|Title of Invention||
POLY(TRIM ETHYLENE TERPHTHALATE) STAPLE FIBRES AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE SAME
|Abstract||Poly trimethylene terephalate stape fibres, characterized in that they have an intrinsic viscocity in the range 0.70-1.3 dl/g, an Load At Specific Elongation (10%) of from 5 to 12 cN/tex, a secant modulus (Rd-45%) of<1.0 cN/tex per 1% and a crimp stability of >75% and can be dyed with dispersion dyes without addition of carrier/dye absorption aids.|
|Full Text||Poly (trimethylene terephthalate)
PTT staple fibres, and process for the production thereof
The present invention relates to PTT staple fibres [where PTT equals
poly(trimethylene terephthalate)] and to a process for the production thereof by a
two-stage spinning and stretching process.
Staple fibres made from polyethylene terephthalate and melt-spinning plants for
their production are known (Fourné, Synthetische Fasern [Synthetic Fibres],
Hanser Verlag  pages 460-462). Owing to the different crystallization
behaviour, these processes cannot readily be applied to PTT.
Processes for the production of PTT continuous filaments have also been
described. Thus, Journal of Polymer Science, Part A-1, Vol. 4, 1851-1857 (1966)
mentions, inter alia, PTT fibres. The high stretching ratios specified indicate an
uneconomically low spinning speed. The fibre properties listed do not meet
today's market requirements.
EP 0 547 553 A1 describes the production of monofilaments at a spinning speed of
20 m/min and a production speed of 100 m/min.
EP 0 754 790 A2 describes the production of textile filaments, inter alia from PTT,
by means of heating surfaces heated to high temperatures as stretching aids. There
are no specific working examples.
WO 99/11845 A1 describes fibres made from PTT with a birefringence of at least
0.030. The parameters given indicate low elongation at break values of ≤90%,
which do not facilitate a stretching ratio that is sufficiently high for further
conversion into staple fibres and are therefore unsuitable.
WO 99-27168 Al discloses a high-speed spin-stretch process for the production of
PTT filaments which are wound onto yarn spools. High throughputs and tow
baling for the production of staple fibres cannot be derived therefrom.
CA 86:122866 regarding JP 52-08124 A relates to the treatment of PTT
multifilaments with heating devices, where the stretching ratio of 33% to be
applied is unsuitable for the production of staple fibres.
CA 86:122865 regarding JP 52-08123 A describes the use of a high stretching ratio
of 300%, which is desired per se, in the production of PTT fibres. However, the
spinning speed of 360 m/min which is practised to this end is so low that the
economic efficiency of the process is put in doubt.
CA 86:122856 regarding JP 52-05320 A describes the spinning of PTT, where the
stretching ratio practised indicates uneconomically low spinning speeds.
The object of the present invention is to provide PTT staple fibres, where these and
the textiles and home textiles, in particular carpets, produced therefrom should
have a high aesthetic level and service quality compared with conventional fibres
and should have environmentally friendly dyeing properties. These PTT staple
fibres should be produced in a two-stage process of melt spinning and stretching
which has higher economic efficiency than the above-mentioned processes for
This object is achieved in accordance with the invention by PTT staple fibres and
by a process for the production of ITT staple fibres having an intrinsic viscosity of
at least 0.70 dl/g equivalent description should be provided in stead of ref to claims
The term PTT here is taken to mean a polyester comprising at least 90 mol% of
trimethylene terephthalate units. Suitable comonomers are isophthalic acid, 2,6-
naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol
and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol. Preference is given to poly(trimethylene
terephthalate) homopolymer, particularly preferably with a low proportion of ether
groups derived from 1,3-propanediol which are formed during the production
process. The intrinsic viscosity of the PTT staple fibres is in the range from 0.7 to
1.3 dl/g and particularly preferably from 0.75 to 1.15 dl/g.
