Title of Invention  "IMPROVED CYLINDRICAL BLADE FOR AXIAL STEAM TURBINES" 

Abstract  The present invention relates to the improved aerodynamic design of a pair of blade profiles valid over a wide range of flow regime. The so formed blades, pertain to high pressure, intermediate pressure and first few stages of low pressure cylinders of axial steam turbines. The invented blades cover a wide range of stagger angles; pitch/chord ratios; inlet flow angles and outlet Mach numbers. FTG1 
Full Text  FIELD OF INVENTION This invention relates to aerodynamically wide range applicable cylindrical blade profiles for axial steam turbines. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION AND PRIOR ART The designers of steam turbines seek for quick selection of useful blade with a minimum number of inventory. One would prefer a few efficient blades to cover a wide flow range prevailing in turbine stages. There are publications such as Deich et.al. (Atlas of Blades Profiles for Axial Turbines 1965) for a set of profiles. Further, two patents US 5211703 (1993) and US 5192190 (1993) on stationary blade have been filed by the authors, viz. Ferteger, Jurek and Evans, David H. Such patents were for a twisted stationary blade with varying stagger angle from hub to tip (from 42 degree at hub to 52 deg at shroud). The blade is noncylindrical and twisted over the span. The present invention concerns with two numbers of blade profiles; each one can be used for forming a cylindrical blade i.e. with constant stagger from hub to tip. The blades formed by any of these two profiles are untwisted or cylindrical in shape. In addition, the present invention deals with both stationary (guide) and rotating (moving) type of blades for axial steam turbines. While converting heat energy into kinetic energy, turbines blades suffer two kinds of aerodynamic losses; onethe profile loss due to steam wise boundary layer growth (along blade surfaces), and mixing in blade wakes, the secondthe profile loss due to secondary flow resulting from boundary layer growth along the hub and casing and flows resulting from turning of inlet boundary layer (passage vortex; pressure face to suction face in a cascade passage). The reduction in losses is achieved by various means such as smooth surface and aftloaded pressure distribution along the blade surfaces (instead of foreloaded or flattopped design). Smooth contour variation usually ensures lower profiles losses for incompressible and subsonic flows. The lower velocity and crosschannel pressure gradient in the first part of cascade passage where the secondary flow originates; and higher diffusion in the rear part of suction face are the desired feature in aftloaded profiles which in turn reduces secondary flow losses. The cylindrical blades is defined herein as one of constant crosssection over the blade height. Fig. 1 shows a schematic base profile. At any crosssection, the shape of the profile remains same as shown typically in Fig.2. The profile or section is made of two surfaces; suction face and pressure face, each joining leading edge of trailing edge. Xaxis and Uaxis coincide with the turbine axis and circumferential directions, respectively. Usually the center of gravity lies at origin of coordinate axes. The blade or profiles is set at angle "betabi or y, tg, also known as stagger or setting angle with respect of Uaxis. Chord is defined as axial distance of base profile measured between two farthest tangents to the profile; one at leading edge side and other at trailing edge side. The tangents are normal to the chord. Axial chord is the projected length of the profile on Xaxis; hence varies with profile stagger. Inlet and exit flow angles Bl, tg and B2, tg are fluid flow angles with respect to tangent (Uaxis); also referred as beta Ix and beta 2x with reference to turbine axis, respectively. The profile faces can be specified by various ways; e.g. though discrete points (x, y coordinates), through a set of arcs ad through Bezier points. The basic difference between any two cylindrical blades is the profile shape and what is being claimed here is the unique quantitative shape of the proposed blade (e.g. geometrical ratios as shown in Fig. 3). OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to propose a pair of aerodynamic efficient blade profiles. Another object of the present invention is to propose a pair of aerodynamic efficient blade profiles which is applicable for a wide stagger variation. Still another object of the present invention is to propose a pair of aerodynamic efficient blade profiles and wherein tooling is minimum. DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION According to this invention there is provided an improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines comprising a leading edge and a trailing edge and a pressure face and joining at said trailing and leading edges and an inlet flow angle characterized in that the trailing edge is below the base line. BRIEF DECRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The nature of invention, its objective and further advantages residing in the same will be apparent from the following description made with reference to the nonlimiting exemplary embodiments of the invention represented in the accompanying drawings. Fig. 1 profile Geometry Description (Base Profile) Fig.2 profile Geometry Description (Stacked Profile) Fig.3 e3 profile: Geometrical Ratios Fig.4 e3 profile: (Stacked View) Fig.5 e3 profile: Loss characteristics as function of M2, s/c & gamatg Fig.6 eS profile: Outlet Flow angles as function of M2, s/c & gamatag Fig.7 e3 profile: Loss characteristics as function of inlet angle& gamatag Fig. 8 e3 profile: Outlet Flow angles as function of inlet angle & gamatag Fig. 9 e3 profile: Loss characteristics as function of Garnatg & M2 Fig. 10 e3 profile: Outlet Flow angles as function of Garnatg & M2 Fig. 11 e9 profile: Geometrical Ratios Fig. 12 e9 profile: (Stacked View) Fig. 13 e9 profile: Loss characteristics as function of Inlet angle 85 garnatg Fig. 14 e9 profile: Outlet Flow angles as function of Inlet angle 85 gamatg Fig. 15 e9 profile: Loss characteristics as function of M2, s/c & gamatg Fig. 16 e9 profile: Outlet Flow angles as function of M2, s/c& gamatg Fig. 17 e9 profile: Loss characteristics as function of Gamatg & M2 Fig. 18 e9 profile: Outlet Flow angles as function of Gamatg & M2 The Profile Geometry: Fig 1 indicates a typical geometry L (or C) denotes the length of base chord. Diameters of leading edge circle, nearly the largest incircle and trailing edge circles, are denoted by dl, D and d2. The peak locations (maximum height) of suction and pressure faces are denoted by (11, bl) and (12, b2), respectively. The coordinates of center of largest incircle is (13, b3). b4 is the difference (blb2). The vertical shift of lowest point at trailing edge (pressure face) from base line is denoted by b5. Pitch s is the circumferential distance between two adjacent blades in a turbine blade row. It is defined mathematically as s=2nr/z; r being section radius of the blade where profile section is taken and z is no of blades in the bladerow. Blade turning angle (from inlet edge to outlet edge) is called as camber angle. Performance Analysis: The proposed blade profiles are analyzed by a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software for various flow conditions to simulate incompressible as well as subsonic flow regime. The profiles are numerically experimented for a set of stagger angles y.tg (gamatg); pressure ratios (hence exit Mach no.), inlet flow angles and pitchbychord ratios to result outlet flow angles ß2, tg (or beta2x) and energy loss coefficient. In total; results from 148 successful CFD runs are included herein to establish the nomograms. Energy loss coefficient is defined as (Formula Removed) where P2 is mass  averaged static pressure at the outlet; po2 and po2 are mass averaged stagnation pressure at the inlet an exit of the cascade. K is the ration of specific heats of working fluid (1.4 for air). Also note that beta2x=62, tg  90 ; beta lx=90  fil, tg. It may be noted that the results quoted herein for energy loss coefficient q, is more indicative in nature than that the absolute value, since it may very quantitatively with the use of other CFD software. However the graphical patterns may not change significantly. The invented Blade Profile e3: I. Geometry: Fig 3 indicates a typical profile geometry e3 having profile thickness value as 38% of chord located at 25% of Chord distance from the leading edge. Other geometrical ratios are also shown in the same figure. The unique geometrical feature of the base profile is that the trailing edge (depth b5) is below the base line. The stacked views of profile for 2 extreme stagger angles (gamatg=43 and 63 degrees) are shown in Fig. 4. II. Performance Analysis: The first proposed blade profile is analyzed and results are shown in graphical forms for quick use during design. (Figs. 510). Fig. 5 and 6 show the effect of exit Mach number M2; pitchchord ratio s/c and two useful extreme range of stagger angles; gamatg (47 and 57 deg) on energy loss coefficient q and outlet flow angles (beta2x). The range of s/c and M2 chosen is very wide: 0.651.05 and 0.3 to 1.2; respectively. The following observations may be noted. 1. Higher the stagger angle, the lower is the loss at every exit Mach no M2 2. Loss increases with M2 except at s/c = 0.65 and gamatg =57 3. The suggested profile is useful for a range of 1VI2 (M 4. Loss is minimum for s/c=0.85 and any M2 (M2 5. Loss is maximum for s/c = 0.65 for any M2 (M2 0.7 6. Exit flow angle beta2x decreases with increase in M2 for M2  0.9 and below. The trend is opposite for M2 > 0.9 7. Higher the stagger, the higher the exit flow angle beta2x 8. Beta2x increases with increase in pitchchord ratio s/c 9. Figs. 5 and 6 indicate that s/c = 0.85 is optimum ratio, from the point of view of loss. Figs. 7 and 8 show the behavior of profile for various inflow angle (incidence effects). The loss is independent of large variation of betalx (10 to 30 degree) for both extreme stagger (gamatg = 47 and 57) at s/c = 0.85 and M2 = 0.6. Similarly there is very negligible change in outlet angel for a large variation in betalx. The trend is valid for other M2 and intermediate stagger angles. Figs 9 and 10 are summary nomograms of performance for optimum pitchchord ratio = 0.85. They indicate that the profile is useful for stagger angle range 4763 resulting beta2x = 76 to 60 for exit mach no range M2 = 0.3  0.9. The invented Blade Profile e9: 1. Geometry: Fig. 11 indicates a typical profile geometry e3 having profile thickness value as 33% of chord located at 27.8% of chord distance from the leading edge. Other geometrical ratios are also shown in the same figure. It is more cambered profile than e3 hence useful for low reaction blade. The unique geometrical feature of the base profile is that the tailing edge (depth b5) is below the base line. The stacked views of profile for 2 extreme stagger angles (gamatg = 50 and 70 degrees) are shown in Fig. 12. 2. Performance Analysis: The first proposed blade profile is analyzed and results are shown in graphical forms for quick use during design (Figs. 1318). This profile shows the outlet angle variation independent of inlet flow angle (1050 degree) for two extreme stagger angles 57 and 67 degrees for s/c = 0.85 and M2 = 0.6. However, there is noticeable variation in loss coefficient. Detailed variation of loss coefficient and outlet angles as function of M2, s/c and stagger angles is shown in Figs. 15 and 16. There is little variation in beta2x for M2=0.9 and below. Beta2x increases with M2 for M2>0.9. Energy loss coefficient is minimum for s/c=0.85 for M2 (Table Removed) WE CLAIM: 1. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines comprising a leading edge (1) and a trailing edge (2) and a pressure face (3) and joining at said trailing and leading edges and an inlet flow angle (5) characterized in that the trailing edge is below the base line (6). 2. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines as claimed in claim 1 wherein the curvature of the pressure face (3) has a point of infection in the area adjacent to said leading edge (1). 3. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines as claimed in claim 2 wherein the carvature at the point of infection is concave while the curvature of down stream of the point of infection is convex. 4. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines as claimed in claim 1 wherein the leading and trailing edge are defined by circular arcs. 5. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines as claimed in claim 1 wherein values of profile thickness b5/L 0.2298 and 0.2718; and the maximum thickness (D/L) values are 0.2766 and 0.3296 for the profiles e3 and e9; respectively. 6. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines as claimed in claim 1 wherein the profile of the blades is defined by the following ratios. D/L = 0.2766223 dl/L = 9.5747955E02 d2/L = 1.3889720E02 bl/L = 0.4093767 b2/L = 0.1795354 bS/L = 0.2625337 b4/L = 0.2298413 b5/L = 1.4287546E02 11/L = 0.2615605 12/L = 0.4520896 13/L = 0.2197523 A/(D*L) = 0.6120743 Camber angle  94.5 degree 7. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines as claimed in claim 1 wherein the profile of the blades is defined by the following ratios: D/L = 0.329558 dl/L = .051 d2/L = .00602 bl/L = 0.49078 b2/L = 0.212665 b3/L = 0.321576 b4/L = 0.27812 b5/L = 0.0268 11/L = 0.277689 12/L = 0.49412 13/L = 0.2460 A/{D*L) = 0.63114 Camber angle  110 degree 8. Improved cylindrical blades for axial steam turbines substantially as herein described and illustrated. 

652del2004complete specification(granted).pdf
652del2004correspondenceothers.pdf
652del2004correspondencepo.pdf
652del2004description (complete).pdf
Patent Number  242398  

Indian Patent Application Number  652/DEL/2004  
PG Journal Number  35/2010  
Publication Date  27Aug2010  
Grant Date  25Aug2010  
Date of Filing  31Mar2004  
Name of Patentee  BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED  
Applicant Address  BHEL HOUSE,SIRI FORT,NEW DELHI110 049,INDIA  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  F01D 5/00  
PCT International Application Number  N/A  
PCT International Filing date  
PCT Conventions:
