Title of Invention

A STATIC ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF ALUMINIUM SPECIES

Abstract A static ion-exchange process for the preparation of a polynuclear Al species comprising the treatment of an aqueous aluminium chloride solution with a hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin at a temperature of from 5°C to 60°C for a period of at least 30 minutes.
Full Text
FORM - 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
&
The Patents Rules, 2003
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
(See Section 10 and Rule 13)
PROCESS OF PREPARING ALUMINIUM SPECIES
HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED, a company incorporated under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 and having its registered office at Hindustan Lever House, 165/166, Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai -400 020, Maharashtra, India
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed

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PCT/EP2006/002958

Process of Preparing Aluminium Species
This invention is in the field of materials science and concerns a process for the controlled preparation of hydrolysed aluminium species, in particular polynuclear Al species, specific examples being the species known as the
Al13-mer ( [Al13O4 (OH) 24 (H2O) 12] 7+) and the Al30-mer

( [Al30O8 (OH) 56 (H2O) 26]18+ ).
Polynuclear aluminium species are used in a number of materials science applications including the preparation of
pillared clays, Al2O3 nanoparticles, antiperspirant actiVes, catalysts, and composite materials (see Shafran et al, Adv. Eng. Materials, 6(10), 2004, 836, for references to these applications).
The use of polynuclear aluminium species in antiperspirant (AP) actives has been particularly prevalent. Many AP actives include basic aluminium chloride species. These
have the general formula Al2 (OH) s_xClx, where x is between
about 0.5 and 5. Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) is a particular basic aluminium chloride in which x is 5. ACH has been widely used in the AP industry because of its relatively low acidity and subsequent low tendency to cause' skin irritation.
The aqueous solution chemistry of basic aluminium chlorides in general, and ACH is particular, is rather complex (see

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"Antiperspirants and Deodorants", ed. Karl Laden, 1999, Chapter 4: "Chemistry of ACH and Activated ACH", by-Fitzgerald and Rosenberg). The preparation of the materials involves multiple hydrolysis and condensation reactions, typically resulting in a plethora of species being produced. Whilst the reactions can be difficult to control, it has been identified that some polynuclear Al species are produced and that these are desirable for higher AP efficacy
(vide infra). Fitzgerald and Rosenberg describe the Al^-
mer polynuclear species in some detail; however, other desirable polynuclear Al species have been identified more
recently, such as the Al3Q-mer (Roswell and Nazar, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 122, 2000, 3777; L. Allouche et al, Angrew. Chem. Int. Edit., 2000, 39, 511).
Methods have been developed to prepare ACH actives that are rich in polynuclear Al species, such actives sometimes being called "activated" ACH. GB 1,568,831 (Unilever, 1976) describes a route involving heating a solution of ACH under controlled conditions to give polymeric species having a size above 100 Angstroms. EP 183,171 Bl (Armour Pharm. Co., 1985) describes a route involving specific heating, drying, and cooling steps, resulting in an ACH having enhanced activity. EP 451,395 Bl (Unilever, 1990) describes a process involving the production of ACH having a Band III fraction of at least 20%, the Band III material having particularly good AP efficacy.
In general, the prior art routes to ACH of enhanced activity are somewhat complex and/or involve heating regimes that last for many hours and/or require high temperatures, for example in excess of 100°C. Clearly, heating to high

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temperature or for prolonged lengths of time requires much energy, and processes involving such procedures are undesirable because of the cost involved. In addition, whilst the heating can lead to the production of the desired polynuclear ACH component (s), it can also reduce the selectivity of the reaction.
The majority of prior art routes to activated ACH have been based on the electrochemical reaction of aluminium metal with either HCl or A1C13 solution. This route is attractive due to the relatively low cost of starting materials and the low number of reaction stages (usually two: the dissolution of the Al metal and the thermal ageing of the resulting solution). Unfortunately, there are several problems associated with this type of ACH synthesis:
(1) Dissolution of the Al metal is a difficult and slow process due to the Al metal being 'passivated' by an aluminium oxide film formed on its surface. Whilst mercury may be used to partially alleviate this problem, the use of mercury is undesirable because of its toxicity.
(2) During the initial stages of Al metal dissolution, hydrogen gas is produced; this is potentially explosive and can raise safety concerns.
(3) Since dissolution of the Al metal is slow, the reaction stoichiometry varies throughout the course of the dissolution/reaction and this can result in a multitude of species being produced.

