited to the glutaryl side chain, but comprises also smaller and larger dicarboxyl side chains. Some of the dicarboxylate acylases also express gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and are therefore sometimes classified as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases.
The dicarboxylate acylase may be used as the free enzyme, but also in any suitable immobilized form, for instance as has been described in EP 0 222 462.
In one embodiment of the invention, the deacyiated cephalosporin compound, e.g. 7-ADCA or 7-ACA, is isolated from the conversion solution by crystallization at acidic conditions. Typically, crystallization of a deacyiated cephalosporin compound from an aqueous solution is performed by adjusting the pH of the aqueous solution to an acidic value by adding a titrant to the aqueous solution until the pH has reached a value within a range of 2.5-4.5, preferably a value of 3-4.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, crystallization of a deacyiated cephalosporin compound from an aqueous solution is carried out by adding the aqueous solution to a crystallization vessel which is kept at a fixed ;?H having a value within a range of 2.5-4.5, using a suitable ti.trant.
In an even more preferred embodiment of the: invention, said crystallization is carried out by a stepwise adjustment of the pH of the aqueous solution to a final value within a range of 2.5-4.5 by adding the aqueous solution to a series of interconnected crystallization vessels, i.e. adding the aqueous solution to a first vessel, simultaneously addijig the content of the first vessel to a second vessel, simultaneously adding the content of the second vessel to a third vessel, etc., wherein a pH range is applied in the interconnected vessels using a
suitable titrant, starting at a pK in the first vessel which deviates about 0.5-2 pH units from the pH of the aqueous solution containing the deacylated cephalosporin and ending at a pH in the final vessel which has a value within a re.nge of 2.5-4.5, Conveniently, the pH of the aqueous solution containing the deacylated cephalosporin is adjusted to the desired final value using a series of 2-6 interconnected vessels.
For instance, to obtain crystallization of a deacylated cephalosporin from the conversion solution, a decreasing pH range from 8 to 3 can be applied using a titrant which is an acid, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and/or nitric acid, applying a series of 3-4 interconnected vessels.
The two preferred embodiments described above are preferably performed in a continuous mode.
In a further preferred embodient of the invention, the side chain, coloured products and traces of unconverted compound are removed from the conversion solution prior to crystallization following the steps as indicated hereinbelow.
The conversion solution is acidified and contacted with an organic solvent, for instance amyl acetate, butyl acetate, etnyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone, iao-butanol or n-butanol, to remove the side chain prior to crystallization. The acidification is performed with an acid, such i.e sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid or nitric acid or a combination thereof, preferably sulfuric acid, to a pH lower than 3, preferably lower than 2. Unexpectedly, also a high removal efficiency of the coloured impurities is obtained in addition to that of the side chain.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, contaminating penicillin components, for instance zwitterionic 6-APA, as present in aqueous cephalosporin-containing solutions produced at one or more stages of the process cf the invention, such as the fermentation broth or fluid, the back extract, the conversion solution, or the solution containing the dissolved deacylated cephalosporin according to formula (I) , are remarkably reduced by contacting the penicillin-contaminated fluid, typically at pH 5 to 7, with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide can be added to the solution in any suitable way, such as in a solid
or gaseous form or as a solution of carbonate ions. The aqueous cephalosporin-containing solution is contacted with the C02 source at a temperature of 10 to 60 °c, preferably 20 to 40 °C, where said solution is saturated with molecular COa for 4 to 10 hours. After reduction of the penicillin components, purification of the cephalosporin compounds according to formula (I) can be obtained.
After extraction of the side chain to an organic solvent, the deacylated cephalosporin compound can be crystallized from the aqueous phase in several ways, such as th= ways which are indicated hereinabove for crystallization of a deacylated cephalosporin compound from an aqueous solution.
In a preferred mode of operation, the pH of the aqueous phase is increased to a pH having a value within a range of 2.5-5, preferably within a range of 3.5-4.5, by adding the solution containing the deacylated cephalosporin compound in one step to a crystallization vessel kept at the desired pH value or to a series of 2-6 interconnected crystallization vessels applying an increasing pH range. These processes can conveniently be carried out in continuous mode.
The cystal are isolate by filtration or- contrifugation
and dried in a conventional continuous or batch dryer.
All of the above mentioned steps, i.e. extraction, wash, back extraction and crystallization, can be carried out in batch or fed batch mode, but because of stability reasons, the preferred method is a continuous mode.
The following example is to exemplify only and should not be regarded to be a limitation whatsoever.
EXAMPLE
A sample o£ 1 1 of adipyl-7-ADCA broth was filtrated to remove the biomass. The mycelium was washed with tap water to obtain a final volume of the filtrate of about: 2 1.
Circa 2 1 of fitrate was acidified at 40°C with 250 ml 6N H2SO1 to pH 1.5. N-butanol was added at 2/3 of the volume of the acidified filtrate and after vigourous mixing, separated. The waterphase was subjected to 2 more of these traatments with n-butanol. Subsequently the combined organic phases were washed
with portions of 0.25 1 of acidified water having a pH of 2. The resulting organic phase was back: extracted with 24 5 ml of 2N NaOH solution at 2 0°C and after phase separation the traces of n-butanol in the waterphase were removed by stripping under vacuum. 135 g of waterphase was diluted with demineralized water to a total of 650 ml at 30'C and was mixed with 4N NaOH until pH 8.5. 50 g of immobilized deacylation enzyme was; added and after 2 h at 3 0'C, pH 8.5, under addition of 13.5 mi. of 4N NaOH the waterphase was collected. The filtrate was extracted with 3 portions of 125 ml of water saturated n-butanol. at a pH of 0.4. During the extraction in total 50.6 ml cf 3 7% HCl was added. The remaining waterphase was neutralized with 56.5 til of 8N NaOH and the product was crystallized from the waterphase, free from n-butanol droplets, by lowering the pH to 5.3 with 6N H3S04. After 5 minutes the pH was decreased further to the final value of 3.5. In total 15 ml of acid were used. The slurry was filtered and the crystal cake was washed with 50 ml of water, the cake was dried and 4.1 g of 96% pure 7-ADCA was obtained.




WE CLAIM :
1. A process for the preparation of a cephalosporin of the formula (1)
(Formula Removed)
wherein Ro is hydrogen or C1-3 alkoxy;
Y is CH2, oxygen, sulfur, or an oxidized form of sulfur; and
Ri is any of the groups selected from hydrogen, hydroxy, halogen, C1-3
alkoxy, optionally substituted, or one or more heteroatoms, saturated or
unsaturated, branched or straight C1-5 alkyl, preferably methyl, one or more
heteroatoms C5-8 cycloalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, or benzyl,
which process comprises
a) extracting in a conventional manner an N-substituted cephalosporin into an organic solvent of the kind as herein described from a fermentation broth of a cephalosporin producing microorganism, said fermentation having been conducted in the presence of a dicarboxylic acid cephalosporin N-side chain precursor, to obtain an organic solvent extract containing the N-substituted cephalosporin;
b) back-extracting in a conventional manner the N-substituted cephalosporin into an aqueous phase, thus obtaining an aqueous phase containing the N-substituted cephalosporin and
c) treating said aqueous phase containing an N-substituted cephalosporin with a dicarboxylate acylase to convert said N-substituted cephalosporin into the compound of formula (1); and
d) optionally isolating said compound of formula (1) by crystallization; wherein the fermentation broth in step (a) or the aqueous phase containing N-substituted cephalosporin or the compound of formula (1) in step (c) is incubated at a pH lower than 4 and at an elevated temperature between 20 and
140 °C and the residence time for incubation is from several days to several
months.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said pH is lower than 3.
3. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said temperature is within a range of 60 to 80°C.
4. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said incubating is for a time less than 60 minutes.
5. A process as claimed in claim 1, comprising the step, prior to step (b), of washing the organic solvent extract containing the N-substituted cephalosporin with acidified water having a pH lower than 4.
6. A process as claimed in claim 5, wherein said water has a pH lower than 3 preferably lower than 2.
7. A process as claimed in claim 1, comprising the step of extracting the compound of formula (1) into an organic solvent prior to step (d).
8. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the fermentation broth or the aqueous phase of step (c) is contacted with carbon dioxide.
9. A process as claimed in claim 8, wherein carbon dioxide is in a solid or
gaseous form or is a solution of carbonate ions.
10. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the organic solvent is selected from the group consisting of amyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone, iso-butanol or n-butanol.
11. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein step (d) is performed by adding the aqueous phase of step (c) to a crystalline vessel which is kept at a fixed pH using a suitable titrant.
12. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the crystallization of step (d) is performed by adding the aqueous phase of step (c) to a series of interconnected crystallization vessels, while applying a pH range using a suitable titrant.
13. A process for the preparation of a cephalosporin of the formula (1) substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the foregoing examples.

Documents:

1051-del-1998-abstract.pdf

1051-del-1998-assignment.pdf

1051-del-1998-claims.pdf

1051-del-1998-complete specification (granted).pdf

1051-del-1998-correspondence-others.pdf

1051-del-1998-correspondence-po.pdf

1051-del-1998-description (complete).pdf

1051-del-1998-form-1.pdf

1051-del-1998-form-13.pdf

1051-del-1998-form-2.pdf

1051-del-1998-form-3.pdf

1051-del-1998-form-4.pdf

1051-del-1998-form-6.pdf

1051-del-1998-gpa.pdf

1051-del-1998-petition-123.pdf

1051-del-1998-petition-124.pdf


Patent Number 243011
Indian Patent Application Number 1051/DEL/1998
PG Journal Number 40/2010
Publication Date 01-Oct-2010
Grant Date 23-Sep-2010
Date of Filing 23-Apr-1998
Name of Patentee DSM N.V.
Applicant Address HET OVERLOON 1, 6411 TE HEERLEN, THE NETHERLANDS.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 ERIK DE VROOM DE MEIJ VAN STREEFKERKSTRAAT 65, 2313 JM LEIDEN, NETHERLANDS
2 HERMAN PIETER FASEL FIEN DE LA MARSTRAAT 31, 2331 HM LEIDEN, NETHERLANDS
3 JOHN KRIJGSMAN HERCULESRING 17,3328 HJ DORDRECHT, NETHERLAND
4 JAN WILLEM HUBERT SMEETS HENRI DUNANTLAAN 3, 3135 WB VLAARDINGEN. NETHERLANDS
5 HENRIETTE ELISABETH ANNA DE BRAAL VAN DER HAERSTRAAT 41, 2613 ZA DELFT, NETHERLANDS
PCT International Classification Number A61K 31/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA