Title of Invention

A PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF READY-TO-EAT COATED SNACKS.

Abstract A process for preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks by cleaning, grading and washing of whole grain pulse, partial hydrating the whole pulse for 2 to 15 hours in water to raise the moisture content from about 30 to 65 wt%, toasting the hydrated pulse at 150 to 350°C for a period ranging 15 seconds to 5 min to bring down moisture content to a safe range of 1 to 6 wt% coating with 0-0.5wt% of flavoring agent, coating with 0-0.5 wt% ingredients comprising of salt, sugar, chilli powder, hydrogenated fat, antioxidants to obtain ready-to-eat coated snack foods.
Full Text The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks. In particular this invention relates to preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks from pulses Cereals.
Pulses and their combination constitute an important part of human diet in many parts of the world because of low-cost, long shelf-life and nutritional balance. Pulse or legumes remain useful as an inexpensive source of proteins, complex starch, dietary fiber and useful minerals. All food legumes usually require processing prior to consumption in order ti make them soft, palatable and inactivating anti-nutritional factors. The targeted product from pulses after primary processing is the split cotyledon (popularly known as dhal in India) though a few whole legumes (without dehusking) are also used directly after soaking-cooking/frying. Several traditional foods, either as a ready-to-eat or ready-to-prepare form is popular. Most of them are made by fermentation or puffing or roasting, or by deep frying the dough pieces obtained by dry or wet grinding the material, and finally are used as a snack or as a breakfast food item.
Pulse or legumes are fermented in various parts of the world either singly or in combination with cereal(s). Commonly used pulses include blackgram and greengram, with which rice, corn or wheat flours can be mixed in different proportions to undergo the process of fermentation. Several traditional Oriental breakfast or snack foods are prepared using the process of fermentation following by steaming or frying.
Cooking in boiling water by which palatability and digestibility is improved, is probably the oldest method of utilization of pulses. Different varieties of legumes like peas and beans are available in canned form, especially in the American and European markets. Sprouted legumes have always been an important constituent of diets in many of the Asian countries like China, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and Bangladesh. Instant bean powders, which possess good rehydration characteristics, are used as a thickener in legume gravy preparation.
Most of the products prepared from legumes, especially the cooked products, are generally consumed fresh whereas some products like canned and roasted ones are stored and marketed. However, there is a need for developing other improved shelf-stable ready-to-eat pulse products, which can be used as convenience snack foods. Further, if the developed product possess high protein content in combination with low-fat content, it can be considered as a health food. Coated foods are known for several centuries, and the technology of coating has improved markedly in last fifty years. Further, the demand for new products having different texture, taste, appearance and overall acceptability had made this technology more useful. The main purpose of coating is to draw attention of the consumer such that the products receive a commercial success. The present section briefly discusses the need for coating, advantages and role of coating on different food attributes including sensory properties.
The food industries apply coating for a number of reasons, such as (a) To retard moisture transmission to or from the product (b) To reduce the reactivity of the core in relation to the outside environment (e.g., light, oxygen and other gases) (c) To prevent loss of volatile components such as flavours (d) To improve appearance of product including colour and glossy surface (e) Serve as a barrier for microbial invasion (f) Acts as a carrier for nutritional ingredients (g) To mask the undesirable core taste, if any and (h) Provide protection from mechanical shock when it is used in only small amounts, but achieve uniform dispersion in the host material
A few processes are available for the production of snack products from pulses in different countries is described. It may be mentioned here that snacks may be in ready-to-prepare or ready-to-eat forms of which the latter is more desirable considering the convenience of use.
Reference may be made to the US Patent 6365203B2 (2002), on continuous coating of chewing gum materials wherein small cores or pieces of gum materials are introduced into inclined rotating drums in which heated air is circulated, and a coating solution is applied to obtain the coated product. The draw back of the process lies in the fact that raw material for coating as well as
the finished product is not the same one used In the present attennpt, which is from whole pulse.
Reference may be made to the US Patent 0031573 A1 (2002) on sugar coated products and process for the same wherein the coating material used is fruit flavoured sugar alcohol. The draw back of the process lies in the fact that the process of coating is not the same way as the present attempt was made. Further, the present invention does not use any sugar alcohol as the coating material.
Reference may be made to the French Patent FR 2811913 A1 (2002) on process for encapsulation of fine solid particles in the form of microcapsules, wherein a process was described for microencapsulation of fine solid particles, including food ingredients. The mixture was sprayed through jets, the carrier liquid vaporizes, and the coating agent surrounds the particles to form microcapsules. The draw back of the process lies in the fact that coating process was done after mixing the coating agent with a carrier liquid at a pressure lower than its critical pressure which is difficult to maintain in addition to elevation of processing cost. In the present invention, coating was conducted at ambient pressure.
Reference may be made to the European Patent EP 1170060 A1 (2002) on process for electrostatic spraying of fluids and dry materials onto food products via spray jets, wherein a process for uniform application of same emulsions and solid ingredients, e.g. binding agents, flavourings or other seasonings by electrostatic spraying was described. The drawbacks of the process lie in the fact that the process is especially applicable to frozen vegetables. Moreover, quantities of same emulsion and dry ingredients applied are controlled by a method using computer linked weighing machine and flow sensors which is rather complicated and cost rendering process. Further, electrostatic coating process requires the application and maintenance of high voltage in the order of 10 or 20 kilo volts which makes the whole process complicated and cost intensive.
Reference may be made to the European Patent EP 1151671A1 (2001) concerning the preparation of coated of long-shelf life sausages and hard cheese, wherein, the long-shelf life sausages and hard cheeses were coated by an
aqueous dispersion of shellac and a copolymer which gives the product long shelf-life. The drawback of the process lies in the coating material i.e. shellac which is not an edible material and provides its characteristics taste. Thus, it differs from the present one where only edible materials are used. Another limitation of the process is that the raw materials are sausage and hard cheese that are entirely different from the material used (pulse) in this invention.
Reference may be made to the UK Patent GB 2362555 A (2001) on amorphous sugar coatings, wherein, food material like sugar confectionery, fruits, cereals or ice cream or feeds or pharmaceuticals were coated by amorphous sugar that comprises trehalose, isomalt or mannitol or a mixture of these sugars. The draw back of the process lies in the coating material, which is preferably sucrose free compounds and are not assimilated in human system.
Reference may be made to the French Patent FR 2808167 A1 (2001) on a process for the manufacture of confectionery in bulk, wherein, a process for the manufacture of chocolate confectionery by coating with alternating layers of a fat and a powder containing cocoa has been described. The differences between the process claimed here and present invention lie in the fact that raw material is not a pulse and the coating material is powder containing cocoa which is not true for the present invention.
Reference may be made to the Spanish Patent ES 3157160 A1 (2001) on a process for the manufacture of refreshing sugar confectionery, wherein, a method is described for sugar confectionery. Here, products from sugar syrup, water, glucose, sweeteners, flavourings, colourants and/or other additives are coated with a material based on xylitol. The limitation of the process lies in the fact that both the raw material as well as the coating materials are different from the present one.
Reference may be made to the PCT international Patent WO 01/80660 A1 (2001) on shelf stable confectionery, wherein, the preparation of a sugar confectionery product was described which consists of low density chocolate surrounded by a sugar based coating. The limitation of the process is that the core
material here is a low density chocolate and not the pulse which is the core material in the present one.
Reference may be made to the French Patent FR 2806587 A1 (2001) on a process for enrobing of particles for the manufacture of confectionery, wherein a process has been described for enrobing of edible particles with a coating material; later it was brought into contact with drying air. The drawback of this process lies in the fact that the product belongs to sugar confectionery and the edible particle is not a pulse or legume or grain.
Reference may be made US Patent 6033696 (2000) wherein claims have been made on a process for the coating of extrusion cooked cereals with a sweet tasting slurry. However, the product is for a snack application in which the base is different from the present study. Moreover, the product contains 3-5% of vegetable fat, which is a disadvantage for the product if the product is to be categorized as a low-fat health snack. Further, the ingredients for coating used include fruit/vegetable puree/concentrate, whole milk powder, etc., which are entirely different from the present application.
The reference may be made to US Patent 5731019 (1998) wherein a coated food product containing a non-starch coating composition had been disclosed. The composition includes oligosaccharides (2-10%), soluble protein (3-12%), vegetable oil (10-60%), emulsion (0-5%) and water (13-85%). The claims are, that this coating composition does not contain starch and can be used to form the crumb (one or more layers). The drawback of this composition lie in the addition of medium to high level of fat, and the product is meant for crumb that is different from the present application.
Reference may be made to US Patent 6207207 B1 (2001) wherein claims have been made for the development of a coated confectionery with a crispy texture having starch as the base. The integrity of the coating is maintained even after storage for extended periods. The drawbacks of the process are that the starch based centre is made by employing cooking extruder which is cost rendering process equipment. Moreover, a continuous outer sugar shell coating
was done surrounding the starch based centre, which is different from the present one.
Reference may be made to US Patent 5753286 (1998) wherein claims have been made for the development of a crunchy coating and a process for preparing coated foods. The coating materials includes pre-dusts that adhere to the water containing gel batter. However, the application of the product as well as the method of application is different from the present application.
Reference may be made to US Patent 4927645 (1990) wherein claims have been made for the development of candy coated snack foods such as popcorn. The process involves popping of corn kernels in a microwave oven and melting a candy bar of specified formulation and dimension over the popped corn. The drawback of the process is that the raw material is a microwaved popcorn and coating with a melted candy bar that are entirely different process of making the present product.
Reference may be made to R.D.Olson and R.H. Eifler in 1976 (Breakfast cereal process and product, US Patent 3976793) who claimed a process for sugar coated ready-to-eat breakfast cereal flake composed principally of oat and soyflour. It was claimed that enhanced crispness retention and sweetness impact occurs when dilute sweetening syrup was impregnated on the flake surface which is crystallized thereon so as not to be grossly visible. The process for breakfast cereal is entirely different from the present process. In addition, the claimed process is on a ready-to-eat product and coating on such bigger piece is much easier than coating on small sized materials like pulse, grit etc that are too small and difficult to coat.
Reference may be made US Patent 3952110 (1976) in which claims have been made for the development of a dry mix for coating of foods where spices and meats have been used while maintaining the pH between 5.2 and 6.8. The application of this product is different from the present claim. Moreover, maintaining a specific range of acidic pH means adding acid or water to the
system, which is a drawback for the claimed process because the water has to be removed at the final stage.
The main objective of the present invention is to provide a process for preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks.
Another object is to provide a process for producing a low-fat snack from whole pulses.
Yet another object is to prepare a product with high protein content.
Yet another object is to provide a cost-effective process for the preparation of ready-to-eat snack foods from whole pulses.
Yet another object is to have an attractive crisp texture in the snack.
Accordingly, the present invention provides a process for preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks comprising:-
a) cleaning, grading and washing of whole grain pulse,
b) partial hydrating the whole pulse for 2 to 15 hours in water to raise the moisture content from about 30 to 65 wt%
c) toasting the hydrated pulse at 150 to 350°C for a period ranging 15 seconds to 5 min to bring down moisture content to a safe range of 1 to 6 wt%
d) coating with 0-0.5wt% of favoring agent, such as herein described
e) coating with 0-0.5wt% ingredients comprising of salt, sugar, chilli powder, hydrogenated fat, antioxidants to obtain ready-to-eat coated snack foods.In an embodiment of the process the pulse used for coating Is selected from a group of pulses comprising cowpea, redgram, horsegram, greengram, Bengal gram, pea, blackgram and lentil.
In an another embodiment of the process the toasting Is carried in a group of toasters selected from hot air toaster, microwave oven, baking oven, fluidized bed toaster, contact roasting on hot surface or sand, infrared oven or rotary grain/coffee roaster.
in an another embodiment of the process the flavoring agents used is selected from a group comprising cinnamon powder, cardamom powder, synthetic flavours, mango flavour and vanilla.
In an another embodiment of the process the ingredients for coating used comprising salt, black salt, sugar, jaggery, edible oil, hydrogenated fat, malt, maltodextrin, spice powder like chilli , pepper and turmeric powder, oleoresins, natural and permitted synthetic food colours.
In yet an another embodiment of the process the antioxidant used is selected from group comprising butylated hydroxy anisole, tertiary butyl hydroquinone.
In yet an another embodiment of the process the the protein content of the products is in the range of 10 to 25% and fat content In the range of 2 to 5%.
In yet an another embodiment of the process the coated pulse Is used as ready-to-eat snack, breakfast, high protein snack and as health food.
Novelty and Inventive steps of this invention lie in the fact that a new process of toastlng-coating method is developed to get a smooth and uniform coated ready-to-eat snack product of attractive crisp texture by using the principle of UHT (ultra high temperature) toasting using whole pulse grain.
The summary of the steps of the process of the present invention is:
a) Cleaning, grading of the whole pulse, b) hydrating the pulse to raise the moisture content to about 30 to 65 wt%, c) toasting the hydrated pulse at 150 to 350°C for 15 seconds to 5 min to get a crisp product and to bring down moisture content to a safe moisture of range 1 to 6 wt%, and d) coating with other desired ingredients to obtain ready-to-eat pulse snack foods. The product is then packed in a suitable moisture-proof packaging material.
The process is further illustrated by the examples given below which should not however be construed to limit the scope of the invention.
Example 1
Process for readv-to-eat coated spiced pulse snack from cowpea
One kg of cleaned whole cowpea pulse is thoroughly washed and allowed for soaking in 600 ml water with occasional stirring for 8 h to raise the moisture content to about 56 wt%. The soaked cowpea is then toasted in a hot air toaster at about 250°C for 5 min. The whole toasted cowpea is then coated with salt-spice powder and oleoresins in a rotary coating pan to obtain spiced snack. The products are then packed in moisture-proof polyethylene packets. The colour of the uncoated product is creamy brown whereas the finished product is bright yellowish brown for spiced product. The bulk density of the finished product is 434 kg/m^. The proximate composition for spiced cowpea snack is moisture 3.6%, protein 23% and fat 4.7%.
Example 2
Process for readv-to-eat coated sweet pulse snack from cowpea
One kg of cleaned whole cowpea is thoroughly washed and allowed for soaking in 600 ml water with occasional stirring for 8 h to raise the moisture content to about 56 wt%. The soaked cowpea is then toasted in a hot air toaster at about 250°C for 5 min. The whole toasted cowpea is then coated with sugar solution and powder in a rotary coating pan to obtain sweet snack. The products
are then packed in moisture-proof polyethylene packets. The colour of the uncoated product is creamy brown whereas the finished product is bright white. The bulk density of the finished product is 566 kg/m3. The proximate composition for sweet cowpea snack is: moisture 4.1 %, protein 10.0% and fat 2.3%.
Example 3
Process for readv-to-eat coated sweet pulse snack from lentil
One kg of cleaned whole lentil is thoroughly washed and allowed for soaking in 700 ml water with occasional stirring for 7 h to raise the moisture content to about 47 wt%. The soaked lentil is then toasted in a hot air toaster at about 250°C for 3 min. The whole toasted lentil is then coated with sugar solution and powder in a rotary coating pan to obtain sweet snack. The products are then packed in moisture-proof polyethylene packets. The colour of the uncoated product is creamy brown whereas the finished product is bright white. The bulk density of the finished product is 650 kg/m3. The proximate composition for sweet lentil snack is: moisture 2.3%, protein 11.0% and fat 3.7%.
Example 4
Process for readv-to-eat coated spiced pulse snack from lentil
One kg of cleaned whole lentil is thoroughly washed and allowed for soaking in 700 ml water with occasional stirring for 7 h to raise the moisture content to about 47 wt%. The soaked lentil is then toasted in a hot air toaster at about 250°C for 3 min. The whole toasted lentil is then coated with salt-spice powder and oleoresin in a rotary coating pan to obtain spiced snack. The products are then packed in moisture-proof polyethylene packets. The colour of the uncoated product is creamy brown whereas the finished product is bright yellowish brown. The bulk density of the finished product is 517 kg/m3. The proximate composition for salt-spicy lentil snack is moisture 2.3%, protein 23.0% and fat 2.1%.
Advantages of the invention
The developed product is in ready-to-eat form to provide convenience to consumers.
The developed process of making RTE pulse snack possesses an attractive crisp texture with moderate level of fibre.
The process of toasting helps in developing low density product resulting in attractive crispness to the products.
Ready To Eat pulse snack developed by the present process has a good acceptability both as sweet and savory forms.
The process of preparation involves simple steps like soaking, toasting and coating and does not require any sophisticated and costly equipment.
The product can be introduced as a snack food, high protein food or Ready To Eat breakfast item; it is also suitable as a health food due to high protein high fiber and low fat contents.
The raw materials for processing can be different pulses, such as Bengalgram, blackgram, pea, greengram, redgram, horsegram, cowpea, lentil etc.
The use of conventional process equipment and use of low-cost pulses make the process cost-effective.







