|Title of Invention||
CLOTHING FOR PARTIAL PROTECTION OF THE BODY AGAINST BIOLOGIACAL AGENTS
|Abstract||The invention relates to clothing manufactured by polypropylene and polyethylene, usable as a partial protection of the body, in particular suitable as barrier against biological agents. The clothing provides a very high levelof protection against the penetration of liquids and microorganisms, excellent mechanical properties, including rear and abrasion resistance, outstanding softness, drapeability and comfort.|
|Full Text|| FORM 2
THE PATENT ACT 1970
(39 of 1970)
The Patents Rules, 2003 PROVISIONAL/COMPLETE SPECIFICATION (See section 10 and rule-13)
1. CLOTHING FOR PARTIAL PROTECTION OF THE BODY AGAINST BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
(A) CL.COM ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
(C) Via F. Guarini 13, 1-47100 Forli,
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed.
The present invention refers to clothing suitable for the protection against biological agents.
There are several situations where workers are exposed to infective biological agents, that is micro-organisms, including those which have been genetically modified, which may be able to provoke infection, allergy or toxicity.
In some situations, e.g. microbiological laboratories and biotechnological productions, the infective agents are usually well known. In other types of work, the agents the workers are exposed may not be knawn and-enly-possible risks can be assessed; this happens, for example, in agriculture works, waste treatments, in particular hospital wastes, veterinary laboratories, emergency clean-up. In all these circustances, protective clothing are necessary to prevent the infective agent from reaching the skin.
Protective clothing can be made by reusable materials as well as by single-use materials.
A great many materials and manufacturing technologies have evolved in an attempt to meet the criteria for a safe, effective and confortable protective barrier.
Concerning reusable materials, from early 20th century until the early 1970s, several evolving fabrics were used, starting from cotton woven
which, since it is readily permeable, does not possess any liquid-resistance capability, moving to a polyester and cotton blended sheeting with improved mechanical properties and then to tightly woven cotton or polyester and cotton blended fabric with a water repellent chemical finish.
In the 1980s, a new generation of textiles was developed such as tightly woven fabric made of continuos filament yarns, in some cases made of very fine filaments (microfibers), which can be chemically finished and may becalendered.to.enhance liquid penetration resistance. All the above woven fabrics rely on the interlocking geometry to provide integrity and protective barrier. .
Single-use protective clothes are commonly constructed of nonwoven materials, which rely on fiber bonding technologies (thermal, chemical or physical) to provide integrity and strength.
The basic raw materials are various forms of natural (for example cotton and wood pulp) and synthetic fibers (for example polyester and polyolefin).
Fabrics can be engineered to achieve desired properties by the use of particular fiber types, bonding processes and fabric finishes. In summary, fibers can be bonded mechanically, by high-velocity water jets which entangle the fibers (spunlace), thermally, by in-line melt spinning (spunbond), or chemically, by chemical binders (wet laid ). Typically, spunbond fabrics are made of polyolefins.
Both reusable and single-use products are often reinforced to enhance or
improve their properties; for particular applications, additional materials
are often added (overall or zoned) in the form of additional layers of
materials, coatings, reinforcements or laminates.
In particular, a second layer of fabric is sometimes used to improve
resistance to liquid penetration and skid resistance or chemicals are used
to provide reinforcements and liquid-proof characteristics.
Various protective clothes obtained by the above processes have been
described; for example in EP 0 365 559 Bl (priority GB &714535).
Polyethylene is one of the most used materials, produced in several types
' fop different applications.
Among others, Tyvek brand protective material is a spund bonded olefin
manufactured from very fine continuos filaments of high-density
polyethylene bonded together by heat and pressure.
These materials are described, for example, in EP 850330 and US
In particular, there are also overalls manufactured by these materials,
which possess very high liquid, powder and chemical resistance but are
not so efficient in terms of tear and abrasion resistance as well as in terms
of drapeability, softness, flexibility and breathability.
All these aspects are as important as the barrier properties considering
that the barrier materials should be strong enough to withstand the
stresses encountered during typical use and that properties related to
comfort are of primary importance in very critical working situations.
Consequently there is a continuos need of finding new protective clothing
with improved effectiveness in providing the appropriate level of
protection against the penetration of liquids and microorganisms and,
at the same time, in providing other important performance properties
including mechanical resistance and comfort.
Now we have found new clothings manufactured by polypropylene and
polyethylene usable to protect specific parts of the body, in particular as
barrier against biological agents.
The clothings of the present invention are overall, jacket and trousers
which-provide a very high level. of protection against the penetration of
liquids and microorganisms, excellent mechanical properties, including
tear and abrasion resistance, outstanding softness, drapeability and
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to novel clothing suitable for the partial protection
of the body against biological agents.
The clothing consists in a layer of nonwoven material in polypropylene
laminated with a polyethylene film, wherein the ratio in unit weigth
between polypropylene and polyethylene ranges from 70:30 to 50:50,
preferably from 65:35 to 55:45.
The clothing is typically made of a layer of nonwoven polypropylene,
having thickness ranging between 240 and 270 microns and unit weigth
ranging between 35 and 45 g/m2, laminated with a polyethylene film
having thickness ranging between 30 and 70 microns and unit weigth
ranging between 20 and 30 g/m3.
The total thickness of the material is in the range 270-340 microns while
the unit weigth ranges between 55 and 75 g/m2.
In particular, the clothing is preferably made of a layer of nonwoven
polypropylene, having thickness in the range 245-255 microns and unit
weigth ranging between 37.5 and 40.0 g/m2, laminated with a
polyethylene film having thickness ranging between 40 and 60 microns
and unit weigth ranging between 22.5 and 27.5 g/m2; the preferred
thickness of the clothing is in the range 285-315 microns while the unit
weigth ranges between.60.0.and 67.5 g/ma.
The inner layer consists in a nonwoven spunbonded material made up of
continuos filaments of polypropylene.
The inner layer,, .besides providing a barrier against liquids and
microorganisms, ensures high drapeability and comfort and, in addition,
is physiologically safe and breathable.
The outer layer is made of a microporous polyethylene film with pore
size low enough to prevent the passage of liquids and microorganisms
but, at the same time, to allow moisture to pass on a molecular level, so
ensuring a good breathability.
The combination of the two materials in the respective forms and in the
appropriate ratios, provides a combination of chemical-physical
properties and of drapeability and comfort never reached with the
clothing for partial body until now known.
In particular, the softness of the material, which ensures the high
drapeability and the excellent comfort in any situation, does not
negatively affect the barrier properties against liquids and
microorganisms, which, on the contrary, turn out to be equivalent or
superior in comparison to the known materials with higher density.
Furhermore, the tear and abrasion resistance are strong enough to
withstand the stresses encounterd during any critical condition of use.
The clothing object of the present invention consists in overall, jacket
The clothing has been designed to comply with the specific
requirements of the existing rules, in particular to comply with the
Directive 686/39 CE (Italian D.L.475 - 04.12.92).
Depending on the kind of clothing, the forge ensures only the protection
of specific parts of the body so that the clothing must be worn together
with -gloves and other protective apparel in order to ensure the protection
of the remaining parts of the body.
In particular, the overall and the jacket of the present invention can be
coupled with the trousers of the present invention.
Fig. 1 illustrates, as an example, the drawing of the overall; on the front
side (la), it protects the exposed parts of the body, such as the base of the
neck, the bust, the arm and the legs as far as the knee.
The overall is equipped with rubber bands round the wrists which
perfectly stick to the wrists in order to isolate arras from contact with
All the joining parts are assembled by heat welding; the seams ensure an
high barrier, equivalent to the material's one.
The overall is opened on the back side (lb) to let that easily put on and
can then be closed by four rear fastening means, two in the inner side and
two on the outer side.
The clothing is fabricated and designed to avoid area which could irritate
or adversely affect the user.
For example, measurements have been specifically carried but on the
overall to evaluate the dressing and the roughness.
The checked overall complies with the safety and healthy requirements of
D.L. n. 475 dated 04/12/92 and turned out to be conform to the
prescriptions of rule EN 340/94 regarding ergonomy.
The clothing is fabricated in several sizes in order to be comfortable for
any worker in any working situation and to prevent the cloth to be
For example, the dimensions, in cm, of the different sizes of the overall
comply with the EN 340 rule and are listed in the following table, with a
tolerance of+/- 3%.
Size small medium large
length 110 120 130
thorax circumference 130 134 140
shoulder width 56 59 62
sleeves width 58 59 62
The measurements have been carried out in normal environment at 20°C and 65% R.H., in agreement with the test method ISO 3635/'81.
The process of manufacture is based on the standard rules for
manufacturing protective clothing.
The material is cut and hollow punched, the different parts are selected
on the basis of the different size and are then marked by numbers.
The dimensions of the different parts are then checked and the clothing
is manufactured by heat welding the different components.
A label is then applied inside the clothing.
The label, besides the producer's name, contains, among others, the
model name,-the standard picture-writing, the size, the "biological
In particular, the clothing is marked in accordance with the European
Standard (CE) for protective clothing against biological agents.
The information for the user are worded clearly and unambiguosly and
the CE marking is clearly evident to guarantee the accordance with the
fundamental safety and healthy requirements; fig.2 shows an example oi
At the end of the manufacturing process, controls are carried out to check
that all the parts have been correctly assembled and that the
superimposition of the different layers as well as the composed structures
are in compliance with the operative instructions.
In particular, the seal of the welded area, the marking conformity amd the
marking position are checked.
Finally, in order to protect the cloth until the moment of use, it is folded,
tacked, the information are inserted and the clothing is packed.
The so manufactured clothing is suitable for the protection against
biological agents as bacteriae, parasites, fungi and viruses.
The clothing is effective against any microorganism, including whose
which have been genetically modified, cell cultures and human
endoparasites, which may be able to provoke any infection, allergy or
In particular, the clothing is effective against microorganisms that can be
transmitted by blood and body fluids, such as Hepatitis B Virus
(HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Viruses
(HIV), against the agents responsable for BSE and other TSE, and
against the Bacillus Anthracis.
The clothing can be used in any situation in which the workers are
possibly exposed to different kind of dangerous substances in various
forms, like liquids, air, aerosols or solids.
Examples of work situations with risk of exposure to infective agents are
the biotechnological productions, the work in health care (including
isolation and post-mortem units), the work in chemical-biological,
veterinary and diagnostic laboratories, the work in refuse disposal plants,
the activities where there is contact with animals and/or products of
The clothing may be worn over the usual working clothes and its
effectiveness is guaranteed only if it is correctly worn, fastened and of
Hereinafter the results of some tests, carried out to evaluate the technical properties of the overall are reported. Such results have only illustrative aim and they do not imply any limitation.
The primary performance of a protective clothing is the effectiveness in providing the appropriate level of protection against the penetration of microorganisms.
Liquids are generally accepted as the most important vector of microbiological transport but other possible vectors include air and aerosols; in addition, also dry penetration of microorganisms promoted by mechanical action may also be possible. -
Consequently, an effective microbial barrier must be resistant to both wet and dry penetration of microorganisms.
A series of tests..(testsJr3) have been carried out to determine the barrier properties of the overall of the present invention.
Resistance to penetration by contaminated liquids under a hydrostatic pressure
The test measures the resistance of materials to penetration by blood-borne pathogens using a surrogate microbe under conditions of continuos liquid contact.
The test is divided in two parts: a) the material is subjected to successive increasing levels of pressure,
using synthetic blood which simulates blood and other body fluids;
penetration of the synthetic blood through the material is observed
visually. Part a) is used as a screening test.
b) the resistance of the material to penetration by a surrogate microbe is
measured, the surrogate microbe being a microorganism which acts as
simulant for other microorganisms which are pathogenic to humans.
The synthetic blood simulates body fluids; many factors can affect the
wetting and penetration characteristics of body fluids, such as surface
tension, viscosity and polarity of the fluid.
The surface tension range for blood and body fluids (excluding saliva) is
approximately 0.042^0.060 N/m
The surface tension of the simulant is adjiusted to approximate the lower
end of this surface tension range, that is 0.042 (+/-0.002) N/m.
The surrogate microbe used in the test is the Phi-X174 Bacteriophage,
which is not pathogenic to humans but serves to simulate viruses that are
pathogenic to humans.
It is one of the smallest known viruses, having diameter 0.027 microns,
and is similar in size and shape to HCV, the smallest pathogen of blood
with diameter 0.03 microns. Consequently, the Phi-X174 Bacteriophage
also serves as a surrogate for RBV (0.042 microns) and HIV (0.10
la) screening test-resistance to synthetic blood
This test method covers the determination of the resistance of protective
material to penetration by biological liquids, using synthetic blood at
different levels of hydrostatic pressure.
The test is based on ASTM F 1670 and is used as screening test.
The test has been run on three specimens of 75 mm x 75 mm, taken at
random, at a temperature of 25 (+/- 5) °C, with 52% relative humidity
and each pressure is hold for 5 minutes.
The penetration of the synthetic blood through the material has been
observed visually for each specimen at the different pressures and pass
(P) has been recorded in case of absence of penetration while fail (F) has
been recorded in case of penetration.
The results were the following:
Pressun e(Kpa) Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3
0 P P P
1.75 P P P
3.50 P P P
7.00 P P P
14.00 P P P
20.00 P P P
The test has been repeated with specimens of the heat welded area and the same results were obtained.
lb) test method for resistance to penetration by infective agents using Phi-X174 Bacteriophage
The test is used to measure the resistance of protective materials to
penetration by infective agents, using the bacteriophage Phi X-174 as a
The test only applies to materials that pass the screening test a) and is
based on ASTMF*1671.
Three 75 mm x 75 mm specimens, taken at random from the material,
The specimens were subjected to a nutrient broth, containing the virus, to
which successive pressure levels were applied, for 5 minutes each, at a
temperature of 21 (+/- 5)°C.
Detection of penetration of the microorganism at each level was carried
out even when liquid penetration was not visible.
The specimen passes the test when the pfu/ml (plaque forming units per
milliliter) which penetrate through the specimen at a given pressure are
The results were the following:
Pressure Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3
14.00 Kpa 0 pfu/ml 0 pfu/ml 0 pfu/ml
Resistance to penetration by biologically contaminated aerosols
The test has been carried out by a Perspex box with Collison atomiser.
A solution, containing the microorganism Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC
6538 (NCIMB 9518), has been sprayed into the box. Underpressure is
used, to collect the droplets of the contaminated aerosol on two membrane
filters. One of these filters has been shielded by the protective clothing
Then filters were removed, microorganisms were extracted and, after
incubation overnigth at 37°C, were counted.
The ratio of bacteriae found on the shielded and the unshielded filter was
used to assess the barrier properties of the protective clothing material.
Four specimens (25mm diameter circles) were tested for 7 minutes.
The result in terms of microorganisms penetrated through the material
was the following:
Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3 Specimen 4
0% 0% 0% 0%
Resistance against penetration by biologically contaminated dust
The test is based on EDANA method 190.0-89/*96.
A powder has been contaminated with spores of Bacillus Subtilis ATCC
9372 (CIP A4); then it was vibrated through the protective clothing
material for 30 minutes.
The number of microorganisms penetrated through the material was
counted after 24 hours incubation at 35°C.
The test was carried out on six, 200 mm x 200 mm, specimens, one of
-which used as an uncontaminated control.
The results were as follows:
Specimen 12 3 4 5 Ref
Microorganisms 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other properties are important in order to assess the performances of the
material, such as the ability to withstand the mechanical stresses
encountered during typical use that could damage the material and that
consequently would negatively affect the barrier performance.
Some tests (tests 4-8) have been carried out to assess the mechanical
properties of the clothing.
The abrasion resistance was determined using 00 abrasive paper by the
Martindale method and a Weal apparatus.
Four specimens were tested at 20 (+/-2)°C, 65% relative humidity with
9Kpa pressure until the formation of the first 0.5 mm diameter hole in the
material (assessed by stereomicroscope)
Results are expressed in terms of cycles necessary for the formation of
the first hole:
Specimen 12 3 4 Average
Cycles 2880 3300 2500 2500 2795
The method classifies the materials in 4 classes, the highest classification,
level 4 (> 500 cycles), denoting materials with the highest abrasion
Consequently, according to the test, the material of the present invention
shows the highest resistance to damage during use.
Hereinafter a list of results is reported based on tests run to assess other
Trapezoidal method - UNI EN ISO 9073/'99
Tearing strength in longitudinal direction = 59.4 (+/-10.1) N
Tearing strength in transversal direction = 35.2 (+/-5.7) N
Flex cracking resistance
Method ISO 7854/84
The specimens do not show any damage at l0x untill 100.000 cycles
method UNI EN ISO 13935-2/'01
specimens: 100 x 250 mm
temperatuie:.20-+/- 2 0C
relative humidity: 65%
average breaking strength = 72.2 (+/- 4,6) N
Method UNI EN 863^96
Puncture resistance = 12.4 N
Resistance to ignition
There are many potential ignition sources in the normal use of the
All materials will burn if a high-intensity heat source is applied to them,
especially in the presence of high oxygen levels.
A test was run to assess the flame resistance of the clothing of the present
The test is based on EN 1146/*97 method, using a 40 mm high flame,
with a temperature of 800 (+/- 50) °C, obtained by propane gas and by a
bunsen according to the EN/532/'94 rule.
Five specimens were assessed without evidence of any post-combustion
Resistance, against chemicals
The material, during the normal use, may come into contact with
chemical agents such as clinical liquids, skin disinfectants, lubricants,
As these chemicals can damage the material with consequent influence
on the barrier properties, it is of primary importance that the protective
clothing has an appropriate resistance against chemicals.
A test was carried out using four different liquid chemicals.
Resistance to the penetration of liquid chemicals
The test is based on UNI EN 588 method.
Three specimens were tested using four different chemicals, at 20 (+/- 2)
°C, 65% relative humidity, with a flow of 10 ml per 10 (+/- l)secs.
Several parameters were assessed and the average values are listed
Penetration (%) Repellence (%) Absorption (%)
H2SO430% 0 86.4 8.6
NaOH 10% 0 86.0 10.2
n-heptane 0 78.7 7.0
isopropanol 0 82.1 8.4
Resistance of joining areas
Finally, considering that the penetration of liquids can be easier in seams, joins and assemblages of protective clothing, a specific water penetration test-was carried out-in the joining areas.
Resistance to water penetration under increasing hydrostatic pressure. The test is based on UNI EN 2081l/*93 method, using a TEXTTEST FX 3000 apparatus and increasing the water pressure at a rate of 60 cm per minute.
The test was carried out at 20 +/- 2 °C and 65 % RK with a water temperature of 20 +/- 2 °C.
The results are expressed in cm H2O and in Pa necessary to have the penetration of the third water drop through the material, in the joining positions.
specimen 1 280 27500
specimen 2 304 29800
specimen 3 282 27700
specimen 4 206 20200
specimen 5 266 26100
1. New protective clothing, suitable as partial protection of the body
against biological agents, manufactured by the lamination of a layer of
polypropylene with a layer of polyethylene.
The clothing provides a very high level of protection against the penetration of liquids and microorganisms, excellent mechanical properties including tear and abrasion resistance, outstanding softness, drapeability and comfort.
2. New protective clothing as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the
clothing is overall, jacket and trousers.
3.New clothing-for the partial-protection of the body as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the inner layer is a nonwoven polypropylene layer and the outer layer consists-in a polyethylene film, the ratio in unit weigth-between polypropylene and polyethylene ranging from 70:30 to 50:50.
4. Hew clothing for the partial protection of the body as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the inner layer is a nonwoven polypropylene layer and the outer layer consists in a polyethylene film, the ratio in unit weigth between polypropylene and polyethylene ranging from 65:35 to 55:45.
5. New clothing for the partial protection of the body as claimed in claim
3. characterized in that the thickness of the material ranges between 270
and 340 microns and the unit weigth ranges between 50 and 70 g/m2.
6. New clothing for the partial protection of the body as claimed in claim
3, characterized in that the inner layer of nonwoven polypropylene has thickness ranging between 240 and 270 microns and unit weigth ranging between 35 and 45 g/m2 and the outer polyethylene film has a thickness ranging between 30 and 70 microns and unit weigth ranging between 20 and 30 g/m2.
7. New clothing for the partial protection of the body as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that the thickness of the material ranges between 285 and 315 microns and the unit weigth ranges between 60.0 and 67.5 g/m3.
8. New clothing for the partial protection of the body as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that the inner layer of nonwoven polypropylene has a thickness ranging between 245 and 255 microns and unit weigth ranging between 37.5 and 40.0 g/m2 and the outer polyethylene film has a thickness ranging between 40 and 60 microns and unit weigth ranging between 22.5 and 27.5 g/m2.
9. New clothing for the partial protection of the body as claimed in claim 1, wherein the joins are made by heat welding.
10. Overall as claimed in claim 2, equipped with rubber bands round the wrists, with protection of the neck and with four fastening means located in the rear, two in the inner side and two in th outer side.
11. Use of the partial body clothing as claimed in claim 1, as protective clothing against biological agents, that is microorganisms (bacteriae, parasites, fungi, viruses), including those which have been genetically modified, cell cultures and human endoparasites, which may be able to provoke any infection, allergy or toxicity.
12. Use as claimed in claim 11, characterized in that said biological agents are microorganisms that can be transmitted by blood and body fluids (HBV,HCV,HlV).
13. Use as claimed in claim 11, characterized in that said biological agents are the agents responsable for BSE and other TSE.
14. Use as claimed in claim 11, wherein the biological agent is the Bacillus Anthracis.
Dated this 28th day of May 2005.
Dr. Rajeshkumar H. Acharya Advocate & Patent Agent For and on Behalf of Applicant
The invention relates to clothing, manufactured by polypropylene and polyethylene, usable as a partial protection of the body, in particular suitable as barrier against biological agents. The clothing provides a very high level of protection against the penetration of liquids and microorganisms, excellent mechanical properties, including tear and abrasion resistance, outstanding softness, drapeability and comfort.
|Indian Patent Application Number||519/MUMNP/2005|
|PG Journal Number||18/2010|
|Date of Filing||31-May-2005|
|Name of Patentee||CL.COM S. R. L|
|Applicant Address||ViaF. Guarini 13, I-47100 Forli,|
|PCT International Classification Number||Nil|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/IT2003/000729|
|PCT International Filing date||2003-11-11|