The process commences from PTT melt, which is either taken directly from the
polycondensation reactor in the preparation of PTT or is obtained by melting PTT
granules. The polymer melt may ccmprise conventional additives, such as dyes,
matting agents, stabilisers, antistatics, lubricants and branching agents, in total
amounts of from 0 to 5.0% by weight, or the additives can be added to the melt on
its way to the spinnerets. Additives which significantly affect structural parameters
(for example elongation at break of the strand) are excluded.
In accordance with the invention, PTT staple fibres are produced, preferably with a
titre of from 0.8 to 20 den, by a two-stage spinning and stretching process which
comprises the following steps:
1. The PTT melt, having a poiymer melting point Tm, is fed to the spinning
system at a melt temperature Ts = Tm + k (°C), where 7 ≤ k ≤ 63, preferably
23 ≤ k ≤ 41. The transport and distribution of the melt as far as the spinning
beam take place here in jacketed product lines, which are heated with liquid
and/or vapour-form heat transfer medium in the outer jacket of the lines at a
temperature in the range from 234 to 290°C. Other types of heating are
possible. The wall shear rate s of the melt in the line system are from 2 to
128 sec-1, preferably from 3.5 to 16:sec-1 in the pipelines and from 12 to
128 sec-1 in static mixing elenents installed within certain line sections. The
shear rate y here is defined by the empty pipe shear rate times the mixer
factor m, where the mixer factor is a characteristic parameter of the mixer
type and is about 3.5-4 for Salzer SMXL models. The shear rate y in sec" is
where G = polymer transport rate (g/min),
δ = nominal density of the polymer (g/cm3),
R = empty pipe radius [mm].
The mean residence time of the melt in the product line as far as entry into
the spinning beam is a maximum of 30 minutes, preferably a maximum of 25
minutes. The line temperatune T1 is preferably set within the above limits in
such a way that it is in the range T1 = Ts ± 15°C. The product line optionally
includes at least one booster pump, at least one polymer filter, at least one
polymer heat exchanger and at least one shut-off and distribution valve.
2. In the spinning beam, the PTT melt is led to at least one spinning pump, fed
at a constant transport rate, set through the choice of the pump speed, to at
least one spin pack by means of the pressure built up by the pump and forced
through distributor devices, filter and shear media within the spin pack and
spun through the holes of the spinneret plate to give melt strands. The
spinneret holes may be circular or designed in any desired other geometry.
The spin pack can be inserted into the spinning beam from below and can
have a cylindrical geometry, with the holes in the spinneret plate being
distributed symmetrically over an annular area.
The spinneret plates have a hole density of from 0.3 to 20 holes/cm2. The
spinneret hole diameter D is selected as a function of the hole throughput in
where ζ is the density of the melt and, for homo-PTT, is 1.11 g/cm3.
The flow rate F per spinne-et hole, based on the fibre titre, is in the range
F(g/min)/titre(dtex) = (0.14 to 0.66).
The residence time of the melt in the spin pack is at most 4 minutes. The
spinning draft is selected between 1:30 and 1:160 and is determined in a
known manner from the ratio of the take-off rate to the injection rate at the
The heating of the spinning beam is selected in the range 234-290°C in such
a way that the following relationship applies:
TB (°C) = Ts + dTw + 4/100 • dp(bar) ± 15, where dTw = change in the melt
temperature in the heat exchanger, which is set positive for heating and
negative for cooling and is equal to 0 in the case of plants with no heat
exchanger, dp(bar) = total pressure drop of the melt as far as the exit from the
3. The melt strands are cooled by means of turbulence-free cooling air at a
temperature between 5 and 25°C, preferably from 8 to 18°C, flowing in
perpendicularly to the strand running direction. The mean outflow speed of
the cooling air from the rectifier is from 0.5 to 2.0 m/sec. The blow zone
lengths are between 50 and 2000 mm, preferably from 150 to 600 mm, in the
case of cooling-air systems which are concentric to the strand run (radial
blowing) and from 500 to 2000 mm in the case of blow shafts with cross-
flow blowing, and particularly preferably 150-300 mm for fibre titres
≤ 5 den/filament and from 300 to 600 mm for 12-20 den/filament.
4. The cooled strands are finished with an oil-water mixture. The amount of
water on the strands is adjusted to between 12 and 30% by weight, preferably
from 18 to 25%.
Immediately or shortly thereafter, the filaments from a spinning position are
gathered together to form a filament bundle. The filament bundles from the
individual positions are subsequently combined to form a spun tow,
preferably at the spinning wall. The spun tow is taken off at speeds in the
range from 600 to 2000 m/min by means of a take-off unit, and the spun tow
is then deposited in a can.
5. The cans are placed together to form a creel in a creel chamber held at a
temperature of from 15°C to 35°C, preferably from 20°C to 27°C, and fed to
a fibre drawing frame. The spun tow from the cans is taken off via a feed
unit, after which at least one full tow is formed from individual spun tows by
means of a comb.
The full tows are stretched in at least one stretching stage, optionally with
supply of a temperature-controlled oil/water mixture. A temperature in the
range 20-100°C should be maintained here. The stretching ratio (SR) is
selected in accordance with the strand elongation Rd in such a way that
SR(%) = 1 + α • Rd/100, where α = 0.25 to 0.75, with relatively small a
values being preferred for large titres and relatively large α values being
preferred for smaller titres.
This is then optionally followed, depending on the maximum temperature of
210°C used, by heat setting and relaxation in at least one stage. The
stretching, heat setting and relaxation are carried out at speeds of from 25 to
The discharge speed from the relaxation zone is preferably at least 90 m/min,
particularly preferably 180 m/min, at titres ≤ 5 dtex.
The cooling of the full tow to below the glass transition temperature is
preferably carried out using an oil/water mixture or using pure water.
6. The individual tows are subsequently laid together to form at least one tow ,
and each tow is fed to a stuffer box crimping machine. Post-softening using
an oil/water mixture and/or steam treatment of the tow as crimping aid is
optionally carried out. The subsequent drying of the tow in at least one dryer
stage is carried out with residence times of from 0.5 to 10 minutes at
temperatures of from 30 to 200°C, preferably from 60 to 165°C. The
resultant tow(s) can subsequently be cut to a staple length of preferably
between 6 and 200 mm. Alternatively, it is possible for the tow(s) to be
packed and converted into staple fibres later in a separate operation.
In this way, PTT staple fibres are obtained which have a novel, hitherto
unknown combination of properties for staple fibres which are evident as
follows: high permanent elasticity and bulk of the fibres, a novel combination
of high viscosity together with the mechanical parameters described by the
stress-strain diagram, of modulus values and thermal shrinkage stability, with
dyeing with dispersion dyes being possible without addition of carrier/dye
absorption aids, and the fibres having permanently stain-repellent properties.
Characteristic features of the PTT staple fibres according to the invention are
an LASE value at 10% elongation of from 5 to 12 cN/tex, a secant modulus
at an elongation value = elongation at break minus 45% (but at least 5%) of
less than 1.0 cN/tex per 1% change in elongation, and a crimp stability of
greater than 75%. This combination of properties results in extremely
desirable aesthetics and seivice quality compared with conventional fibres.
The dyeing properties resull in considerably better environmental friendliness
of the post-processing process. The areas of application are to be regarded as
being in textiles and home textiles, in particular carpets.
The invention is explained in greater detail below with reference to examples
without the invention being restricted to these working examples.
PTT chips having an 1.V. of 0.91 dl/g, a melting point TM = 227°C and a water
content of 20 ppm were melted in an extruder to give a melt at 255°C, and this
melt was forced through a product line at the same temperature into a spinning
system. Three SMXL mixers from Sulzer, Switzerland, were installed in the
product line, with the shear rate in the mixers being 28 sec-1 at a polymer
throughput of 2500 g/min. The line diameter was selected so that the shear rate in
the free line was 7.9 sec-1. The mean residence time in the product line was about 3
The spinning of the PTT melt was carried out in a BN 100 spinning system from
Lurgi Zimmer AG with annular spinneret and radial cooling shaft. The hole
density of the spinneret plate was 6.3 holes/cm2. The spinning beam temperature
was 256°C, with the total pressure drop of the melt as far as the exit from the
spinneret being 140 bar. Heat exchangers were not installed. The residence time in
the spin pack was about 0.5 minute.