We claim :
1. A process for preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks comprising:
a) cleaning, grading and washing of whole grain pulse,
b) partial hydrating the whole pulse for 2 to 15 hours in water to raise the moisture content from about 30 to 65 wt%
c) toasting the hydrated pulse at 150 to 350°C for a period ranging 15 seconds to 5 min to bring down moisture content to a safe range of 1 to 6 wt%
d) coating with 0-0.5wt% of flavoring agent, such as herein described
e) coating with 0-0.5wt% ingredients comprising of salt, sugar, chilli powder, hydrogenated fat, antioxidants to obtain ready-to-eat coated snack foods.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pulse used for coating is selected from a group of pulses comprising cowpea, redgram, horsegram, greengram, Bengal gram, pea, black gram and lentil.
3. A process as claimed in claim 1 to 2, wherein the toasting is carried in a group of tasters selected from hot air toaster, microwave oven, baking oven, fluidized bed toaster, contact roasting on hot surface or sand, infrared oven or rotary grain/coffee roaster.
4. A process as claimed in claim 1 to 3, wherein the flavoring agents used is selected from a group comprising cinnamon powder, cardamom powder, synthetic flavors, mango flavor and vanilla.
5. A process as claimed in claim 1 to 4, wherein the ingredients for coating used comprising salt, black salt, sugar, jaggery, edible oil, hydrogenated fat, malt,
maltodextrin, spice powder like chilli, pepper and turmeric powder, oleoresins, natural and permitted synthetic food colours.
6. A process as claimed in claim 1 to 5, wherein the antiodixant used is selected
from group comprising butylated hydroxyl anisole, tertiary buty
hydroquinone.
7. A process for preparation of ready-to-eat coated snacks substantially as herein
described with reference to the examples.