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None of the above routes to enhanced activity ACH take advantage of the procedure of the invention, which involves relatively low temperatures and the use of an static ion-exchange process. Whilst such procedures have not previously been used in the manufacture of polynuclear Al species, they have been used in other fields. For example, the preparation of iron oxide using a hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin is described by Vertegel et al (J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 181, 1995, 146). It has also been reported that
such techniques have been used to prepare Al2O3, Cr2O3 and
Fe2O3 (Kudryavtseva et al, J. Mater. Chem., 7(11), 1997, 2269).
Dynamic ion-exchange, whereby an aqueous solution of AIX3 is
passed.through an ion-exchange column in OH form, is
referred to in US 4,176,090 (Grace &Co., 1979) and US 4,271,043 (Grace &Co. , 1981).
In a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a static ion-exchange process for the preparation of a polynuclear Al species, said process comprising the treatment of an aqueous aluminium chloride solution with a hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin at a temperature from 5°C to 60°C for a period of at least 30 minutes.
The invention enables the preparation of polynuclear Al species in very controlled conditions. The invention utilises a "soft" hydrolysis-condensation process that is in marked contrast to the harsh conditions found in most processes involving reaction with hydroxide ions. This enables good control of the reaction and relatively easy

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running of the process. Most importantly, the invention enables the formation of particularly high levels of
preferred polynuclear Al species, such as the Al13-mer and,
through further reaction, the Al3Q-mer; moreover, this can be done at relatively high Al concentration.
The invention involves the use of reagents that are widely available and that have low cost: aluminium chloride and an anion exchange resin. The reagents are used efficiently and no excess of either reagent is required - this eliminates the need for post-reaction washing and/or other purification of the reaction product. In addition, the method does not require vforeign' species (e.g. mercury) to be present, a fact that- also reduces the need for post-reaction washing and/or other purification. The method is simple and produces a high purity product.
Many features of the process of the' invention may give rise to environmental benefits, in particular low energy consumption and the use of reagents capable of being recycled (vide infra).
Polynuclear Al species are aluminium species comprising more than one aluminium nucleus. The invention is particularly useful in' the preparation of the polynuclear Al species having more than two aluminium nuclei, especially those
species known as the Ali3~mer and the Al3o-mer.
In preferred embodiments, the method of the invention is used in the preparation of an AP active, in particular a basic aluminium chloride AP active, and especially an ACH AP active, comprising polynuclear Al species. In especially

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preferred embodiments, the invention may be used to prepare AP actives having 90% or greater of the aluminium in the form of Ali3~mer and/or Al3Q-mer.
The invention is typically used to prepare polynuclear Al species that do not contain any ligands other than hydroxide; however, polynuclear Al species prepared according to the invention may include species that are complexed with amino acids, such as glycine.
A key feature of the invention is the use of a hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is. believed that the slow exchange of the hydroxide ion from the resin with chloride ions from solution, helps to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions leading to the production of the polynuclear Al species in high yield.
It is essential that the method of preparation involves a static ion-exchange process, as opposed to a dynamic ion-exchange process. A dynamic ion-exchange process is one in which there is physical flow of solution through a bed of ion-exchange resin, the bed typically being in the form of a column. Dynamic ion-exchange tends to lead to concentration perturbations, i.e. uneven concentrations of reactants at different physical locations within the ion-exchange bed. This is an unfavourable situation with regard to the achievement of the benefits of the present invention. In a static ion-exchange process according to the present invention, the aluminium chloride solution is mixed with the ion-exchange resin and the two are allowed to sit together. There is no bulk flow of the solution through a fixed bed of the resin. This process avoids the concentration

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perturbations inherent in dynamic ion-exchange. The resin:solute ratio is approximately equal at all physical locations when such a process is used. This is essential for the achievement of the benefits of the present invention.
The ion-exchange resin may be partially or fully in its hydroxide-form; however, the use of an ion-exchange resin that is initially fully in its hydroxide-form is preferred. As a precursory step, the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin may be generated from an ion-exchange resin in an alternative form. Often ion exchange resins are bought in a chloride-form and the precursory step involves washing the resin with a hydroxide ion source, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide solution, in order to produce the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin.
In order to maintain homogeneity, it is preferred that the mixture of ion-exchange resin and aluminium chloride solution is stirred during the reaction. The stirring is preferably done in a manner such that resin retains its integrity, i.e. in a manner such that the resin is not crushed in any way (crushed resin is harder to remove from the solution at the end of the reaction). Typically, an overhead stirrer made of a corrosion resistant shaft and blade is used. High-grade stainless steel is a suitable material for these components, chemically resistant glass is a preferred material for these components and Teflon is a particularly preferred material for these components. For economic and environmental reasons, it is desirable to operate at high concentrations. It is therefore preferred that the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin has a high capacity, in particular a concentration of hydroxide ions of

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at least 1 mol.kg and especially a concentration of
hydroxide ions of at least 2 mol.kg . Such high capacities
enable the resin to be kept mobile (i.e. stirred [vide
supra]) at high concentrations (mol.dm ) of hydroxide ion
in the total reaction mixture. For the same reasons, it is also preferred that the ion-exchange resin has a relatively small average bead size. It is preferred that the average bead size (wet) is 75 mesh or less and it is particularly preferred that the average bead size (wet) is 50 mesh or less.
Having a high concentration of hydroxide ion in the total reaction mixture also enables one to have a high concentration of aluminium chloride in the total reaction mixture, the ratio of one to the other being fixed within relatively narrow bounds, dependent upon the nature of the polynuclear Al species desired {vide infra) . The concentration of aluminium chloride in the total reaction
-3 -3
mixture is typically from 0.05 mol.dm to 0.6 mol.dm and
-3 -3
is preferably from 0.1 mol.dm to 0.4 mol.dm . For
hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin having a particularly high
capacity, for example at least 2 mol.kg- , the concentration
of aluminium chloride in the total reaction mixture may be
higher, for example at least 0.4 mol.dm" and optionally up 0.6 mol. dm
The ion-exchange resin used in the present invention is insoluble in water and in the continuous phase of the reaction mixture, i.e. aqueous aluminium chloride solution.

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Typically, the ion-exchange resin contains weakly basic, e.g. polyamine, matrix active groups.
Prior to mixing with the aluminium chloride solution, it is preferred that the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin is suspended in water. This allows equilibration of the resin with the aqueous medium, such equilibration being beneficial to the quality of the eventual reaction product.
The ion-exchange resin may be added to the solution of aluminium chloride or vice versa. For optimum ease of operation and control of the reaction, it is preferred that the solution of aluminium chloride is added to an aqueous suspension of ion-exchange resin.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a strong acid
(i.e. an acid having a pKa of less than 2.5), typically
hydrochloric acid, is added to the reaction mixture during the mixing of the aluminium chloride solution with a suspension of the ion-exchange resin. Addition of the acid serves to reduce the pH shock that can occur during this mixing, thereby minimising the production of undesirable components. The acid may be added independently of, or as a component of, either the aluminium chloride solution or the suspension of ion-exchange resin or both.
In a particularly preferred embodiment, a strong acid is added to the suspension of ion-exchange resin shortly before this is mixed with the aluminium chloride solution. It is preferred that sufficient acid is added to give the suspension of ion-exchange resin approximately the same pH as the solution of aluminium chloride with which it is to be mixed. It is particularly preferred that the suspension of

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ion-exchange resin and the aluminium chloride solution have a pH within 1 unit of each other when they are mixed. In this embodiment, it is important that the mixing is performed quickly, preferably being completed within two minutes and more preferably within one minute of the completion of the acidification of the suspension of ion-exchange resin. It is important that this time is minimised in order to minimise premature neutralisation of the added acid by the hydroxide ions present within the ion-exchange resin. When the scale of the reaction is too great for these preferred mixing times to be achieved, it may be possible to acidify the suspension of ion-exchange resin in small portions or by drip-feed shortly before it is passed into the aluminium chloride solution.
An important parameter in the method of the invention is the ratio of hydroxide ion equivalents to aluminium ion equivalents in the reaction mixture, this ratio being termed the hydrolysis ratio: H. For generation of polynuclear Al
species, in particular the Al-mer, H is preferably from
2.1 to 2.6, more preferably from 2.3 to 2.5, and most
preferably from 2.4 to 2.5. For generation of Al13-mer H is
most preferably about 2.45, whilst for generation of the
Al3o-mer, H is most preferably about 2.40. It is preferred
that the source of the hydroxide ions is solely the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin. It is preferred that the source of the aluminium ions is solely the aluminium chloride solution.
The pH of the reaction mixture increases during the course of the preparation, especially during the early stages. The initial pH is typically below 3.5 and, to optimise

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production of polynuclear Al species, it is preferred that the pH is kept below 4.75 throughout the course of the preparation.
The rate of increase of the reaction pH (i.e. d(pH)/dt) preferably decreases during the course of the reaction. It is particularly preferred that d(pH)/dt does not increase during any period of the preparation. It is especially preferred that d(pH)/dt has reduced to less than 0.015 within 3 0 minutes of the aluminium chloride solution and ion-exchange resin being mixed, pH being conventional units
(-logio [H 1)# an The preparation is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 18°C to 40°C, more preferably at from 20°C to 35°C, and most preferably at from 20°C to 30°C. Lower temperatures are not desirable because they tend to slow the reaction down. Higher temperatures are not desirable because they tend to lead to a lower quality product, having, greater inhomogeneity and/or a lower level of polynuclear Al species.
The time during which the aluminium chloride solution and ion-exchange resin are in contact is preferably at least 45 minutes, more preferably at least 1 hour, and most preferably at least 2 hours. Shorter reaction times are undesirable because the reaction may not have reached the optimum extent of completion. For economic reasons and/or product quality reasons, it is preferred that the reaction time is not too great. The reaction time is preferably less than 6 hours, more preferably less than 4 hours, and most preferably less than 3 hours.

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To a certain extent, the optimum reaction temperature and time are related, shorter reaction times being required at higher temperatures and vice versa. Thus, in some embodiments it may be preferred that the reaction is carried out at from 10°C to 25°C for 2 to 4 hours, whilst in other embodiments it may be preferred that the reaction is carried out at from 25°C to 40°C for 3 0 minutes to 2 hours.
Following the reaction between the aqueous aluminium chloride solution and the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin, the resin is removed from the solution, typically by filtration. Following this step, a small amount of further hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin (typically from 0.1% to 0.5% of the weight of resin initially used) may be added in order to achieve especially high yield of the desired polynuclear Al species. This further reaction is preferably performed at ambient temperature for a period of from 1 day to 1 week. The amount of further ion-exchange resin to be added may be calculated from an analysis of a portion of the solution of polynuclear species produced during the initial reaction.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, washing the ion-exchange resin with a source of hydroxide ion (such as aqueous sodium or potassium hydroxide solution) is used as a means of regenerating the hydroxide form of the resin after it has been used in accordance with the invention. In such embodiments, the aqueous aluminium chloride solution is treated with the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin, the ion-exchange resin is then separated from the resulting solution of polynuclear Al species, regenerated by treatment with a source of hydroxide ions, and then re-used to prepare further polynuclear Al species. This recycling of the ion-

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exchange resin adds to the efficiency and environmental acceptability of the manufacturing process. In a preferred version of this embodiment, the ion-exchange resin is washed with hydrochloric acid, typically of concentration about 10% w/v, prior to being washed with a source of hydroxide ion. The acid wash serves to remove residual aluminium species from the resin and thereby improve the performance of the regenerated resin.
It may be noted that when an ion-exchange resin is washed with a source of hydroxide ion, whether it be prior to use or re-use, it is highly desirable to remove residual free hydroxide ions from the resin by further washing it with water prior to said use or re-use.
Preparation of the Al3O-mer polynuclear species requires
ageing of the solution of polynuclear species prepared .according to the first aspect of the invention, following removal of the ion-exchange resin. In order to maximise the
yield of Al30-mer, the solution of polynuclear species prepared according to the first aspect of the invention may be aged at from 60 to 95°C, preferably at from 70 to 90°C, and more preferably at from 80 to 85°C. The ageing is preferably performed for from 12 to 72 hours, more preferably from 24 to 64 hours, and most preferably from 24 and 3 6 hours. In general, the longer the ageing time, the more complete is the transformation of lower species into
the Al3O-mer species.
A process of preparation analogous to that described in the first aspect of the invention may be used to prepare aluminium hydroxide sols of surprisingly narrow particle

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size distribution. Such materials may be advantageous in the ceramics field and in chromatographic applications. The analogous process comprises the treatment of an aqueous aluminium salt solution with a hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin at a temperature from 5°C to 60°C for a period of at least 3 0 minutes, H being chosen to be greater than 2.6, preferably greater than 2.7, and more preferably greater than 2.8. The aluminium salt employed is preferably chloride, but may be nitrate or some other water-soluble salt. Following removal of the ion-exchange resin by filtration, a colloidal dispersion or sol of aluminium hydroxide remains. In a further step, this
sol may be aged, preferable at 60 °C or less and preferably for one month or less, in order to produce an aluminium hydroxide sol of selected particle size.. In general, the longer the ageing period employed, the greater is the particle size of the aluminium hydroxide colloidal dispersions produced. Higher ageing temperature also leads to larger particle sizes. Nano-sized colloidal dispersions of selected particle size may be produced in this manner.
The solution of aluminium species remaining after removal of the ion-exchange resin may be dried to give a solid sample of polynuclear Al species in powder form. This may be done on an industrial scale by freeze-drying or spray-drying. Freeze-drying is generally considered to be a less harsh technique and may be preferred for this reason. Spray drying tends to result in a dried salt with a more consistent and desirable particle size distribution and may be preferred for this reason.
When spray drying is used, it is preferred that the dried powder be cooled as soon as possible after the drying step,

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for example by conveying it from the drying stage to the next stage (e.g. a storage stage) in a cooled, low humidity current of air.
When the solution of aluminium species is dried to give an AP active, the procedure is performed to give a water content of the resulting (dried) AP active of preferably no lower than about 2%, more preferably at least about 4%, even more preferably at least 6%, and most preferably at least 8% by weight of the active. It is not desirable to dry to particularly low water levels, because the drying regimes to which the active needs to be subjected to get to such water levels may be deleterious to the quality of the active resulting, in particular its content of desirable
polynuclear species, such as the Ali3~mer. With regard to
the maximum level of water, the drying procedure is performed to give a water content of the resulting (dried) AP active of preferably less than 12% and more preferably less than 10% by weight of the active. It is believed that reducing the water content of the active is desirable for its long-term stability.
Water content may conveniently be measured using a moisture balance, for example a Sartorius MA30 moisture balance, used on an "auto" programme with a set point of 100°C.
Examples
A commercially available anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA67, 50 mesh (wet), ex Sigma) was washed using deionised distilled water and was transformed into the hydroxide-form using 2M potassium hydroxide solution prior to a second

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extensive washing with water and drying for 48 hours under ambient conditions.
The titre of the resin was established using an excess of 1M hydrochloric acid solution and back-titration with a standard volumetric solution potassium hydrogen carbonate.
Various amounts of the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin were suspended in 80 ml aliquots of deionised water. To these suspensions were added 20 ml aliquots of 1M aluminium chloride solution and the mixtures were stirred at 25±0.2°C in a Pyrex glass reactor for 3 hours. After this time, the resin was removed by filtration through a 70 micron HDPE Biichner filter funnel to leave an aqueous solution of aluminium species as the final product.
The amount of the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin was varied to give particular hydrolysis ratios H, H being the ratio of hydroxide ion equivalents to aluminium ion equivalents in the reaction mixture. H values from 0.5 to 3.0 were investigated.
The pH of each of the reaction mixtures was monitored throughout the procedure. From these measurements, it was clear that the procedure is a particularly "soft" hydrolysis technique. Evidence for this was that (a) there was no temporary pH shift due to local perturbations, as typically created by alkali addition; (b) each stage of the reaction,
in particular the formation of the Ali3-mer, was well
separated from the others on the time scale,- and (c) there was no premature hydroxide formation at H values below about 2.5, as indicated by smooth plateaus on the corresponding pH

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curves. These results were supported by quantitative 27Al NMR measurements (vide infra).
The effect of H upon the level of aluminium species in the final product is shown in Table 1. From these figures, it may be seen that levels of H from 2.1 to 2.6 all produce high levels of Ali3-mer, with H values of from 2.4 to 2.5
being particularly preferred for this purpose. It is noteworthy that aluminium hydroxide becomes the dominant species present at higher H values.
Table 1

H % Aluminium present Mono- and bi-nuclear species Ali3-mer Al (OH) 3
0.5 92 8 0
0.75 79.5 20.5 0
1 67.7 32.3 0
1.25 54.7 45.3 0
1.5 43.7 56.3 0
1.75' 33 67 0 ,
2.1 . 17.5 82.5 0
2.2 15 85 0
2.3 9.6 90.4 0
2.4 7.2 92.8 0
2.5 2.6. 91.8 5.6
2.6 1.5 71.7 26.8
2.7 1.3 47.9 50.8
2.8 .1.8 29.8 68.4
2.9 2 13.1 84.9 .
3 2.3 5.9 91.8

27 Quantitative Al solution NMR was used to determine the amounts of mono- and bi-nuclear species present and the amount of Ali3~mer present. The amount of aluminium
hydroxide was calculated as the difference between the sum of these amounts and the amount of aluminium in the starting

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solutions (0.2 M), as described in the work of Deschaume et al, Adv. Eng. Materials, 6(10), 2004, 836.
In an analogous example, a portion of 1M aluminium chloride solution containing 0.25 M hydrochloric acid was added rapidly to a stirred suspension of hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the time between acidification of the ion-exchange resin and addition of the acidified aluminium chloride solution being kept to a minimum. The amounts of reagents were selected to give an H value of 2.45 and a final aluminium concentration of 0.4 M. After equilibration had been achieved (approximately 3 hours), the resin was removed by filtration and the solution of aluminium species was left to stand at ambient temperature for one week. After this time, the speciation of the sample was re-checked and further hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin was added to raise the percentage of Ali3-mer present to near to 100%.
In a further example, a portion of 1M aluminium chloride solution containing 0.25 M hydrochloric acid was added rapidly to a stirred suspension of ion-exchange resin in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the time between acidification of the ion-exchange resin and addition of the acidified aluminium chloride solution being kept to a minimum. The amounts of reagents were selected to give an H value of 2.40 and a final aluminium concentration of 0.4 M. After equilibration had been achieved (approximately 3 hours) , the resin was removed by filtration and the solution of aluminium species was heated at 85°C for 38 hours. Analysis of the resulting solution revealed that greater than 90% of the aluminium was
present as the Al3o-mer.

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In a comparative example, a portion of aluminium chloride solution was repeatedly passed through a column packed with hydroxide-form ion-exchange column resin, the concentrations of hydroxide and aluminium being chosen to give H values of 2.45, 2.7 and 3.0 and an aluminium concentration of 0.4 M. Analysis of the resulting solutions revealed that Al13-mer was present in only minor amounts in each. In addition, it was found that substantial amounts of aluminium ions were left on the column. This example illustrates some of the problems associated with a dynamic ion-exchange process. It is hypothesised that a pH gradient forms in front of aluminium solution as it flows through the column, resulting in the first portion of the solution getting 'over-hydrolysed' and forming large aluminium hydroxide which get entrapped in the column. This in turn causes a deficiency of hydroxide ions on the resin surface available for production of polynuclear aluminium species and a low
concentration Al13-mer in the final product is the result.
In a further experiment, a portion of 1M aluminium chloride solution containing 0.25 M hydrochloric acid was added rapidly to a stirred suspension of ion-exchange resin in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the time between acidification of the ion-exchange resin and addition of the acidified aluminium chloride solution being kept to a minimum. The amounts of reagents were selected to give an H value of 3.0 arid a final aluminium concentration of 0.4 M. After 3 hours, the ion-exchange resin was removed by filtration and analysis of the resulting sol revealed that greater than 90% of the aluminium was present as aluminium hydroxide. The particle

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size of the aluminium hydroxide sol was determined to be approximately 17 nm by dynamic light scattering [DLS]. This sol was then divided into two equal parts. One part was stored at room temperature for 48 hours and produced a near mono-disperse aluminium hydroxide sol of mean particle size 35 nm, as determined by DLS. The other part was stored at 60°C for 48 hours and produced a near mono-disperse aluminium hydroxide sol of mean particle size 80 nm, as determined by DLS.

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CLAIMS
1. A static ion-exchange process for the preparation of a polynuclear Al species, said process comprising the treatment of an aqueous aluminium chloride solution with a hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin at a temperature of from 5°C to 60°C for a period of at least 30 minutes.
2. A process according to claim 1, wherein the concentration of aluminium chloride in the total
reaction mixture is 0.05 mol.dm-3 or greater.
3. A process according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the
hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin has a capacity of at
least 1 mol.kg-1
4. A process according to any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the ratio of hydroxide ion equivalents to aluminium ions in the reaction mixture, H, is from 2.1 to 2.6.
5. A process according to claim 4, wherein the mixture of ion-exchange resin and aluminium chloride solution is stirred during the reaction.
6. A process according to claim 4 or 5, wherein the ion-exchange resin is suspended in water prior to being mixed with the aluminium chloride solution.
7. A process according to claim 6, wherein a strong acid is added to the reaction mixture during the mixing of

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the aluminium chloride solution with the suspension of ion-exchange resin.
8. A process according to claim 7, wherein the strong acid is added to the suspension of ion-exchange resin shortly before this is mixed with the aluminium chloride solution, the mixing being completed within two minutes of the acidification of the ion-exchange resin.
9. A process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the pH of the reaction mixture is kept below 4.75 throughout the course of the preparation.
10. A process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein d(pH)/dt does not increase during any period of the preparation.
11. A process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the hydroxide-form ion-exchange resin is separated from the resulting solution of polynuclear Al species, regenerated by treatment with a source of hydroxide ions, and then re-used to prepare further polynuclear Al species.
12. A process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the resulting solution of polynuclear Al species is aged, following removal of the ion-exchange
resin, in order to maximise the yield of Al30-mer.

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13. A process according to claim 12, wherein the resulting solution of polynuclear Al species is aged at from 60 to 95°C for from 12 to 72 hours.
14. A process according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the resulting solution of polynuclear Al species is dried to give a solid sample of polynuclear Al species in powder form.


Documents:

1422-MUMNP-2007-CANCELLED PAGES(11-6-2009).pdf

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1422-MUMNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE 23-6-2008.pdf

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1422-mumnp-2007-correspondence(14-3-2008).pdf

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1422-MUMNP-2007-CORRESPONDENCE(30-9-2009).pdf

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1422-mumnp-2007-correspondence1(23-6-2008).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-description (complete).pdf

1422-MUMNP-2007-DESCRIPTION(COMPLETE)-(11-6-2009).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-description(complete)-(13-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-description(granted)-(24-9-2009).pdf

1422-MUMNP-2007-FORM 1(11-6-2009).pdf

1422-MUMNP-2007-FORM 1(13-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 18(14-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 18(16-1-2008).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 2(11-6-2009).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 2(complete)-(13-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 2(granted)-(24-9-2009).pdf

1422-MUMNP-2007-FORM 2(TITLE PAGE)-(11-6-2009).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 2(title page)-(complete)-(13-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 2(title page)-(granted)-(24-9-2009).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 3(13-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 3(14-3-2008).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 3(14-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form 5(14-9-2007).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form-1.pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form-2.doc

1422-mumnp-2007-form-2.pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form-3.pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form-5.pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form-pct-isa-237.pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-form-pct-separate sheet-237.pdf

1422-MUMNP-2007-GENERAL POWER OF ATTORNEY(11-6-2009).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-pct-search report.pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-specification(amended)-(11-6-2009).pdf

1422-mumnp-2007-wo international publication report(14-3-2008).pdf


Patent Number 236108
Indian Patent Application Number 1422/MUMNP/2007
PG Journal Number 40/2009
Publication Date 02-Oct-2009
Grant Date 24-Sep-2009
Date of Filing 13-Sep-2007
Name of Patentee HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED
Applicant Address HINDUSTAN LEVER HOUSE 165/166,BACKBAY RECLAMATION, MUMBAI 400 020,
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 PERRY CAROLE CELIA THE WHITE HOUSE, 20 GREGORY STREET, LENTON, NOTTINGHAM, NG7 2LT
2 DESCHAUME OLIVIER 3 RUE D'UCHON, 71300, MONTCEAU-LES-MINES
3 SHAFRAN KIRILL UNILEVER R&D PORT SUNLIGHT, QUARRY ROAD EAST, BEBINGTON, WIRRAL, MERSEYSIDE, CH63 3JW
PCT International Classification Number C01F7/56 B01J47/00
PCT International Application Number PCT/EP2006/002958
PCT International Filing date 2006-03-22
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 EP05252011 2005-03-31 EUROPEAN UNION