|Title of Invention||
A SUB SURFACE IRRIGATION SYSTEM
|Abstract||The sub surface irrigation system comprises of Water storage system that comprises of a water well/tube well that is connected to motor and pipe through which motor supplies water from well/tube well to water tank where the water tank is placed on a base; Water regulation system comprises of Water level guard in water tank to maintains water level in water tank, outlet pipe with plurality of valve where valve1 provides water to ventury and water further regulated by valve2 and supplied to water filter for filtration and further supplied to water meter which measures the quantity of water supplied, water is further supplied to Water distribution system and Water Distribution System comprises of plurality of water carrying / distribution pipe which are laid under the ground level that introduces water to porous pipe and soil absorbs water at rate the soil can absorb water at its natural rate.|
|Full Text|| FORM - 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
PROVISIONALSPECIFICATION (See section 10; rule 13)
'A SUB SURFACE IRRIGATION SYSTEM'
The following specification particularly describes the invention
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is related to irrigation systems in particular sub surface irrigation system.
Since it was foreseen that energy and water would become major concern for any nation, it has become essential to not only conserve water but also energy used by agriculture sector, which uses about 50 % or more of global sweet water and energy supply.
By improving energy and water use efficiency, which will ultimately help conserving energy and water for a nation to sustain, and bring energy and water security to a nation, so does the ability for nation to sustain longer.
Hence it is going to be eminent to have high demand of irrigation system, which will be energy and water efficient.
Amongst various known irrigation methods, there are mainly two methods:
A. Surface Irrigation Method
B. Sub surface Irrigation Method
Surface irrigation method is most widely used method in which water is applied on the surface of the soil. But there are many disadvantages as mentioned below:
1. It wets the top soil only. Now it depends on the type of the soil, weather conditions as to what amount of water is actually utilized
by crops. Thus wastage of water is quite high due to run-off and evaporation.
2. Because of top surface application, it results into shallow root development. Thus the overall plant growth and quality of plant yield is significantly less.
3. It results into more weed growth.
4. It uses more fertilizer than what the soil actually requires because the fertilizer is also applied like the water in measured quantities, and wasted due to exposure to atmosphere and run off.
5. It affects the wet/dry cycle.
6. The wet surface of soil provides more chances for growth of pests, insects, fungus, diseases etc.
7. With the continuous use of this method, soil starts getting harder due to compaction.
8. It seals the soil strata thus affecting the natural growth of plants.
9. This method requires tillage.
lO.The wet soil due to surface irrigation discourages natural activities in the soil such as earthworms and microbial life thus soil health is degraded.
11. This method is a serious contributor to pollution as pesticides, fungisides, weedisite are applied on surface of soil and with run off they become pollutants.
12. Being a conventional method, more laborers are required.
Amongst the known methods, drip irrigation and sprinkler are very
popular which also have many drawbacks as follows:
1. They are high flow and high pressure systems which consumes more energy. As higher the operating pressure, higher the energy consumption. Hence energy use efficiency is significantly less.
2. They require continuous energy supply throughout the irrigation operation.
3. In this method, predetermined quantity of water is applied on top surface of the soil. More over with this significant water loss occurs from the surface due to evaporation or run-off. Hence, the water use efficiency is significantly less.
4. The main difficulty while using one of the above methods is that it needs to be removed at the time of harvest and re-lay for new planting. This is a cumbersome and time consuming method and it also involves manpower making this method expensive. More over, there is a possibility of damage during inter-cultivation and hoeing or otherwise every operation you might have to remove and re-lay the system, which will again increase cultivation cost.
5. There are higher possibilities of theft, fire etc. as well as damages due to vandals, animals etc.
6. Functional life expectancy is around 10 years or even less.
The sub surface irrigation systems apply water in subsoil i.e. at the root level. Amongst them, they generally use one or more conduits connected to water storage. Here the water quantity is predetermined which results into less water use efficiency. More over, they require energy throughout their operation.
Thus there is a requirement of irrigation systems, which are not only energy and water efficient but also provides ease in installation, operation and maintenance, resulting in reduction in cultivation cost.
Object of the Invention
So with the motto of an efficient irrigation system, the inventor has proposed a sub surface irrigation system which is water and energy efficient.
The main object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which Introduces moisture to the soil at the rate the soil can absorb the water at its natural rate thus saves significant amount of energy and water.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which applies water at root level thus there is minimal loss of moisture to evaporation or run-off thus again saving significant amount of water improving water use efficiency.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which works on low pressure and low flow principle thus conserving energy and water.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system in which a porous pipe is laid permanently under the surface providing ease in installation and maintenance.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system in which a porous pipe is laid permanently under the surface thus it can be protected from external interference and is not damaged during inter-cultivation and hoeing.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which can maintain continuous moisture band at the root zone of plants enhancing deeper and extensive root development thus improving shelf life and quality of plants resulting into higher yields.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which can be used for even inferior quality of water.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which has higher functional life expectancy of around 25 years or even more.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which maintains continuous moisture band at the root zone of plants thus weed growth is minimized and growth of fungus is eliminated.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which maintains continuous moisture band at the root zone of plants thus growth of pests, insects & diseases is discouraged.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which reduces tillage requirement of the soil thus conserving the top soil.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which allows the air movement into the soil thus achieving natural balance of air and water in the soil promoting maximum soil health.
The further object of this invention is to provide a sub surface irrigation system which encourages natural activities in the soil such as earthworms and microbial life that is prompted by the moist (but not wet) environment.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The proposed sub surface irrigation system has a porous pipe that is laid underground at around 6-15 inches below the ground at the root level zone. It has membrane like structure. It works on gravitational force with low flow and low pressure and does not require energy during its irrigation operation thus saves significant amount of energy.
This porous pipe applies water to the soil at the natural rate which soil absorbs water to reach at field capacity. At a point of field capacity, equilibrium between the water inside the porous pipe and the water in the soil (Moisture level) will be attained. When the plant evaporates water through its leaves, roots start absorbing water (moisture) from the soil and equilibrium is broken. Now the soil again starts absorbing water from the porous pipe at its natural rate until equilibrium between the water inside the porous pipe and the water in the soil (Moisture level) will be attained again. Thus demand of water of the
plant is automatically controlled by the soil. So the water use efficiency is high compared to all existing irrigation systems.
In the proposed sub surface irrigation system, is designed in such a way that there are no valves to operate, thus there is no manual interference. The said pipe is laid permanently under the surface providing ease in installation, operation and maintenance. More over, it can be protected from external interference and is not damaged during inter-cultivation and hoeing.
As there is minimal evaporation occurs on the surface of the soil, it does not leave salts, stains and residues neither in the proposed pipe nor in the soil thus there is no chance of hardpan. More over, as there is no run-off of water, soil erosion is eliminated.
Dated this 26th day of May, 2006.
(Jatin Y. Trivedi) (Authorized Patent Agent of the Applicant)
The Controller of Patents,
The Patent Office,
|Indian Patent Application Number||823/MUM/2006|
|PG Journal Number||21/2010|
|Date of Filing||29-May-2006|
|Name of Patentee||PATEL MEHUL KIRTIKUMAR|
|Applicant Address||101, Shantiniketan Society, Sumul Dairy Road, Surat-395003,|
|PCT International Classification Number||A01G25/00,A01G25/06|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|