Title of Invention

HEAT-RESISTANT CAST STEEL FOR REACTION TUBE FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BEING EXCELLENT IN AGING DUCTILITY AND CREEP RUPTURE STRENGTH

Abstract A heat-resistant cast steel excellent In high-temperature strength, aged ductility and creep rupture strength for use as a material for steam reforming reaction tabes in fuel cell hydrogen ganeratton systems and the like. The cast steel has a chemical composition comprising, in mass % , 0.1 to 0 5% of C, up to 2.5% of Si, up to 2.5% of Mn, 15 to 26% Of Cr, 8 to 23% of Nl, 0.1 to 1.2% of Nb, 0.01 to 1.0% of Ti, 0.001 to 0.1S% of Ce, up to 0.06% of N and the balance substantially Fe, the cast steel being 20 to 45 in tha parameter value P calculated from the expression P = 89.3 - 78. 4C + 0.1Si - 5.7Mn - 1 7Cr + 0.01Ni + 2Kb + 5.3T1 - 38.SN - 50 8Ce When desired, the steel contains at least one of 0.001 to 0.05% of B, 0.01 to 0.5% of Zr and 0.001 to 0.15% of ha, and/or 0. ol to 0.3% of Al. Further when desired, the C, Cr and Ni contents are limited to 0.1 to 0 3% of C, 15 to 20% of Cr and S to 13% of Ni-
Full Text SPECIFICATION
HEAT-RESISTANT CAST STEEL FOR REACTION TUBE FOR HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION BEING EXCELLENT IN AGING DUCTILITY AND CREEP
RUPTURE STRENGTH
TECHNICAL FIELD
[0001] The present invention relates to heat-resistant
cast steel which is excellent in aged ductility and creep
rupture strength for use as a material for making hydrogen
producing reaction tubes for the generation of hydrogen or a
synthesis gas consisting mainly of hydrogen from hydrocarbons
such as petroleum fuels, natural gas or the like by steam
reforming.
BACKGROUND ART
[0002] With steam reformer furnaces for generating
hydrogen in oil refineries , a gas mixture of a petroleum fuel
(naphtha, crude gasoline or the like) and steam is fed to a
reaction tube and subjected to a reforming reaction [CmHn +
mH2O → (n/2 + m)H2 + mCO] at a high temperature and high pressure
(temperature: about 700-900cC, pressure: about 1 to 3 MPa) in
the presence of a catalyst to produce a synthesis gas consisting
mainly of hydrogen. The reforming reaction tube needs to have
a high-temperature strength and high-temperature creep
strength so as to withstand a continuous long-term operation
under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure.
Heat-resistant high-carbon, high-Cr-Ni cast steel, which is
a precipitation hardening alloy, has conventionally been used
1

as a material for making the reaction, tube. Stated more
specifically, the materials heretofore developed up to date
axe SCH22(0.4C-25Cr-20Ni-Pe) as the first-generation material,
IN519(0 3C-24Cr-24Ni~l 5Nb-Fe) as the subsequent
second-generation material, and microalloylng materials , such.
as HP-Nb,Ti alloy(0 5C-25Cr-35Nl-Nb,Tl-Fe) containing a very
small amount of Nb, Ti or the like, as the third-generation
materials
Patent Literature 1. publication of JP-B No- 55-47105
Patent Literature 2. publication of JP-B No. 57-40900
Patent Literature 3. publication of JP-A No. 5-239599
[0003] In recent years, there is a growing demand for
clean energy as a measure against environmental pollution, and.
fuel cells for use with hydrogen fuel have attracted attention
and are thought promising , for axample , for use as power sources
for motor vehicles. Fuel cells are developed also as
distributed power sources on a small scale and partly
Introduced, into actual use. Along with this trend, great
efforts are made for developing hydrogen generation systems
for supplying hydrogen to fuel cells These systems include
small hydrogen generators and on-site hydrogen generation
units (such, as so-called "hydrogen stations") for producing
hydrogen from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), town gas (LNG)
and hydrocarbons including alcohols, kerosene and light oil.
[0004] Tne steam reforming reaction of hydrogen
generation systems for fuel cells is conducted at temperature
and pressure (temperature, about 750-800°C, pressure up to
2

about 1 MPa) relatively lower than the operating conditions
for large-sized apparatus in oil refineries, whereas the fuel
cell power demand greatly fluctuates between the daytime and
the nighttime, with the result that the operation of hydrogen
generation systems involves repeated fluctuations in the load
on the reforming reaction tube in corresponding relation with
the power demand. If such load fluctuations are repeated daily,
creep and. fatigue accumulate on the reaction tube, leading to
fatigue failure. In addition to high-temperature strength
and high-temperature creep rupture strength, outstanding
fatigue characteristics are therefore required of the
reforming reaction tube for use in fuel cell hydrogen
generation systems- Although the heat-resistant high-carbon,
high-Cr-Ni cast steel of the precipitation hardening type for
use in the large-sized apparatus of oil refineries has
high-temperature characteristics (high-temperature strength
and creep rupture strength) required for a continuous
operation at a high temperature and high pressure, the steel
still remains to be improved in aged ductility and resistance
to fatigue failure required of hydrogen generation systems of
the load fluctuation type and is not usable with good stability
over a prolonged period of time. When used in an environment
having a temperature range of about 800 °C for a long period,
the steel also encounters the problem of embrittlement
resulting from the precipitation of sigma phase and pointed
out in the case of the material HK40.
DISCLOSURB OF THE INVENTION
3

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED BY THE INVENTION
[0005] An object of the present invention is to solve the
foregoing problems experienced with the material for reforming
reaction tubes for the generation of hydrogen and to provide
a heat-resistant cast steel which has heat resistance and
high-temperature creep rupture strength required of steam
reforming reaction tubes for use in high-temperature
high-pressure environments and which is Improved in aged
ductility and fatigue characteristics and economically
advantageous so as to give enhanced durability and stability
to the reaction tube to be subjected to repeated load
fluctuations as in fuel cell hydrogen generation systems,
MEANS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM
[0006] The present invention provides a heat-resistant
cast steel for hydrogen producing reaction tubes which la
characterized in that the cast ateel comprises, in mass %, 0 1
to 0.5% Of C. up to 2.5% of Si, up to 2 5% of Mn, 15 to 26%
of Cr, 6 to 23% of Ni, 0.1 to 1.2% of Nb, 0.01 to 1 0% of Ti,
0.001 to 0 15% of Ce, up to 0 06% of N and the balance
substantially Fe, the cast steel being 20 to 45 in the parameter
value P represented by Expression (1) given below:
P = 89.3 - 78.4C + 0 1Si - 5.7Mn - 1 -7Cr
+ 0-0lNi + 2Nb + 5.3Ti - 36 5N - 50.8Ce . . . [1]
wherein the value attached to the symbol of each element
represents the content (%) of the element.
[0007] The heat-resistant cast steel of the invention is
given a composition containing elements in one of the following
4

combinations (1) to (3) when so desired.
(1) one or at least two elements selected from among 0.001 to
0.05% of B, 0.01 to 0.5% of Zr and 0.001 to 0 15% of La,
(2) 0.01 to 0.3% of Al, and
( 3 ) 0 . 001 to 0 . 3% of Al and one or at least two elements selected
from among 0.001 to 0 05% of B, 0.01 to 0-5% of Zr and 0.001
to 0.15% of La.
The heat-resistant cast steel of the invention is further
given a composition wherein C is limited to 0.1 to 0.3%, and
Cr and Ni are adjusted to the respective ranges of 15 to 20%
of Cr and 8 to 18% of Ni.
ADVANTAGES OP THE INVENTION
[0008] The heat-resistant cast stee1 of the chemical
composition described above according to the invention has a
metal structure comprising a matrix of austenltic phase and.
precipitation hardening partialas of chromium. oarbide (Cr23C6)
and the like dispersed and precipitated in the matrix. This
structure gives the steel the heat resistance and
high-temperature creep rupture strength required for use in
the high-temperature high-pressure environment of the steam
reformer reaction in hydrogen generation systems, inhibits the
precipitation of secondary carbides during a prolonged period
of high-temperature aging, and obviates the problem of sigma
phase embrittlement encountered with the conventional
material of HK40, permitting the steel to retain high
elongation during a prolonged service period as the result of
these advantages While improved fatigue characteristics are
5

required of reformer reaction tubes which are repeatedly
subjected to thermal fatigue cycles due to load fluctuations
as involved in the operation of fuel cell hydrogen generation
systems, improved fatigue characteristics and a longer service
life can be ensured for the steel as an effect of this
improvement in aged ductility.
BEST MODE OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
[0009] To obtain heat-resistance to and high-temperature
strength, against the high-temperature high-pressure
environment of the hydrogen generation steam reforming
reaction and to ensure aged ductility and fatigue
characteristics which are required for use in environments
involving load fluctuations, the heat-resistant cast steel of
the present invention is adjusted to have the composition to
bo described below. The contents of the components are
expressed all in mass %
[0010] C: 0.1-0 5%
C combines with Nb when molten steel solidifies on
casting, crystallizing out NbC at the grain boundary Further
when the reaction tube is used at a high temperature, C forming
a solid solution in the matrix of austenitic phase bonded to
Cr, producing a fine particulate Cr carbide (Cr23C6)
precipitate. The precipitation hardening effect results in
an enhanced creep rupture strength. The steel needs to have
a C content of at least 0 .1% to exhibit a creep rupture strength
capable of withstanding the service environment of up to 1000
°C when used for the reformer reaction tube to be incorporated
6

into the large-sized apparatus of oil refinery plants.
although an increased content leads to an enhanced creep
^rupture strength, C contents in excess of 0-5% entail impaired
Auctility due to an increased, accumulation of precipitate of
secondary carbide (cr23C6) during long-term use at a high
temperature and the resulting impairment of fatigue
characteristies. For this reason, the C content should be
restricted to 0.5% or lower. The C content should preferably
be restricted to the range of 0,1 to 0 3% for the material of
the reaction tabes of on-site units which are subjected to
repeated, load, fluctuations like fuel cell hydrogen generation
Systems and of which high fatigue characteristics are
Required.
[0011] si. up to 2 5%
Si is an element to be added for deoxidizing molten steel
and giving fluidity to molten steel Presence of up to 2.5%
of Si is sufficient to afford this effect. In excess of this
content, the element entails lower aged ductility and impairs
the weldabillty required for piping the reformer for the
construction of the hydrogen generation system. The content
is preferably 0 3 to 1.0%.
[0012} Mn: up to 2 5%
Mn is an element for deoxidizing molten steel and fixing
S (formation of MnS) in molten steel to give enhanced
weldability required for piping the reformer and to contribute
to an improvement in ductility. This effect almost levels off
when the content exceeds 2 5%, which should therefore be an
7

upper limit. Preferably, the content is 0.4 to 1%.
[0013] Cr: 15-26%
Cr is needed for ensuring high-temperature strength and
oxidation resistance, presence of at least 15% of Cr is
necessary to obtain a creep rupture strength capable of
withstanding the service environment having a high temperature
of up to 1000 °C and required for the reaction tube of
large-sized hydrogen generation systems of oil refineries.
The high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance
improve with an increase in the Cr content, whereas contents
in excess of 26% result in lower aged ductility and lower
fatigue characteristics although higher oxidation resistance
is available. The impairment of fatigue characteristics is
a phenomenon resulting from an increased accumulation of
chromium carbide (Cr23C6) precipitating during a long period
of use. Accordingly, the upper limit for the Cr content is
26%. The Cr content should preferably be limited to the range
of 15 to 20% for use in an environment wherein load fluctuations
require higher fatigue characteristics as is the case with the
reformer reaction tube of on-site hydrogen generation systems
for fuel cells. On the other hand, a higher Cr range of 20
to 26% is advantageous for use in a continuous high- temperature
operation as is the case with large- sized hydrogen generation,
systems of oil refineries.
[0014] Ni: 8-23%
Ni is an element necessary for giving oxidation
resistance and ensuring the stability of metal structures. If
8

the content is less than 5%, it is difficult to obtain the
high-temper-ature creep rupture strength required of the
reformer reaction tube, while greatly impaired aged ductility
will result The Ni content should therefore be at least 8%
However, an increase in Ni content decreases the amount of solid
solution of C in the matrix, and the decrease increases the
amount of precipitate of the secondary carbides (mainly Cr23C6)
during the actual use of the reaction tube, consequently
entailing lower aged ductility and Impaired fatigue
characteristies, For this reason, the Hi content should, not
be in excess of 23%. The Ni content is limited preferably to
the range of 8 to 18% for use in an environment wherein load
fluctuations require higher fatigue characteristics as is the
case with the reformer reaction tube to be incorporated into
on-site hydrogen generation systems for fuel cells. On the
other hand, a higher Ni range of 18 to 23% is advantageous for
us© in a continuous high-temperature operation as is the case
with, large-sized hydrogan generation systems of oil
refineries.
[0015] Nb: 0.1-1.2%
Nb is bonded, to C to form NbC giving an enhanced crcop
rupture strength and contributing to an improvement in aged
ductility. This effect is available when at least 0.1% of Nb
is present. However, an excessive increase in the content
leads to lower oxidation resistance, so that the upper limit
should be 1 2%.
[0016] Ti: 0 01-1.0%
9

Ti has strong deoxidizing activity. while when in the
form of a solid solution in the matrix, Ti bonded to C, producing
a fine particulate (Nb.Ti)C double carbide precipitate and
affording an enhanced creep rupture strength. At least 0.01%
of Ti should be present to obtain this effect. An excess of
Ti nevertheless produces an increased amount of titanium oxide
to impair the cleanness of the steel and result in impaired
quality, hence an upper limit of 1.0%.
[0017] Ce. 0.001-0.15
Ce forms a solid solution in the matrix and is effective
for giving improved high-temperature oxidation resistance.
This effect requires presence of at least 0.001% of Ce,
preferably at least 0.01% thereof. Although the effect
enhances with an increase in this content, an excess of Ce
produces a large amount of cerium oxide to result in impaired
cleanness and a lower quality. The upper limit is therefore
0.15%.
[0018] N up to 0.06%
N is an interstitial solid solution element and has an
effect to stabilize the austenitic phase of the matrix and gives
an enhanced high-temperature tensile strength. However, an
excessive increase in N content impairs the aged ductility in
the temperature range of about 800°C . The upper limit is 0.06%
to suppress this impairment of ductility. The preferred range
is 0.01 to 0.05%.
[0019] B: 0 001-0.05%
B precipitates on the grain boundary, affording improved
10

grain boundary ductility, inhibits growth of particles
(formation of coarse particles) of chromium carbide (Cr23C6)
and contributes to an improvement in creep rupture strength,
This effect is available when at least 0.001% of B is present.
However, increases over 0.05% lead to increased. weld cracking
sensitivity, impairing the weldability required for piping the
reformer, so that this value is taken as the upper limit.
[0020] Zr: 0,01-0.5%
Zr produces MC type carbide precipitate, acting to give
an enhanced creep rupture strength. Presence of at least 0.01%
of Zr produces this effect. Although increased contents are
more effective, great contents in excess of 0.5%, produce an
increased amount of zirconium oxide to entail impaired
cleanness and the resulting impairment of ductility, so that
this value is takan as the upper limit.
[0021] La 0.001-0.15%
La produces a solid solution in tha matrix to result in
improved high-temperature oxidation resistance Presence of
at least 0.001% of La affords this effect. Although this
effect increases with, an increase in the amount of La, presence
of an excess of this element produces a large amount of
lanthanum oxide, leading to lower cleanness and impaired
ductility. The upper limit is therefore 0,15%, and the
preferred content is 0.001 to 0.1%.
[0022] Al: 0.01-0.3%
Al is added as a deoxidant and effective for affording
increased high-temperature oxidation resistance. This
11

effect is available when at least 0 01% of Al is present
However, large contents in excess of 0.3% produce an increased
ampunt of aluminum oxide, impairing the cleanness of the steel
and entailing lower ductility . This value is therefore taken
as the upper limit.
[0023] The chemical composition of the heat-resistant
cast steel of the present invention comprises the elements
defined as above and needs to be adjusted in the balance of
components so as to have a parameter value P of 20 to 45, the
parameter value P being represented by the following
expression
P = 89.3 - 78.4C + 0.1Si - 5.7Mn - 1.7Cr
+ 0.01Ni + 2Nb + 5.3Ti - 36.5N - 50.8Ce
This expression was experimentally determined by conducting
an aged ductility test [aging treatment at 800°C for 3000 hours ,
followed by the measurement of fracture elongation], The
parameter value (= 20 to 45) was a value obtained as the
requirement for ensuring high ductility in terms of an aged
fracture elongation of at least 20% while enabling the steel
to retain a high-temparature creep rapture strength.
While the problem of fatigue failure is encountered with the
load fluctuating reformer reaction tube for use in on-site
hydrogen generation systems, improved fatigue characteristics
are ensured for the reaction tube as the effect of a remarkable
improvement in aged ductility resulting from the adjustment
of the balance of components
[0024] The reformer reaction tube to be made from the
12

heat-resistant cast steel of the invention is produced as a
cast tube by centrifugal casting. The cast tube is therefore
remarkably advantageous economically unlike those produced by
hot plastic working. The cast tube obtained is finished by
machining and assembled by welding as a component tube material
of the reformer
EXAMPLE
[0025] Specimen tubes were cast by preparing molten cast
steels each having a specified composition in a high-frequency
induction melting furnace having an Ar gas atmosphere and
casting the steels by centrifugal casting with a. mold. The
tubes (as machined) measured 137 mm in outside diameter, 20
nun in wall thickness and 260 mm in length. Test pieces cut
off from the specimen materials were subjected to a tensile
test, creep rupture test and fatigue life test and observed
under a microscope. Test pieces were tested as cast for creep
rupture strength, while the other tests were conducted after
subjecting test pieces to an aging treatment in an electric
furnace.
The compositions of the specimen materials are shown in
Table 1, and the test results in Table 2.
[0026] Aged tensile ductility
Strips of test materials were aged (at 800°C for 3000
hours), and test pieces were thereafter prepared from the
strips for a tensile test and tested for fracture elongation
by a tensile test according to JIS-Z2241
Shape of test pieces: 8.7 5 mm-4D in parallel portion diameter
13

Test temperature: room temperature
The symbols in Table 2, "aged rupture ductility" column
represent the following.
O: at least 20% in fracture elongation
X - less than 20% in fracture elongation
[0027] Creep characteristics
Test pieces were prepared from the test materials and
tested for rupture life (hours) by a tensile creep rupture test
according to JIS-Z2272
Shape of test pieces. 6 mm in. parallel portion diameter, 30
mm in gauge length
Test temperature: 800°C
Tensile stress: 80 MPa
[0028] Fatigue characteristics
The test materials were aged (at 800°C for 1000 hours)
to prepare test pieces. which were subjected to the following
fatigue test according to JIS-Z2273 to determine the number
of repetitions to failure, Nf (the number of repetitions until
the stress range reached 75% of maximum stress) , to evaluate
fatigue life in terms of the value. The symbols in Table 2,
"Fatigue characteristics" column represent the following.
O: at least 1000 in number of repetitions
X less than 1000 in number of repetitions
Shape of test pieces; solid round bar (10 mm in diameter)
Test temperatures: 800°C
Total strain range (£t): =0.3%
Strain rate. 10-1 %/sec (C-C type reverted
14

triangular wave)
Gauge length (G L.)' 15 mm
[0029] Observation of metal structure
The test pieces as aged (at 800°C for 3000 hours) were
polished, electrolytically corroded (corrosive solution: 1ON
agueous potassium hydroxide solution) and thereafter checked
for sigma phase precipitate under a microscope.
[0030] In Tables 1 and 2. Comparative Example
(No.21-No.26), Ho-21 is a matarial corresponding to SCH13
(JIS-G5122), No.22 is a material corresponding to SCH22
(JIS-G5122) , No 23 is SCH13 + Nb, No.24 is SCH22 + Nb,Ti. No.25
is a high-N material , and No.26 is a low-C Ti austenitic steel.
The materials of Example of the invention (No l-No.12)
remain free from sigma phase precipitates despite aging at a
high temperature for a prolonged period of time, excellent in
the stability of the structure, high in aged ductility and creep
rupture life, and satisfactory in fatigue characteristics.
Thus, the materials have characteristics desirable for
hydrogen producing reformer reaction tubes, especially for
reformer reaction tubes of load operation type apparatus which
are subjected to repeated heat cycles
[0031] On the other hand. Comparative Example
(No.21-No.26) shows that No.21 (SCHl3) and No.22 (SCH22) are
low in aged fracture elongation, short in creep rupture life
and also short in aged fatigue life
Although No . 23 is slightly improved, in creep, rapture lite
as an effect of the addition of Nb to the base of SCH13, the
15

material is low in aged fracture elongation and fatigue
characteristics. No.24 is remarkably improved in creep
rupture life as an effect of the addition of both Nb and Ti
to the base of SCH22. whereas the material has a sigma phase
precipitate, is low in aged ductility and fatigue
characteristics and is not suitable as a material for reformer
reaction tubes of the load fluctuation type.
Although No.25 has high matrix structure stability and
no sigma phase precipitate as an effect of high N content, the
material is low in aged ductility, creep rupture life and.
fatigue characteristics . No.26 is satisfactory in aged
fracture elongation and fatigue characteristics, but has a
parameter value P in excess of the upper limit defined by the
invention, is therefore low in creep rupture strength and is
not suitable for use at a high temperature and high pressure
as the material of. steam reforming reaction tubes.
16





INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY
[0034] The heat-resistant cast steel of the present
invention has high ductility and creep rupture life even after
a long period of aging at a high temperature and is improved
in fatigue characteristics Accordingly, the steel is
suitable as a material for steam reformer reaction tubes for
use in fuel cell hydrogen generation systems and also in
large-scale hydrogen, generation systems to be operated, at a
high temperature and increased pressure in oil refineries.
Because of especially high fatigue characteristics, the steel
is suitable as a material for the reaction tubes of fuel cell
hydrogen generation systems of the load fluctuation type to
be subjected to repeated heat cycles due to fluctuations in
the operating load between the daytime and nighttime, like
on-site hydrogen generation systems (hydrogen stations) . The
steel ameliorates or overcome the problem of cracking due to
repeated heat cycles, realizing a long-term stabilized
operation
The heat-resistant steel of the invention is diminished
in the content of expensive Ni and advantageous also in cost
The reaction tube is manufactured by centrifugal casting and
is economically more advantageous than those made by plastic
working. The neat-resistant steel of the invention is usable
also for heat-treatment hearth rolls for iron and steel making .
19

CLAIMS
1. A heat-resistant cast steel excellent in aged ductility
and creep rupture strength, for hydrogen producing reaction
tubes which is characterized in that the cast steel comprises ,
in mass %, 0 1 to 0.5% of C, op to 2 5% of Si, up to 2.5% of
Mn, 15 to 26% Of Cr, 8 to 23% of Ni, 0 1 to 1.2% of Nb, 0.01
to 1.0% of Ti. 0 001 to 0.15% of Ce, up to 0.06% of N and the
balance substantially Fe, the cast steel being 20 to 45 in the
parameter value P represented by the following expression:
P = 89.3 - 78.4C + 0.1Si - 5.7Mn - 1 7Cr
+ 0.01Ni + 2Nb + 5 3Ti - 36.5N - 50 8Ce
2 The heat-resistant cast steel for hydrogen producing
reaction tubes according to claim 1 which further contains
one or at least two elements selected from among 0.001 to 0.05%
of B. 0,01 to 0.5% o£ Zr and 0.001 to 0.15% of La
3. The heat-resistant cast steel for hydrogen producing
reaction tubes according to claim 1 or 2 which further contains
0.01 to 0 3% of A1
4. The heat-resistant cast steel for hydrogen, producing
reaction tubas according to any one of claims 1 to 3 which
contains 0.1 to 0.3% of c.
5. The heat-resistant cast steel for hydrogen producing
reaction tubes according to any one of claims 1 to 4 which
contains 15 to 20% of Cr and 8 to 18% of Ni.
20

A heat-resistant cast steel excellent In high-temperature strength, aged ductility and creep rupture strength for use as a material for steam reforming reaction tabes in fuel cell hydrogen ganeratton systems and the like. The cast steel has a chemical composition comprising, in mass % , 0.1 to 0 5% of C, up to 2.5% of Si, up to 2.5% of Mn, 15 to 26% Of Cr, 8 to 23% of Nl, 0.1 to 1.2% of Nb, 0.01 to 1.0% of Ti, 0.001 to 0.1S% of Ce, up to 0.06% of N and the balance substantially Fe, the cast steel being 20 to 45 in tha parameter value P calculated from the expression P = 89.3 - 78. 4C + 0.1Si - 5.7Mn - 1 7Cr
+ 0.01Ni + 2Kb + 5.3T1 - 38.SN - 50 8Ce
When desired, the steel contains at least one of 0.001 to 0.05% of B, 0.01 to 0.5% of Zr and 0.001 to 0.15% of ha, and/or 0. ol to 0.3% of Al. Further when desired, the C, Cr and Ni contents are limited to 0.1 to 0 3% of C, 15 to 20% of Cr and S to 13% of Ni-

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Patent Number 242971
Indian Patent Application Number 689/KOLNP/2006
PG Journal Number 39/2010
Publication Date 24-Sep-2010
Grant Date 22-Sep-2010
Date of Filing 23-Mar-2006
Name of Patentee KUBOTA CORPORATION
Applicant Address 2-47, SHIKITSUHIGASHI 1-CHOME, NANIWA-KU, OSAKA-SHI, OSAKA 556-8601, JAPAN
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 TAKAHASHI MAKOTO 2-32-10-16, KASUGAMOTOMACHI, HIRAKATA-SHI, OSAKA 573-0135, JAPAN.
2 HASHIMOTO KUNIHIDE 1-17-7-303, KISABENISHI, KATANO-SHI, OSAKA 576-0041, JAPAN
PCT International Classification Number C22C, 38/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/JP2004/015354
PCT International Filing date 2004-10-18
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 2003-359203 2003-10-20 Japan