|Title of Invention||
"A PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION FOR TREATMENT OF PATIENTS HAVING ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER(ADHD)"
|Abstract||The present invention relates a pharmaceutical formulation for treatment of patients having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprising a mixture of dextro- and levo-amphetamine and/or salt(s) thereof coated with a sustained release coating or matrix which comprises polyvinyl acetate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, ethyl cellulose, a fatty acid, a fatty acid ester, an alkyl alcohol, a wax, zein (prolamine from corn), a poly(meth)acrylate, microcrystalline cellulose or poly(ethylene oxide) effective to achieve continuous sustained release of said amphetamines and/or salt(s), wherein the coating level is from 1 to 6% in relation to the active mixture in order to provide a mean plasma concentration profile which has an initial slope from 2 hours to 4 hours after administration of 3.7 to 11.4 ng/(mL hr) for dextroamphetamines and/or 1.4 to 3 ng/(mL hr) for levoamphetamines.|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to pharmaceutical formulation for treatment of patients having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AHD).
Described herein are compositions for providing an orally administrable sustained release (SR) form of one or more amphetamines and/or amphetamine salts. Also described are methods for administering the sustained release form of one or more amphetamine salts to a patient in need thereof. Preferably, the methods are carried out for treatment of patients having ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), but other disease states can also be treated. The sustained-release forms of one or more amphetamines and/or amphetamine salts according to the invention are preferably formulated to provide an in vivo plasma concentration profile (i.e., measured by total concentration of the amphetamines and/or amphetamine salts (often with separate tracking of d-and l-isomers)in the patients' blood plasma) which is substantially equivalent to the in vivo plasma concentration profile achieved by pulsatile release formulations of the same amphetamines and/or amphetamine salts when administered to a patient, e.g., those achieved by ADDERALL XR®, Shire US Inc., whose FDA package insert and labeling are entirely incorporated by reference herein. Further preferably, this sustained release profile (the plasma concentration profile being distinguished from the release profile) typically exhibits first order or biphasic or sigmoidal characteristics.
Particularly preferably, the SR formulations according to the invention exhibit a single dose in vivo plasma concentration profile substantially the same as that shown in Figure 1. The latter shows the substantially smooth mean (over about 20 patients) plasma concentration curves achieved for both the dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine salts in ADDERALL XR®. (The overall mean plasma concentration carve for total amphetamine level is simply the sum of the two curves shown in Fig. 1). Because the . formulations of this invention achieve substantially the same mean plasma concentration curves, they can be termed fast sustained release formuktions, with regard to the initial' rising slopes involved.
By substantially the same "profile'* herein is meant that two curves have substantially the same AUC (area under the curve) and Cmax, e.g., these parameters for each curve are + 20% of each other, or even closer, e.g., + 10%, + 5%, + 2%, etc., which parameters are entirely conventionally defined and determined. See, e.g., Fundamentals
of Clinical Pharmacokinetics. J.G. Wagner, Drug Intelligence Publications, Inc., Hamilton, Illinois, 1975; Guidance for Industry. Bioavailabilitv and Bioecmivalence Studies for Orally Administered Drug Products-General Considerations. FDA. CDER. October 2000. For Fig. 1, AUC (time zero to infinity) is 556.6 ng hr/mL and Cmax is 28.0 ng/mL for d-amphetamine and 205.1 ng hr/mL and 8.7. ng/mL, respectively, for 1-amphetamine. Of course, plasma curves achieved by this invention can follow even more closely the course of a target curve such as that shown in Fig. 1, e.g., substantially (e.g. ± 20%) matching initial rising slope, post-peak curve shapes, Tmax values, (7.1 hr for d-amphetamine and 7.4 hr for 1-amphetamine for Fig. 1), etc. Whereas Fig. 1 shows data for 20 mg tablets (i.e., two 10 mg pulsatile doses), the plasma curves (and e.g., AUC and Cmox) corresponding to other daily doses such as 10, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 mg will be essentially linearly proportional to those shown in Fig. 1, corresponding to the involved dosage.
In another independent embodiment, the fast SR formulations of this invention, for the ADDERALL XR® 20 mg dose of Figure 1, exhibit plasma concentration curves having initial (e.g., from 2 hours after administration to 4 hours after administration) slopes of about 3.7 to about 11.4 ng/(mL hr) for dextroamphetamines and about 1.4 to about 3 ng/(mL hr) for levoamphetamines, preferably, about 4 to about 8 ng/(mL hr) and about 1.5 to abouf 2.2 ng/(mL hr), respectively. The precise slope for a given individual will vary according to usual factors, including whether the patient has eaten or not For other doses, e.g., those mentioned above, the slopes vary directly (linearly) proportionally to dose.
The formulations of WO 00/23055 (whose entire disclosure is incorporated by reference hereb), e.g., that for ADDERALL XR®, achieve a two-fold release of active, amphetamine salts, one an immediate release dosage form and the other a delayed . release dosage form. Typically, the lag time between the immediate release (release upon administration) and delayed release forms is.2-6 hours, preferably about 3 to about 5 hours, more preferably about 3 to about 4 hours, and typically about four hours. In one embodiment, the fast sustained release formulations of this invention are used to
provide a mean plasma concentration profile substantially the same as that of Example
5 (combination of Examples 1 and 2) of WO 00/23055, despite the latter's disclosure that conventional sustained release formulation technology was not suitable for amphetamines. (Note that the plasma profile of Example 5 shown in Fig. 7 of WO . 00/23055 is not a mean profile, as is that of Fig. 1 of this application, but rather is one from a single individual.)
The SR formulations of this invention will be effective to treat, e.g., ADHD, in the same manner as ADDERALL^XR. For example, they will be effective to treat ADHD in the unexpectedly good manner established in the data reported in Example 10. They will also be effective to treat ADHD with low incidence of side effects, -including substance abuse, addiction, tolerance, tachyphylaxis, etc.
Preferred salts are those in the commercial product ADDERALL XR®, i.e., dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate and amphetamine sulfate. However, the invention is not limited to these specific amphetamine salts. Other amphetamines and 'amphetamine salts and mixtures thereof can be used in a sustained-release delivery system to achieve the plasma concentration profiles of .the invention. For example, amphetamine base, chemical and chiral derivatives thereof and other amphetamine salts can be used.
Preferred in vivo plasma concentration profiles of the amphetamine salts can be accomplished by providing a solid dosage form of the amphetamine salts which is capable of providing a sustained release of the one or more amphetamine salts over a time period of, for example, from 8-12 hours, or longer, preferably, 10-12 hours. For • example, the amphetamine salts can be provided in a core which is'c'oated with'a coating which allows the release of the amphetamine salts there through over time, such as a pharmaceutically acceptable water-insoluble film former alone or with a dissolution regulating agent. In addition, by combining the immediate-release beads with the sustained-release beads, a biphasic release profile can be achieved. Other methods for providing sustained-release of a drug, including those further discussed below, are known and can be used to provide a sustained-release delivery which results in the above-discussed in vivo plasma concentration profile.
Suitable sustained-release systems, include SR coatings, e.g., on beads, SR matrices (i.e., no coatings needed), SR osmotic systems, etc. whereby amphetamine salts
achieve a first order, biphasic, sigmoidal etc. release profile to achieve the plasma profile equivalent of pulsatile release systems of the same drugs as discussed above. Matching to the desired target plasma concentration profile using SR is conventional.
Sustained-release beads can be prepared by coating conventional drug-containing cores with a water-insoluble polymer, or a combination of water-insoluble polymers, or a combination of water-insoluble and water-soluble polymers. This is usually not a combination of layers, but a combination of polymers in-a single coating. The resultant beads (or tiny tablets) can then be placed in a capsule. Other than beads in a capsule shell, tablets in-a capsule shell (e.g., one immediate-release tablet and one delayed, sustained release tablet in a capsule shell, to provide an overall sustained release) also can be used to attain the desired plasma profile.
Various polymeric materials can be used to achieve the type of pattern of release needed to result in the desired plasma concentration profile, for example, so as to increase the fast rate of delivery over the first 4 to 8 hours of delivery. For example, a multiple dosage form (e.g., as discussed below) of the present invention can deliver rapid and complete dosages of pharmaceuticaliy active amphetamine salts to achieve the desired plasma profile of the drug in a recipient over the course of about 8-12 hours with a single oral administration. In so doing, the levels of drug in blood plasma'of the pharmaceuticaliy active amphetamine salts will reach a peak fairly rapidly, for example, over the course of about 8 hours or less as desired, which then slowly decreases over the cour.se of, for example, the next 12 or more hours. The desired plasma concentration profile can thus be achieved using a fast sustained-release once daily dosage of the amphetamine salts.
Examples of useful bead constructions for sustained-release include the following:
• Sugar core, coated with amphetamine, coated with polymer,
• . Sugar core, coated with amphetamine, coated with mix of amphetamine and
polymer, coated with polymer,
• Sugar core, coated with amphetamine, coated with relatively high
concentration mix of amphetamine and polymer, coated with weaker
concentration mix of amphetamine and polymer, coated with polymer,
Bead containing amphetamine, coated with polymer,
Bead containing amphetamine, coated with mix of amphetamine and
polymer, coated with polymer,
Bead containing amphetamine, coated with relatively high concentration mix
of amphetamine and polymer, coated with weaker concentration mix of
amphetamine and polymer, coated with polymer, and
Tablet or capsule containing multiple types of beads as described above
having differing timing of release of amphetamine and/or different rates of •
release of amphetamine.
As mentioned, SR matrix beads can also be used, i.e., not having any needed layers to achieve sustained release. The components used in such matrices are chosen from conventional SR polymers. In another construct, there can be included in the formulation, along with the layered beads or matrix beads, immediate release formulations which provide one way to achieve a desired initial fast release. Such immediate release formulations -are fully conventional. See e.g., WO 00/23055>
Details of using the foregoing constructs and others to achieve a desired plasma profile as discussed above are fully conventional and can be determined by those of skill in the art'with at most a few routine parametric experiments, and conventional •adjustments, e.g., involving identities of polymers and mixtures thereof, relative amounts of components, coating thicknesses, bead diameters, number of layers and compositions thereof, etc. Thus, for example, for a given construct.(e.g., one of those in the examples herein), dissolution profiles can be determined and in vivo plasma profiles measured. The latter can then conventionally be compared to the target plasma profile (e.g.", that of ADDERALL XR® and differences compensated by.fully conventional formulation and dissolution profile adjustments such as but not limited to those mentioned.
Suitable materials which can be used in the SR formulations of this invention are well known and include but are not limited to polyvinyl acetate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, ethyl cellulose, fatty acids and
their esters, alkyl alcohols, waxes, zein (prolamine from corn), and aqueous polymeric
dispersions such as EudragitRS and RL30D, Eudragit NE30D, Aquacoat, Surelease, Kollicoat SR30D, and cellulose acetate latex.
Methods of manufacturing cores include:
a. Extrusion-Spheronization - the drug(s) and other additives are granulated with the addition of a binder solution. The wet mass is passed through an .extruder equipped with a certain size screen. The extrudates are spheronized in a marumerizer. The resulting pellets are dried and sieved for further applications.
'b. High-Shear Granulation- Drug(s) and other additives are dry-mixed-and then the mixture is wetted by addition of a binder solution in a high shear-granulator/mixer. The granules are kneaded after wetting by the combined action of mixing" and milling. The resulting granules or pellets are dried'and sieved for further applications.
c. Solution or Suspension Layering - A drug(s) solution or dispersion with or without a binder is sprayed onto starting seeds with a certain particle size in a fluidized bed processor or other suitable equipment. The drug thus is coated on the surface of the starting seeds. The drug-loaded pellets are dried for further applications.
For purposes of the present invention, the core particles, preferably, have a diameter in the range of about 500-1500 microns (micrometers); more preferably 100-800 microns. These particles can then be coated in a fhudized bed.apparatus with an alternating sequence of selected coating layers.
The composition, preferably in the bead forms described above, can be incorporated into hard gelatin capsules, either with additional excipients, or alone. Typical excipients to be added to a capsule formulation include, but are not limited to." fillers such as microcrystallme cellulose, soy polysaccharides, calcium phosphate dihydrate, calcium sulfate, lactose, sucrose, sorbitol, or any other inert filler. In addition, there can be flow aids'such as fumed silicon dioxide, silica gel, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate or any other material imparting flow to powders. A lubricant can further be added if necessary by using, for example, polyethylene glycol, leucine, glycery] .behenate, magnesium stearate or calcium stearate. .
The composition may also be incorporated into a tablet, in particular by incorporation into a tablet matrix, which rapidly disperses the particles after ingestion. In order to incorporate these particles into such a tablet, a filler/binder must be added to a ' tablet that can accept the particles, but will not allow their destruction during the tableting process. Materials that are suitable for this purpose include, but are not limited to, microcrystalline cellulose (AVICEL.RTM.), soy polysaccharide (EMCOSOY.RTM.), pre-gelatinized starches (STARCH.RTM. 1500, NATIONAL.RTM. 1551), and polyethylene glycols (CARBOWAX.RTM.). The .materials are preferably present in.the range of 5-75% (w/w), with a more preferred range of 25-50% (w/w).
In addition, disintegrants are optionally added in order to disperse the beads once the tablet is ingested. Suitable disintegrants include, but are not limited to: cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (AC-DI-SOL.RTM.), sodium starch glycolate (EXPLOTAB.RTM, PRIMOJEL.RTM.), and cross-linked polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (Plasone-XL). These materials are preferably present in the rate of 3-15% (w/w), with a more preferred range of 540% (vv/w).
Lubricants are also optionally added to assure proper tableting, and these can include, but are not limited to: magnesium stearate, calcium .stearate, 'stearic acid, polyethylene glycol, leucine, glyceryl-behanate, and hydrogenated.vegetable oil. These lubricants are preferably present in amounts from 0.1-10% (w/w), with a more preferred range of 0.3-3.0% (w/w).
Tablets are formed, for example, as follows. The particles are introduced into a blender along with AVICEL.RTM., disintegrants. and lubricant, mixed for a set number of minutes to provide a homogeneous blend which is then put in the hopper of a tablet press with which tablets are compressed. '^ie compression force used is adequate to form a tablet; however, not enough to fracture the beads or coatings.
Various enteric materials, e.g., cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, polyvinyl acetate phthalate, and the EUDRAG1T.RTM. acrylic polymers, can be used as gastroresistant, enterosbluble coatings for drug release in the intestine when desired. The enteric materials,-which are soluble at higher pH values, are frequently used for colon-specific delivery systems and are entirely conventionally
employable in the SR systems of this invention. The enteric polymers used in this invention can also be modified conventionally by mixing with other known coating products that are not pH sensitive. Examples of such coating products include the neutral methacrylic acid esters with a small portion of trimethylammonioethyl methacrylate • chloride, sold- currently under the trade names EUDRAGIT.RTM. and • EUDRAGIT.RTM. RL; a neutral ester dispersion without any functional groups, sold under .the trade names EUDRAGIT.RTM. NE30D and EUDRAGIT.RTM. NE30; and other pH independent coating products.
A conventional protective coating layer may also be applied immediately outside the core, either a drug-containing matrix core or a drug-layered core, by conventional coating techniques such as pan coating or fluid bed coating- using solutions of polymers in water or suitable organic solvents or by using aqueous polymer dispersions. Suitable materials for the protective layer include cellulose derivatives such as hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylpyrrolidone/vSnyl acetate copolymer, ethyl cellulose aqueous dispersions (AQUACOAT.RTM, SURELEASE.RTM.), EUDRAGIT.RTM. RL SOD, OPADRY.RTM. and the like. The suggested coaling levels are from 1 to 6%, preferably 2-4% (w/w).
An overcoating layer can ftirther optionally be applied to the composition of the present invention. OPADRY.RTM., OPADRY4I.RTM. (Colorcon) and corresponding color and colorless grades from Colorcon can be used to protect the pellets from being tacky and provide colors'to the product. The suggested levels of protective or color coating are from. 1 to 6%, preferably 2-3% (w/w).
• Many ingredients can be incorporated into the overcoating formula, for example to provide a quicker (immediate) release, such as plasticizers: acetyltriethyl citrate, triethyl citrate, acetyltributyl citrate, dibutylsebacate.'triacetin, polyethylene glycols, propylene glycol and the others; lubricants: talc, colloidal silica dioxide, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, titanium dioxide, magnesium silicate, and the like.
Optional modifying components of a protective layer which can be used over the enteric or other coatings include a water penetration barrier layer (semi-permeable polymer) which can be successively coated after the enteric or other coating to reduce the
water penetration rate through the enteric coating layer and thus increase the lag time of the drug release. Sustained-release coatings commonly known to one skilled in the art can be used for this purpose by. conventional coating techniques such as pan coating or fluid bed coating using solutions of polymers in water or suitable organic solvents or by using aqueous polymer dispersions. For example, the following materials can be used, but not limited to: cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, ethyl cellulose, fatty acids and their esters, waxes, zein, and aqueous polymer dispersions-such as EUDRAGIT.RTM. RS and RL 30D, EUDRAGIT.RTM. ME 30D, AQUACOAT.RTM., SURELEASE.RTM., cellulose acetate latex. The combination of the above'polymers and hydrophilic polymers such as hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (KLUCEL.RTM, Hercules Corp.), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (METHOCEL.RTM., Dow Chemical. Corp.), polyvinylpyrrolidone can also be used.
Principles of sustained release formulation technology applicable to this invention, including the exemplary modes mentioned herein, are disclosed, e.g., in R.K. Chang and J.R. Robinson, chapter 4: "Sustained Drug Release from Tablets and Particles . Through Coating," in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets, volume 3, edited by H.A. Lieberman, L. Lachman, and J.B. Schwartz, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1991; R.J. Campbell and G.L. Sackett, chapter 3: "Film coating," in Pharmaceutical Unit Operations: Coating. edited by K.E. Avis, A.J. Shukla, and R.K. Chang, Interpharm Press, Inc., 1999, whose disclosures are entirely incorporated by reference herein.
This invention also relates to use of the SR formulations to treat Indications other than ADHD at dosages and in regimens analogous to those described herein. These include but are not limited to Alzheimer's disease and other memory disorders, flbromyalgia, chronic fatigue, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, alone or hi : combination with a SSRI; oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with or without ADHD and with or without guanfacine or welbutrin; anxiety, with or without ADHD and alone or in combination with an anxiolytic or SSRI; resistant depression; stroke rehabilitation; Parkinson's disease; mood disorder, schizophrenia; Huntingdon's disorder;'dementia, e.g. AIDS dementia and frontal lobe dementia; movement disfunction; apathy; fatigue; Pick's
disease; sleep disorders, e.g., narcolepsy, cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagoglc hallucinations; etc.
The invention also relates to combinations of the SR formulations of this • invention with other therapeutic agents, including all those useful for a given indication. The involved drugs can be.formulated in the same dosage form as the SR dose of this invention or can be formulated separately, e.g., as conventionally used alone, in which ' case, the drugs can be administered sequentially in any order or simultaneously. Typically, dosages can be in the same ranges as for each drug used separately or, where synergistic effects occur, one or more of the combined drugs can be used hi lower dosages. Combinations encompass any where the drugs are made bioavailable in a patient at the same time, including combinations coming into being in a.patient.
These other therapeutic agents include e.g., for Alzheimer's: Reminyl, Cognex, Aricept,, Exelon, Akatinol, Neotropin, Eldepryl, Estrogen, Clioquinol, . . Ibuprofen, and Ginko Bilboa; for ADHD: methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin), Dexedrine, Adderall, Cylert, clonidinej guanfacine, etc; for depression: Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Reboxetine, Wellbutrin, Olanzapine, Fluoxetine, Elavil, Totranil, Pamelor, Nardil, Parnate, Desyrel, and Effexor; for mood disorder: Thorazine, Haldol, Navane, Mellaril, Clozaril, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Clozapine, Risperidone,-and Olanzapine; for fatigue: benzodiazapines, Anaprox, Naprosen, Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Effexor, and Desyrel; for fibromyalgia: Dilantin, Carbatrol, Epitol, Tegretol, Depacon, Depakote, Norpramin, •» Aventyi, Pamelor, Elavil, Enovil, Adapin, Sinequan, Zonalon, and non-steroidal inflammatory drugs; for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): clonidine, Risperidone, and Zyprexa; for apathy: Amisulpride, Olanzapine, Visperidone, Quetiapine, Clozapine, and Zotepine.; for Parkinson's disease: Levodopa, Parlodel, Permax, and MIRAPEX; for schizophrenia: Clozapine, Zyprexa, Seroquel, and Risperdal; for Huntington's disorder: haloperidal and clonzepam; for dementia: thioridazine, haloperidal, Risperidone, Cognex, Aricept, and Exeloh; for narcolepsy: Provigil, Dexedrine, Modafinil and Ritalin; for cataplexy: Xyrem; for hallucinations: Clozapine, Risperidone, Zyprexa, and Seroquel; for sleep paralysis: Perocet, Vicodin, and Lorcet; for obsessive compulsive disorder: , Anafirariil, Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox; and for anxiety: Elavil, Asendin, Wellbutrin,
•*• *™ __
Tegretol, Anafranil, Norpramine, Adapin, Sinequan, Tofranil, Epitol, Janiniire, Pamelor,
Ventyl, Aventyl, Surmontil etc; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including Prozac, Luvox, Serzone, Paxil, Zoloft, Effexor, etc., benzodiazepines, including Xanax, Librium, Klonopin, Valium, Zetran, Valrelease, Dalniane, Ativan, Alzapam, Serax, Halcion, etc., monamine oxidase inhibitors including Aurorix, Manerix, Nardil, Parnate, etc.
The entire disclosures of all applications, patents and publication, cited above, and below, are hereby incorporated by reference.
In the foregoing and in the following examples, all temperatures are set forth uncorrected in degrees Celsius; and, unless otherwise indicated, all parts and percentages are by weight.
SR Coated Beads
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads (MASL) 500 gram
Ethyl cellulose (Ethocel N-10, Dow Chemical) 15.46 gram
Ethyl acetate .515 gram
Ethyl cellulose (15.46 gram) was dissolved in 515 gram of ethyl acetate. Into a Wurster
column was charged 500 grams of MASL beads which were then coated with the coating mixture under conditions of 40°C, spray pressure 1 bar, and spray rate of 10 grams/min. The line was rinsed with ethyl acetate and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty minutes and recovered to give a product of 97 % by weight MASL beads and 3% by weight ethyl cellulose coating.
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads 500 grams
Ethyl cellulose (Ethocel N-10, Dow Chemical) 37.78 grams .
Hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel LF, Aqualon)
Ethyl cellulose (37.78 grams) and hydroxypropyl cellulose-(8.70 grams) were dissolved in a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol (4:1). Into a Wurster column was charged 500 grams of MASL beads which were then coated With the coating mixture under conditions of 40°C, spray pressure 1 bar, arid spray rate' 10 grams/min. The line was rinsed with methanol and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty minutes and recovered to give a product of 92 % by weight MASL beads and 8% by weight ethyl . cellulose/hydroxypropyl cellulose coating.
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads 500 gram
Stirelease (Ethyl cellulose-based dispersion, Colorcon) 173.92 grams
Surelease (173.92 grams) was.diluted with 43.48. grams of water. Into a Wurster. column (Versa-Glat^ Glatt Air Techniques) was charged 500 grams, of MASL beads which were then coated with the coating mixture under conditions of 60°C inlet temperature, spray pressure 1 bar, and spray rate 6 grams/min. The line was rinsed with water and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty minutes and recovered to give a product of 92 % by weight MASL beads and 8% by weight ethyl cellulose coating.
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads 500 grams
Eudragit RS30D 111.49 grams
Triethyl citrate 10.03 grams
Water 115.94 grams
Triethyl citrate was mixed into Eudragit RS30D for 30 min. The plasticized Eudragit RS30D was diluted with water and filtered through a 60-mesh screen. Into a" Wurster
column was charged 500 grams of MASL beads which were then coated with the coating mixture under conditions of 40°C iniet temperature, spray pressure 1 bar, and spray rate 6 grams/min. The line was rinsed with ethyl acetate and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty minutes and recovered to give a product of 92 % by weight MASL beads and 8% by weight ethyl cellulose coating.
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads 500 grams
Mixed amphetamine salts 48.5 grams
Glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888, Gattefosse) 436.5 grams
Mixed amphetamine salts was dispersed in the molten glyceryl behenate. The drag-containing hot rnelt was sprayed onto the mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads in a Wurster column under conditions of 30°C inlet temperature, spray pressure 2 bar, and a spray rate of 10 grams/min.
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads 500 grams
EudragitLlOp. . 25.25 grams
Ethyl cellulose (EthocelN-10, Dow Chemical) 25.25 grams
Triethyl citrate 5.05 grams
Acetone 833.4 grams
Methanol . 277.8 grams
Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose were dissolved in the mixture of acetone and methanol Subsequently, triethyl citrate was added to the polymer solution. Into the Wurster column was charged 500 grams of MASL beads which were then coated with the coating mixture under conditions of 40°C, spray pressure 1 bar, and spray rate 10 grams/min. The line was rinsed with methanol and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty minutes and recovered to give a product of 90% by weight MASL beads and 10% by weight ethyl cellulose/hydrcncypTopyl cellulose coating.
5R Matrix Beads/Tablets Example 7
Amphetamine Aspartate 50 grams Amphetamine Sulfate 50 grams Dextroamphetamine sacoharate 50 grams Dextroamphetamine sulfate 50 grams Microcrystalline cellulose 400 grams Polyethylene oxide), Polyox WSR 303 1380 grams Magnesium stearate 20 grams
•All the amphetamine salts, microcrystalline cellulose, and poly(ethylene oxide) were sieved through a 60 mesh screen and loaded into a V-shaped blender with an intenslfier bar. The powder mixture was blended for 15 min. with the intensifier bar on for 3 min. at the middle of the blending process. The powder blend was unloaded and screened through a 60 mesh sieve._ The screened powder blend was lubricated with magnesium stearate in the V-shaped blender for 3 min. The lubricated powder blend was compacted in a roller compactor to form granules.
Amphetamine Aspartate 50 grams Amphetamine Sulfate 50 grams Dextroamphetamine saccharate 50 grams Dextroamphetamine sulfate 50 grams MicrocrystalKne cellulose 1780 grams . Magnesium stearate 20 grams
were sieved through a 60 mesh intensifier bar. The powder mixture
All the amphetamine salts and microcrystalline celluldse screen and loaded into a V-shaped blender with an i
was blended for 15 min. with the intensifier bar on for 3 min. at the middle of the blending process. The powder blend was unloaded and -screened through a 60 mesh sieve. The screened powder blend was lubricated with magnesium stearate in the V-shaped blender for 3 min. The lubricated powder blend was compressed into tablets using 3/32" tooling.
Mini-tablets 500 grams Surelase 127.7 grams ' water 85.1 grams
Surelease (127.7 grams) was diluted with 85.1 grams of water. Into
the Wurster column (Versa-GIatt, Qlatt'Air Techniques) was charged 500
grams of the mini-tablets which were then coated with the coating mixture under
conditions of 60 C inlet temperature, spray pressure 1 bar, and spray rate 6 grams/min.
The line was rinsed with water and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty '
minutes and recovered to give a product of 94 % by weight MASL minitablets and 6% by
weight ethyl cellulose coating.
Example 10 ' .
Mixed amphetamine salts loaded beads 500 grams
Surlease (Ethyl cellulose-based dispersion, Colorcon) 272.7 grams
Water 6 8.2 grams
Surelease (272.7 grams) was diluted with 68.2 grams of water. Into a Wurster column (Versa-Glatt, Glatt Air Techniques) was charged 500 grains of MASL beads which were then coated with the coating mixture under conditions of 60 degree C inlet temperature, spray pressure 1- bar, and spray-rate 6 grams/min. The line was rinsed with water and the pellets were dried for approximately twenty minutes and recovered to give a product of 88% by weight MASL beads and 12% by weight ethyl cellulose coating.
The dissolution data for 8% and 12% coating levels are summarized as follows:
1 hour 2 hours 4 hours 6 hours 8 hours 8% coating 45% 74% 93% 98% 100% 12% coating 25% 47% 70% 81% 87%
Example 1 ]. • Background
A 2-component extended release formulation of Adderall® (mixed salts of d- and 1-amphetamine) designed to produce pulse-release of medication, yields a therapeutic effect for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) that lasts throughout the day with one-morning dose. This Adderall XR™ capsule formulation is composed of 2 types of Microtrol™ beads of mixed salts of amphetamine in a 50:5.0 ratio wi'thin one'capsule. The immediate-release beads are designed to release drug content in a time course similar to Adderall® tablets. The delayed-release beads are designed to release drug content approximately 4 hours after oral administration of the caps.ule. An initial formulation study with Adderall XR 20 mg QD demonstrated comparable bioavaila'bility and pharmacofcinetic profiles to immediate-release Adderall® 10 mg BID with a 4-hour interval and concluded that Adderall XR 20 mg QD is bioequivalent to Adderall® 10 mg BID (Michaels et al. Presented, NCDEU 2001)'.
The efficacy and extended duration of action of Adderall XR . in the treatment of children with-ADHD has been demonstrated in 2 previous pivotal double-blind studies: one conducted in a laboratory classroom setting (McCracken et al. Submitted), and the other in a naturalistiq home and school environment (Biedennan et al. Pediatrics 2002. In press). This large-scale, open-label trial has
been conducted primarily to evaluate the toierability and effectiveness of Adderall XR™ in the treatment of pediatric ADHD in the community practice setting.
Presented here are unaudited data of this prospective, open-label, 7-week study
conducted at 378 sites nationwide. An 8-week extension arm was optional after-
completion of this initial phase (Diagram A). ...
Subjects: Children aged 6 to 12 years who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD and were currently taking stable doses of immediate-release Adderall* or any methylphenidate formulation were enrolled.
Inclusion Criteria: Good physical health with normal blood pressure, pulse, and electrocardiogram (EGG); Conners Global Index Scale—Parent (CGIS-P) rating score of <_12 for boys and girls known responder to psychostimulant medication. exclusion criteria: uncontrolled symptomatic comorbid psychiatric disorder iq history of seizure or tourette concomitant medications such as clonidine guanfacine anticonvulsants any that affect blood pressure the heart.> Measures:
Primary Efficacy: Validated CGIS-P
Baseline: 2 to 3 hours after morning dose of previous psychostimulant medication to ass.ess degree of control of symptoms plus additional assessments at 8 and 12 hours after dose
Following initiation of treatment with Adderall XR™: prior to clinic visit at weeks 1, 3, and 7; administered by same parent/caregiver at 8 hours and again at 12 hours after the morning dose of Adderall XR™.* Secondary Efficacy: Clinical Global Impression Scales (CGI). Rated by the clinician. Gives a global evaluation of clinical status over time.
Subjects rated for severity at baseline while on previous psychostimulant medication. The CGI-S is a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (normal/not ill at all) to 7 (extremely ill).
Subjects rated for improvement at weeks 1, 3, and 7 by the CGI-I, a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (very much improved) to 7 (very much worse).
Primary Tolerability: Pediatric quality of life (PedsQL™)
Validated.measure assessing age-specific quality-of-life markers in healthy
children and those with acute and chronic health conditions.
Completed by parent/caregiver at baseline and end of initial phase of study
Secondary Tolerability: Medication Satisfaction and Preference Instruments Scales allowing evaluation of the acceptability of Adderall XR™ by both the parent/caregiver and physician (separate scales for physician and parent). Satisfaction Instrument given at baseline and week 7. Preference Instrument given at week 7.
Primary Safety. Physical exam at screening (including height and weight); EGG baseline arid end of study; vital sighs, including pulse, blood pressure, and weight at each study yisit; spontaneously reported adverse events-(AEs).were recorded at each visit.
In children receiving stable doses of various stimulant medications, 8-and 12-hour post-dose CGIS-P'scores reveal significant improvement in ADHD symptoms after conversion to Adderall XR™.
After switching to Adderall XR™, significant improvement was also apparent in CGI improvement scores and pediatric quality-of-life measures.
In this real-world clinical experience trial, satisfaction and preference survey results from both physicians and parents/caregivers (although not fully depicted here) also suggest significant benefit from treatment with Adderall XR™ as compared to previous medication therapy.
These findings likely reflect (1) the established efficacy and longer duration of action of Adderall XR™, (2) elimination of the need for additional daily doses for patients in multiple-daily-dose groups (at baseline), and (3) the lower daily doses of stimulant medication treatment regimens and higher level of ADHD symptomatology previously identified with ADHD treatment regimens in the community practice setting.
The incidence of adverse events occurring during treatment was low, and the
\ § ,
majority of AEs were mild in nature; study medication was well tolerated. Adderall XR™ is a safe and effective medication for the community practice treatment of children with ADHD, and, although patients may be showing significant benefit on other .stimulant treatment regimens, additional' significant benefit may be attained by switching patients to -this once-daily-dosed product.
Individual patients were treated with ADDERA1JL XR®,20 mg. Subjects received either one single dose administered with food or one single dose administered following a 10-hour overnight fast through continued fast 3.5 hours post dosing. A sampling of individuals' curves is given in Figures 7-12. The mean plasma concentration profile of Fig. 1 was obtained from averaging such individuals' curves.
The preceding examples can be repeated with similar success by substituting the genericaily or specifically described reactants and/or operating conditions of this invention for those used in the preceding examples.
From the foregoing description, one skilled in the art can easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention and, without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions.
1. A pharmaceutical formulation for treatment of patients having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprising a mixture of dextro- and levo-amphetamine and/or salt(s) thereof coated with a sustained release coating or matrix which comprises polyvinyl acetate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, ethyl cellulose, a fatty acid, a fatty acid ester, an alkyl alcohol, a wax, zein (prolamine from corn), a poly(meth)acrylate, microcrystalline cellulose or poly(ethylene oxide) effective to achieve continuous sustained release of said amphetamines and/or salt(s), wherein the coating level is from 1 to 6% in relation to the active mixture in order to provide a mean plasma concentration profile which has an initial slope from 2 hours to 4 hours after administration of 3.7 to 11.4 ng/(mL hr) for dextroamphetamines and/or 1.4 to 3 ng/(mL hr) for levoamphetamines.
2. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1, comprising equal amounts by weight of dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate and amphetamine sulfate.
3. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1, wherein the coating comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable water-insoluble film-former providing sustained release or other polymer providing sustained release.
4. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 3, wherein the coating optionally comprises a dissolution regulating agent.
5. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said sustained release coating or matrix comprises ethyl cellulose.
6. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said formulation comprises said amphetamines and/or salt(s) in a core which is coated with a sustained release coating.
7. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 6 wherein said coating comprises ethyl cellulose.
8. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said formulation comprises a core coated with a coating comprising said amphetamines and/or salt(s), which amphetamine coated core is coated with a sustained release coating comprising ethyl cellulose.
9. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said formulation comprises a core coated with a coating comprising said amphetamines and/or salt(s), which amphetamine coated core is coated with a sustained release coating comprising a water insoluble polymer.
10. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said sustained release coating or matrix comprises polyvinyl acetate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose or poly(ethylene oxide).
11. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1 wherein said coating or matrix comprises polyvinyl acetate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate or ethyl cellulose.
12. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 1, comprising a mixture of dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate and amphetamine sulfate.
13. The pharmaceutical formulation as claimed in claim 12 wherein said formulation comprises amphetamine coated cores, coated with a coating comprising ethyl cellulose.
|Indian Patent Application Number||1165/DELNP/2005|
|PG Journal Number||17/2010|
|Date of Filing||23-Mar-2005|
|Name of Patentee||SHIRE LLC|
|Applicant Address||9200 BROOLFIELD COURT,FLORENCE, KENTUCKY 41042,|
|PCT International Classification Number||A61K 9/22|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/US2003/029757|
|PCT International Filing date||2003-09-24|