The melt strands emerging from the spinneret plate were cooled by means of
cooling air fed radially from the outside inward at a rate of 1400 Nm3/h and with a
temperature of 8°C. The solidified strands were brought into contact with an oiling
ring at a distance of 850 mm from the lower side of the spinneret plate and treated
with a water/oil mixture in such a way that the amount of water on the strands was
about 25% by weight and very stable strand running resulted. The spinning take-
off speed was 900 m/min. After being taken off, the strands were deposited in
spinning cans in the form of spun tows by means of a reeling machine.
The separate stretching of the span tows in a fibre drawing frame was carried out
in two stages. The spun tows were subsequently heat-set with slight relaxation,
cooled, crimped, dried and cut to give staple fibres. The production speed in the
fibre drawing frame, corresponding to the speed of the roller at the exit from the
final stretching zone, was 100 m/min.
Further process parameters and the textile properties of the staple fibres are shown
in the table. It should be noted that the spinning titre measured may differ by up to
± 5% compared with the theoretical value due to uncertainties in the measurement,
relaxation in the can or a water/oil coating. It was possible to dye the staple fibres
with dispersion dyes, such as Terasil Navy Blue GRL/C from Ciba/CH at 95°C
without addition of carrier/dye absorption aids.
The intrinsic viscosities (I.V.) v/ere measured on a solution of 0.5 g of PTT in
100 ml of a mixture of phenol and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (3:2 parts by weight) at
The melting point and glass transition temperature were determined by DSC at a
heating rate of 10°C/min after the sample had firstly been melted briefly and
immediately quenched again.
The titre and stress-strain properties of the fibres were determined using the
Vibrotex and Vibrodyn instrument set from Lenzing, Austria. The clamped length
was 20 mm, the pre-tensioning weight, depending on the titre, was 100 mg/dtex,
and the test speed was 20 mm/min.
It was possible to take the LASE (load at specific elongation) values directly from
the evaluation instrument by input of the reference elongations. The secant
modulus was determined by applying a secant with the elongation value =
(elongation at break minus 45%), but at least 5%, and the slope of these straight
lines was evaluated in (cN/tex) in respect of a 1% change in elongation.
The hot-air shrinkage was determined in a heating cabinet during temperature
treatment at 180°C over a residence time of 20 minutes without pretensioning of
The crimp curves were counted visually. The crimping values were determined
using the Vibrotex method and instrument from Lenzing/AT.
Staple fibres were produced in carpet quality with a titre of 17 dtex as described in
Example 1, but taking into account the parameters shown in the table, and the
results are listed in the table.
The fibres were distinguished by excellent bulking and crimp-recovery behaviour.
The process described also enables the production of other titres, in particular finer
titres, such as microfilaments of up to 0.8 den. The titre can thus be reduced by
means familiar to the person skilled in the art by reducing the melt throughput
through the spinneret or increasing the number of spinneret holes with constant
1. Poly trimethylene terephthalate staple fibres, characterized in that they have an
intrinsic viscocity in the range 0.70-1.3 dl/g, an Load At Specific Elongation (10%)
of from 5 to 12 cN/tex, a secant modulus (R0-45%) of crimp stability of >75% and can be dyed with dispersion dyes without addition of
carrier/dye absorption aids.
2. Poly trimethylene terephthalate stape fibres as claimed in claim 1, wherein they
have an intrinsic viscosity h the range from 0.75 to 1.15 dl/g and a litre in the
range from 0.8 to 20 den.
3. Process for the production Poly trimethylene terephthalate stape fibres having an
intrinsic viscosity of at least 0 70 dl/g by a two-stage spinning and stretching
process, characterized in that
a) a Poly trimethylene terephthalate melt at a temperature Ts (°C)=TM+ k,
where TM is the melting point of the Poly trimethylene terephthalate and 7
≤ k ≤ 63, is fed through a product line heated at a temperature TL in the
range from 234 to 290°C by means of an external heat transfer medium
to a spinning beam heated at TB 234 to 290°C having, in the flow
direction, at least one spinning pump, spin pack and spinneret plate
having a hole density of from 0.3 to 20 holes/cm2, and is spun through the
at least one spinnerd plate to give melt strands, with the mean residence
time of the Poly trimethylene terephthalate melt being less than 30
minutes in the product line and a maximum of 4 minutes in the spin pack,
and the spinning draft being from 1:30 to 1:160, and the flow rate F in
g/min per spinneret hole, based on the fibre titre in dtex, being in the
range from 0.14 to 0.66,
b) the melt stands are cooled by means of turbulence-free cooling air at from
5 to 25°C flowing in perpendicularly to the strand running direction at a
mean air exit speed of from 0.5 to 2.0 m/sec and a blow zone length of
from 50 to 2000 mm, and the cooled strands are treated with a water/oil
mixture in such a way that from 12 to 30% by weight of water remain on
the strands, and the strands are gathered together to form filament
bundles, which are themselves combined to form spun tows, which are
taken off at a take-off speed in the range from 600 to 2000 m/min and
deposited in cans,
c) the spun tows are taken off from the cans via a feed unit and comb
and fed to a fibre drawing frame, in which they are stretched in at
least one stretching stage at from 20 to 100°C, optionally heat-set
at a maximum of 210°C and relaxed, where the production speed is
from 25 to 400 m/min, subsequently cooled to below the glass
transition temperature and, after being combined to form at least
one tow, crimped in one stiuffer box crimping machine per tow, the
tows are optionally post-treated with an oil/water mixture and then
dried at from 30 to 200°C over the course of from 0.5 to 10 minutes
and finally cut to give staple fibres in a directly subsequent or
4. Process as claimed in claim 3, wherein the line temperature TL = Ts +
15°C is within the range From 234 to 290°C, and the wall shear rate of the
Poly trimethylene terephthalate melt in the product line is from 2 to 128
5. Process as claimed in claim 3 or 4, wherein the product line in stage a)
optionally includes at least one static mixing element, booster pump,
polymer filter, polymer heat exchanger and shut-off and distribution valve,
and the wall shear rate of the Poly trimethylene terephthalate melt is from
3.5 to 16 sec-1 in the free product line and from 12 to 128 sec-1 in a static
6. Process as claimed in claims 3 to 5, wherein the spinneret hole diameter
D is selected in accordance with
and TB(°C)=Ts + dTw + 4/100 dp(bar) ± 15, where ζ is the density of the
Poly trimethylene terephthalatemelt melt, dTw is the change in the melt
temperature in the heat exchanger, which is set positive for heating and
negative for cooling, and dp(bar) is the total pressure drop of the melt as
far as the exit from the spinneret plate.
7. Process as claimed in claims 3 to 6, wherein the blow zone length is from
150 to 600 mm in the case of radial blowing and from 500 to 200 mm in
the case of cross-flow blowing
8. Process as claimed in claims 3 to 7, wherein the stretching ratio SR is
set corresponding to SR(%) = 1 + α Rd/100, where Rd is the elongation in
% of the strand, and α = 0.25 to 0.75, and the discharge speed from the
relaxation zone is at least 90 m/min.
Poly trimethylene terephalate stape fibres, characterized in that they
have an intrinsic viscocity in the range 0.70-1.3 dl/g, an Load At Specific
Elongation (10%) of from 5 to 12 cN/tex, a secant modulus (Rd-45%)
of75% and can be dyed with
dispersion dyes without addition of carrier/dye absorption aids.
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2002/96/KOL|
|PG Journal Number||10/2009|
|Date of Filing||21-Jan-2002|
|Name of Patentee||LURGI ZIMMER AG|
|Applicant Address||BORSIGALLE 1, D-60388 FRANKFURT AM MAIN|
|PCT International Classification Number||D01F 6/62|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/EP2000/06923|
|PCT International Filing date||2000-07-20|