|Title of Invention||
"A METHOD OF REMOVING WASTE AND MANUFACTURING COWDUNG IN POWDER AND CAKE FORM"
|Abstract||The invention relates to the field of the manufacture of the cow dung, in the form of powder or cakes used for various religious ritual functions, as pious material, organic manure and as a source of heat & fire sacrifices (yajnas) etc after suitable treatments and addictions. The method involves the collection of the cow dung to form a plastic mass with water and digested for the complete removal of gas, other volatile organics & free of gases like Methane and other low HC. The ultraviolet treatment removes odour and other pathogen, further aerobic digestion to get product free of moisture, particular size and geometry. Followed by screening of the product to get consistency in particle size; the screened product is scented to arrive at the pleasant odour of the final product.|
FIELD OF INVENTION;
The present invention relates to the field of the manufacture of the cow dung, in the form of powder or cakes used for various religious ritual functions, as pious material, organic manure and as a source of heat & fire sacrifices (yajnas) etc after suitable treatments and addictions.
The method also solves the disposal problem of the Methane gas digester waste or cow dung sludge from any other source into useful forms like powder and cakes for many traditional usages and other end uses in INDIA.
In India cow is worshiped as "Lakshmi", the goddess of wealth. The cow has been made sacred in India because it is a keystone species for agro-ecosystems — it is key to the sustainability of agriculture.
Gobur-dhan puja is literally the worship of gobur (cow dung) dhan (wealth). Cow dung is worshipped because it is the
source of renewal of soil fertility and hence the sustainability of human society.
Cow dung is used as manure in India where it is known as gobar. Cow dung is basically the reject of herbivorous matter, which is acted upon by symbiotic bacteria residing
within the animal's rumen. The resultant faecal matter is a rich in minerals and color ranges from greenish to blaekish.
Within due course of time, the resulting matter turns yellow due to chemical changes caused by sunlight.
Cow dung is used primarily as a fertilizer. In recent times, the dung is collected and used as biogas, which is used to generate electricity and heat. The gas is a rich source of methane and is used in rural areas of India to provide a renewable, stable and environment friendly source of electricity. Caked Cow dung is also used as a fuel to cook food and also as a source of fire in Pujas and fire sacrifices (yajnas) in INDIA.
Cow dung is also used to line the flooring and walls owing to its insect repellent properties. In cold regions, cow
dung is used to line the walls of rustic houses as it proves to be a superior and cheap insulator. Cow dung has an excellent mosquito repellent property and is used by many users to produce repellents. It was also used extensively on Indian Railways to seal smoke boxes on steam locomotives in earlier days.
END USES OF COW DUNG;
1. Fuel - cow dung patties (gootte) for cooking
2. Fertilizer - composting makes it even more powerful
3. Heat source - cow dung is naturally hot -compost makes
4. hotter put in glass house to heat glass house or run
5. pipes through it to get hot water.
3. Purifier - natural antiseptic qualities
4. Floor coating - used mixed with mud and water on floors
5. in mud houses. Improves water absorption of mud.
6. Prevents muddy puddles resulting from spilt water.
7. Mud brick additive - improves resistance to disintegration
8. Skin tonic - mixed with crushed neem leaves smeared on
9. skin - good for boils and heat.
10. Smoke producer - smoldering cow patties keep away
It is clear from the above detailed introduction that the
value of Cow and Cow dung in INDIA of historical, ethical, renewable and technical value. Earlier many references are available for the processing of Biogas from Cow dung and disposal of the Biogas digester waste slurry as manure to the agricultural fields.
PRIOR RELATED ART;
Cow holds a special place both in ayurveda and Indian culture. When it comes to ayurveda, the traditional system of Indian medications and treatments primarily uses gobar or cow dung and gomutra or cow urine for their special properties. According to ayurveda both cow dung and urine are anti-septic. They have anti-bacterial and fungicidal action. Thus a filtrate of the suspension made by thoroughly
mixing cow dung and water forms one of the main ingredients of skin ointments, which are useful in serious skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema and gangrene. Even cow urine is quite effective in treating various skin and gastrointestinal problems. Problems concerning stomach and intestines are gastrointestinal in nature.
Cow dung is used in traditional Indian homes to paint earthen floors for its anti-insect and anti-bacterial qualities. Holy fire lit up during the worship of Indian deities is made from dehydrated cow dung, refined butter made from cow milk and camphor. The fire produced thus is believed to act as an air cleanser. It can drive away the houseflies and other common household insects.
In the tribal district of India, the local tribal mix fresh cow dung with the ashes from the previous day fire. The mixture is turned into round semisolid portions that are dried up in the sun. This serves as an exclusive source of fuel for cooking in a majority of households in the tribal and poor rural India.
Thus cows in India sustain not only the oldest, medical system in the world, they maintain a culture and a religion as well. More than 70% of India population lives in rural areas. A
survey points out that more than 80% of this population uses dehydrated cow dung, with or without wood, to fire their basic
Traditionally in India, dung is collected and fashioned into dung-cakes, to be burned directly as fuel or composted for fertilizer. The cow dung accounts for over 21 percent of total rural energy use in India, and as much as 40 percent in
certain states of India.
Usually, dung is used for one purpose is lost to the other,
but biogas provides a means to both ends. It exploits the caloric content of the waste, while retaining the nutrients as fertilizer - and on both counts, it is more efficient than traditional methods. Direct burning only captures about 11 percent of the dung's energy value, but biogas generation has 45 to 60 percent efficiency, which is approximately 5 times as much energy as does than in the direct burning. And the by-
product slurry has twice the nitrogen content of composted dung because open-air composting allows much of the nitrogen to escape in the form of volatile compounds. The slurry also releases its nutrients more readily than composted dung. And unlike decomposing dung, it is odorless and does not attract flies or mosquitoes. The Local Tribal people believe that the decomposed dung repels termites, and inhibits weed growth.
In addition to the slurry's nutrient recycling function, the gas itself has important environmental benefits. It offers an ecologically sustainable alternative to fuel wood, which currently provides over half of India's rural household energy. Biogas can help check deforestation, since the conversion process in the digester is anaerobic (it occurs in the absence of oxygen), it destroys most of the pathogens present in dung and waste, thereby reducing the potential for infections like dysentery and enteritis.
The burning of traditional fuels like dung cakes or wood releases high levels of carbon monoxide, suspended
particulates, hydrocarbons, and often, contaminants like sulfur oxides. Dung contains traces of hydrogen sulfide, which is converted to sulfur oxides on combustion. Exposure to these fumes in un-vented cooking spaces increases the risk of respiratory disease. Biogas offers perhaps the most environmentally benign method for tapping the solar energy stored in biomass. It's a renewable and decentralized alternative to the other methane-based fuel, natural gas, which is commonly used in cities.
Experiences have shown that in towns and cities where the availability of cow dung is rare there the usage of he cow dung for the above said multiple usage is limited. To keep the tradition on as well as to make the use of the cow dung in the useful form, this innovative invention has been enlightened.
US document of 3,960,718 describes the method of treating liquid sewage and waste such as Manure or sewage sludge to destroy pathogenic bacteria and remove offensive odors to make the material usable as a plant nutrient and soil conditioner by thoroughly aerating within a cone-shaped,
pressurized vessel by injection of a jet of compressed air tangentially to the side walls of the vessel into contact with the liquid sewage. The method suffers a drawback of using Pressurized vessel and fluid system handling, treatment with saw dust for composting, Sterilization using acid and neutralizing again using alkali to maintain neutral medium. US document 4,100,023 describes the method of producing Methane gas from the digested slurry containing raw manure and organic waste in three chambers. It heats the second chamber to get a large volume of gas and further compression of the gas for end usages. It suffers the process of compression and also does not explains about the further processing of the digester waste instead it adds the digester waste as organic manure to the agricultural fields. In US 4,210,680 the invention is directed to a process and to apparatus, and has a two-fold purpose for decreasing pollution due to waste and also for converting the waste into an animal feed for cattle, sheep, hogs and fowl such as chickens also, cellulose based
materials may be processed according to these teachings to make an animal feed.
In US document of US 4,349,572 teaches about the process of recycling of waste from poultry and livestock excreta by treating it with aldehyde in aqueous solutions. US 4,822,379 document teaches about the use of the nuisance materials, heating value component and neutralizing component into useful fuel briquette for furnace and kiln. US 6,296,766 describe the method of production of a high quality plant growth media from the digested mash, and recovery of the biogas generated within the digester. The biogas is collected with the aid of a biogas recovery system. The biogas is predominantly methane, and the anaerobic digester system is preferably operated to maximize the quantity and quality of methane generated by proper control system and means. US 6,410,059 explain about a pharmaceutical composition of the cow excreta and anti-fungal-based agent. The dual application of US 6,503,394 & US 6,572,772 of Hoyt explains the Digestion method for processing the farm waste in which
the processed waste is fed to waste lagoon for high recovery of methane gas.
The US Patent by Leskow explains the aerobic digestion of the bodily waste material in which pressurized air is blown to improve oxygen contact and thereby facilitate the easy separation of the undigested solids from another compartment. The referred documents only teaches the method of treating the excreta waste of mammals and organic manure to get Methane gas in the digesters further treatment is not explained by the any of the documents further these documents dispose the organic digester waste as a fertilizer to the agricultural farms.
The present invention aims at overcoming the said drawback and to provide an integrated process of use of the bio waste and recovery of the methane gas from the organic waste and excreta of the mammals especially cow.
The present invention explains about the further processing of the digester slurry waste in perfumed form for religious rituals and other uses.
The present invention also suggests the mean of disposal of digester slurry waste inco powder form or cake form which is free of odor, germs etc.,
Summary of the Invention:
The method of making cow dung in powder form or amorphous form and or cake form free of odor, moisture and in combination with scented products or aroma combinations characterized that the method involves the collection of the cow dung without human intervention; forming a plastic mass with water and been supplied to digesters for the complete removal of gas other volatile organics; the routing of the digested slurry free of gases like Methane and other low HC volatiles to ultraviolet treatment to get rid of odor and other pathogen; transporting the half wet slurry to the aerobic boosters with the sufficient oxygen supply to undergo aerobic digestion of the slurry; crushing of the aero-boosted product free of moisture to get particular size and geometry and screening of the product to get consistency in particle size;
optionally, the over sized products from the screener being recycled to the aero booster for further processing to achieve the particulate size and geometry; the screened product is passed through the mixer containing natural herbs or scented product or aroma combination to arrive at the pleasant odor of the final product.
In an embodiment, the final product is remixed with bacteria-free water or scented composition to get the mix in the form of paste and been moulded as rectangular cakes for specific uses.
In another embodiment, the Aroma rich, odor free, dry & readily usable form of cow dung powder or cake product produced by the above said method is claimed.
The invention gives the detailed process of the handling of the cow dung with the recovery of value added products like Gobar gas in the form of gas, the slurry being after proper treatment being converted to Fertilizer, a part of which is being
converted to medicinal products and another part of it
converted into products of religious and traditional importance.
In accordance with the invention the cow dung in powder and cake form is generally made from slurry obtained from the biogas plant, wherein the gas is removed. The end phase of the slurry may be in the form of liquid, alternatively free from gaseous and foul odor thereof may be provided to Ultra violet drying in the pits to obtain in the form of solid cakes, which subsequently are aero boosted which causes the material of
the cow dung to be available in dry from after aerobic digestion, easy to handle and use such that the required
quality of odor free and pathogenic free form is obtained. The Product may be perfumed with the required aromatic combinations or herb like curcuma, lavango and sandalwood.
The collection of the cow dung from the farm is done with help of longitudinal scrappers without human intervention to make it free of pathogens. The latest modern Sweden technology is used to collect the cow dung without human
touch and allowed to fall directly in to the trench, which is used for the collection of dung. The Scrappers are provided with longitudinal jaws helpful for the complete collection of the cow dung from the end to end of the cattle dung.
The cow dung collected in the trench, which forms the rectangular hollow deep pit with outlet pipe to the Biogas Digester. The collected dung is transferred to the digester after mixing with water in trench to get a free flow form. The input of the biogas digester is made in to a plastic mass of homogenous consistency with water in the anaerobic digesters with the paddle mixing arrangement. After a period of 2 hours the biogas emits from the digester and for a period of 6-8 hours the gas emission continues. Once the biogas intensity decreases, the digested slurry is now ready for the process of invention. The biogas that exit the digester after anaerobic digestion is of calorific value and been used a cooking fuel and for some commercial applications.
In normal operations now a days the digested slurry from Biogas plants are conditioned by aerobic operations like
aerobic lagoons to improve the aerobic conditions of the product to be used as a manure.
In accordance with the present invention, the digested slurry from the anaerobic digesters is transferred to the UV
treatment zone after confirming the completion of the anaerobic digestion in the digesters. The digested slurry from
the Biogas Digester is collected in a pit of wider area in the UV treatment zone where it comes in contact with the direct sunlight. The UV radiations in the sunlight penetrate the digester slurry and remove the presence of the pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms. It also removes the odour causing components that may be produced by the anaerobic digestion. The UV treatment makes the molecules of the slurry
to undergo molecular modification to achieve a standard grain size with uniform pore sizing and more over the slurry turns into mixed phase of solids and liquids after removing the free and unbound moisture in the materials phase. Besides the partial drying the mixed phase undergoes the aerobic digestion to some extent with natural air to convert the complex
nitrogenous and other organic matrix into simple forms of low bond energy to be used as the manure. The mixed phase contains moisture or water content in the bounded state. The UV treated phase is then collected in containers from the UV treatment zone pit and been taken up for further aerobic
Aero boosting is the technology been used for the aerobic digestion of the UV treated material. This is a stage operation i.e. the aero-boosters turn the material in it upside down and break the pellet sized particle into even small sized particles.
In present technology various types of aero-boosters are suitable for performing the aero-boosting process. The aero-boosters differ in the mixing arrangement of the material handling. Some of the basic arrangements are:
1. Shaft with pointers at the end of the rotating moving machine, which will be moving linearly with respect to eacfr other.
2. Manual saws having a broad end to the stick, which will be piercing inside, and turning upside down.
3. Machines e.g. Crushers having horizontal rod behind the truck with digging pins linearly arranged to it as to move inside the material and to move linearly to the machine.
In each case the tools are provided at the opposite outer surfaces with a continuously changing profile. Such aero boosting tools are known in the art and have been conventionally used e.g. for plowing in agricultural sector for digging the field and for plowing during the initial stage of cropping or plowing for providing aeration in the soil as well as for making the soil fertile, loose and free of micro organisms by more direct fixation of nitrogen from atmosphere.
The major difference between the prior art and the invention is that in case of earlier art, the material was used without aero-boosting, which will have the foul odor and stickiness as well as contamination with microorganisms. In
case of the present invention the aero-boosting process if employed for producing the dried cow dung free from odor and of required particle size & geometry.
The aero-boosted product from the aero-booster is free of odor & microorganisms and more of even sized particles is then screened through the screening mesh or sieve screen of specified gauge size (say 2 - 5mm) to eliminate the over sized particles. The over sized particles are then recycled back to the aero-boosters to achieve the particular geometry and size.
The screened material of free flowing material is then scented with the herbs like curcuma, lavango &sandalwood or with aroma composition or natural fragrance material by passing it through a mixer tanker of known formula. The aroma combination used for ritual yajnas or religious function
is mainly camphor or any aromatic chemical having pleasant odor.
As per the embodiment, the final product may be remixed with bacteria-free water or scented composition to get the mix in the form of paste or masticated form. The mixed paste is
then poured in moulds of any size or geometry as per the requirements and demand to get product in the form of cakes. The cakes are then sun dried to make it rigid for easy handling.
The invention also produces the aroma rich, odour free, dry & readily usable form of cow dung powder or cake product produced by the above said method. The product is then packaged in packs and been readily used in religious pious functions or as a medicinal product to keep off mosquitoes and insects, as a source of antiseptics etc., or source of heat and fire sacrifices (yajnas).
1. The method of making cow dung in powder form or amorphous form and or cake form free of odor, moisture and in combination with scented products or aroma combinations characterized that the method involves the collection of the cow dung without human intervention; forming a plastic mass with water and been supplied to digesters for the complete removal of gas other volatile organics; the routing of the digested slurry free of gases like Methane and other low HC volatiles to ultraviolet treatment to get rid of odor and other pathogen; transporting the half wet slurry to the aerobic boosters with the sufficient oxygen supply to undergo aerobic digestion of the slurry; crushing of the aero-boosted product free of moisture to get particular size and geometry and screening of the product to get consistency in particle size; optionally the over sized products from the screener being recycled to the aero
booster for further processing to achieve the particulate size and geometry; the screened product is passed through the mixer containing natural herbs or scented product or aroma combination to arrive at the pleasant odor of the final product.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the collection of the cow dung from the farm is done with help of longitudinal scrappers without human intervention to make it free of pathogens.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the collected cow dung is made in to a plastic mass of homogenous consistency with water in the anaerobic digesters with the paddle mixing.
4. The method as claimed in claim 3, wherein the gases that exit the digester after anaerobic digestion is of calorific value.
5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the digested slurry from the anaerobic digesters is transferred to the UV treatment zone after confirming the completion of the
anaerobic digestion in the digesters.
6. The method as claimed in claim 5, wherein the UV treatment zone is a rectangular pit, which has direct irradiation of the sunlight as the source of the UV light.
7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the UV treated product is having only bound moisture with it.
8. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the UV treated product is passed through an aerobic digester specifically called Aero Booster for aerobic digestion and odor removal.
9. The method as claimed in claim 1, where in the screening of the product is performed in screening mess of specified gauge size to eliminate the oversized products.
10. The method as claimed in claim 1.0, wherein the oversized particles are recycled back to the aerobic boosters for further geometry sizing.
11. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the screened product is scented in a mixer of required aroma or natural herbs.
12. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein the natural herbs that are mixed with the screened product are curcuma, lavango and sandalwood.
13. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein the aroma combination is camphor or any aromatic chemical having pleasant odor.
14. The Aroma rich, odor free, dry & readily usable form of cow dung powder produced by the method as claimed in claim 1 -14.
15. The cow dung powder as claimed in claim 15 is used in
religious pious functions or medicinal product to keep off
mosquitoes and insects, antiseptics etc., or source of
heat and fire sacrifices (yajnas).
16. The method of making cow dung in powder form or
amorphous form free of odor, moisture and in
combination with scented products or aroma
combinations substantially as herein described with
reference to the drawings.
17. The Aroma rich, odor free, dry & readily usable forms of
cow dung powder and cakes substantially as herein
described with reference to the description.
|Indian Patent Application Number||393/CHE/2007|
|PG Journal Number||20/2010|
|Date of Filing||26-Feb-2007|
|Name of Patentee||VENKATARAMA RAO AVVAS|
|Applicant Address||NO. 40-1-21/21, II FLOOR, CATHOLIC COMPLEX, M.G. ROAD, VIJAYAWADA-520 010|
|PCT International Classification Number||C05 F 5/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|