Documents:

521-DEL-2004-Abstract-(24-11-2009).pdf

521-del-2004-abstract.pdf

521-DEL-2004-Claims-(24-11-2009).pdf

521-del-2004-claims.pdf

521-DEL-2004-Correspondence-Others-(24-11-2009).pdf

521-del-2004-correspondence-others.pdf

521-del-2004-correspondence-po.pdf

521-del-2004-description (complete).pdf

521-del-2004-form-1.pdf

521-del-2004-form-18.pdf

521-del-2004-form-2.pdf

521-DEL-2004-Form-3-(24-11-2009).pdf

521-del-2004-form-3.pdf

521-del-2004-form-5.pdf


Patent Number 238271
Indian Patent Application Number 521/DEL/2004
PG Journal Number 6/2010
Publication Date 05-Feb-2010
Grant Date 28-Jan-2010
Date of Filing 19-Mar-2004
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Applicant Address RAFI MARG NEW DELHI-110001,INDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 SUVENDU BHATTACHARYA CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH, INSTITUTE, MYSORE-570 013, KARNATAKA, INDIA.
2 SILA BHATTACHARYA CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH, INSTITUTE, MYSORE-570 013, KARNATAKA, INDIA
3 NARASIMHA HAMPAPURA VENKATARAMA IYENGAR CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH, INSTITUTE, MYSORE-570 013, KARNATAKA, INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number A23 L 1/064
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA