Title of Invention A METHOD OF PROCESSING A NONFERROUS METAL AND ALLOYS OF SAID METAL USING A BLANKETING GAS
Abstract The present invention relates to a method of processing a nonferrous metal and alloys of said metal using a blanketing gas having a global warming potential, comprising: reducing said global warming potential of said blanketing gas by blanketing said nonferrous metal and alloys with a gaseous mixture including at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF<sub>2</sub>, CF<sub>32</sub>COF, (CF<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>CO, F<sub>3</sub>COF, F<sub>2</sub>C(OF)<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub>, NF<sub>3</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>ClF, SOF<sub>2</sub>, SOF<sub>4</sub>, NOF, F<sub>2</sub> and SF<sub>4</sub>, wherein said nonferrous metal and alloys have a temperature of at least about 0.5 x T melt (in degrees Kelvin).
Full Text

TITLE OF THE INVENTION:
BLANKETING METALS AND ALLOYS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES WITH GASES HAVING REDUCED GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/499,593, entitled "'Blanketing Molten Nonferrous Metals and Alloys With Gases Having Reduced Global Warming Potential," filed February 7, 2000.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention pertains to the blanketing of metals and alloys with gaseous mixtures, and in particular to a method of blanketing metals and alloys at elevated temperatures using gases having reduced global warming potentials relative to the prior art.
Open top vessels such as crucible and induction furnaces used to melt nonferrous metals are operated so that the surface of metal during melting and the surface of the molten bath are exposed to ambient atmosphere. Air in the atmosphere tends to oxidize the melt, thereby: causing loss of metal, loss of alloying additions and formation of slag that causes difficulty in metal processing; shortening refractory life; and promoting nonmetallic inclusions in final castings, pickup of unwanted gases in the metals, porosity, and poor metal recovery. One solution is to enclose the melt furnace in a vacuum or atmosphere chamber for melting and/or processing of the metals. However, completely enclosed systems are very expensive and limit physical and visual access to the metals being melted.

As alternatives, liquid fluxing salts, synthetic slag, charcoal covers, and similar methods and compounds have been used in the high-volume, cost-sensitive field of metal reprocessing for minimizing metal oxidation, gas pickup, and loss of alloying additions. For example, the prior art teaches that rapid oxidation or fire can be avoided by the use of fluxes that melt or react to form a protective layer on the surface of the molten metal. However, this protective layer of thick slag traps good metal, resulting in a loss of up to 2% of the melt. It also can break up and be incorporated into the melt, creating damaging inclusions. In addition, metal in the slag is teachable and creates a hazardous waste product.
These prior art techniques also necessitate additional handling and processing, and cause disposal problems. These techniques often reduce furnace life or ladle refractory life, increase frequency of shutdowns for relining or patching of refractories, and produce non-metallic inclusions that have to be separated from the metal bath prior to pouring of the metal into a cast shape.
In searching for solutions to the above-described problems, metallurgical industries turned to inert gas atmosphere blanketing. One type of gas blanketing system is based on gravitational dispersion of cryogenically-liquified inert gas over the surface of a hot metal to be blanketed. For example, such cryogenic blanketing systems are disclosed and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,990,183.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,518,221 discloses a method and apparatus for inerting the interior space of a vessel containing hot liquids or solids in induction furnaces, crucible furnaces or ladles during charging, melting, alloying, treating, superheating, and pouring or tapping of metals and metal alloys. The method and apparatus employ a swirl of inert gas to blanket or cover the surface of the metal from the time of charging of the furnace until the furnace is poured or tapped or inerting of the molten metal contained in a furnace or ladle or other vessel. The gas swirl is confined by a unique apparatus

mounted on top of the furnace or vessel containing the material to be protected. Any inert gas that is heavier than air can be used to practice the invention. In addition to argon and nitrogen, depending upon the materia! being blanketed, gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons may be used.
While some cryogenic blanketing systems are quite effective, use of such systems is limited to metallurgical facilities and vessels that can be supplied by well-insulated cryogenic pipelines or equipped with cryogenic storage tanks in close proximity to the point of use of the liquid cryogen. This is not always practical, and some cryogenic blanketing systems have been plagued by poor efficiency due to premature boil-off of the cryogenic liquid and oversimplified design of dispersing nozzles that wasted the boiied-off gas.
Moreover, cryogenic dispensers often fail to uniformly disperse the cryogenic liquid over the blanketed surface, leading to a transient accumulation or entrapment of the liquid in pockets under the slag or dross, which may result in explosions in a subsequent rapid boil-off.
Other approaches have been taken for different molten metals and alloys in further attempts to solve the above-described problems. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,770,697 discloses a process for protecting an aluminum-lithium alloy during melting, casting and fabrication of wrought shapes by enveloping the exposed surfaces with an atmosphere containing an effective amount of a halogen compound (e.g., dichlorodifluoromethane) having at least one fluorine atom and one other halogen atom; the other halogen atom is selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine, and iodine, and the ratio of fluorine to the other halogen atom in the halogen compound is less than or equal to one. A passivating and self-healing viscous liquid layer is formed which protects the alloy from lithium loss due to vaporization, oxidation of the alloy, and hydrogen pick-up by the alloy.

Another approach for some molten metals, such as magnesium, is to use inhibitors in the air. The early practice was to burn coke or sulfur to produce a gaseous agent, C02 or S02. An atmosphere of C02 was found to be superior to the commonly used commercial atmospheres of N2l Ar, or He because of the absence of vaporization of the magnesium, the absence of excessive reaction products, and the reduced necessity for the enclosure above the molten metal to be extremely air tight.
However, the use of these inhibitors has several drawbacks. For example, both C02 and S02 pose environmental and health problems, such as breathing discomfort for personnel, residual sludge disposal, and a corrosive atmosphere detrimental to both plant and equipment. Furthermore, S02 is toxic, corrosive, and can cause explosions.
While BF3 has been mentioned as being a very effective inhibitor, it is not suitable for commercial processes because it is extremely toxic and corrosive. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) also has been mentioned as one of many fluorine-containing compounds that can be used in air as an oxidation inhibitor for molten metals, such as magnesium. A summary of industry practices for using SF6 as a protective atmosphere, ideas for reducing consumption and emissions, and comments on safety issues related to reactivity and health are provided in 'Recommended Practices for the Conservation of Sulfur Hexafluoride in Magnesium Melting Operations," published by the International Magnesium Association (1998) a^ a "Technical Committee Report" (hereinafter "IMA Technical Committee Report").
The use of pure SF6 was generally discarded because of its severe corrosive attack on ferrous equipment. In addition, the use of pure SF6 for protecting molten metals such as magnesium has been reported to have caused explosions. Although sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is considered physiologically inert, it is a simple asphyxiant which acts by displacing oxygen from the breathing atmosphere.

Later, it was found that at low concentrations of SF6 in air ( However, the use of SF6 and air has some drawbacks. The primary drawback is the release to the atmosphere of material having a high global warming potential (GWP).
It also was found that C02 could be used together with SF6 and/or air. A gas atmosphere of air, SF6l and C02 has several advantages. First, this atmosphere is non-toxic and non-corrosive. Second, it eliminates the need to use salt fluxes and the need to dispose of the resulting sludge. Third, using such an atmosphere results in lower metal loss, elimination of corrosion effects, and clean castings. Fourth, a casting process using such an atmosphere provides a clean operation and improved working conditions. Fifth, the addition of C02 to the blanketing atmosphere reduces the concentration of SF6 at which an effective inerting film is formed on the metal. In sum, the addition of C02 to an air/SF6 atmosphere provides much improved protection compared to the protection obtained with an air/SF6 atmosphere.
However, using an atmosphere of SF6 and C02 also has disadvantages. Both SF6 and C02 are greenhouse gases, i.e., each has a global warming potential over 100 years (GWP100). Thus, there is a need to reduce the amounts of SF6 and C02 released into the atmosphere. SF6 has a 100-year global warming potential (GWP10o) of 23,900 relative to C02. International concern over global warming has focused attention on the long atmospheric life of SF6 (about 3,200 years, compared to 50-200 years for C02) together with its high potency as a greenhouse gas (23,900 times the GWP100 of C02on a mole basis) and has resulted in a call for voluntary reductions in emissions. Because of this, the use of SF6 is being restricted and it is expected to be banned in the near future. In addition, SF6 is a relatively expensive gas.

Some of the best alternatives to SF6 for blanketing gases would be oerfluorocarbons, such as CF4, C2F6, and C3FBl but these materials also have high SWP's. Other alternatives would be chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) or partially fluorinated Hydrocarbons (HCFC's). However, the use of CFC's and HCFC's also is restricted; most Df these materials are banned as ozone depleters under the Montreal Protocol.
Another alternative to SF5 for a blanketing gas is S02. When S02 is used as a blanketing gas, the effective concentration over a melt is typically in the range of about 30% to 70% S02, with about 50% being normal. However, as discussed earlier, S02 poses environmental and health problems, is toxic, and can cause explosions. In addition, the use of S02 in such relatively high concentrations can cause corrosion problems on furnace walls.
Even when metals and alloys containing high levels of nonferrous metals, such as alloy AZ61 (5.5-6.5% A!, 0.2-1.0% Zn, 0.1-0.4% Mn, (balance Mg), are exposed to high temperatures for purposes of solution heat treating, annealing, or in preparation for rolling, forging, or other processing, it has been found advantageous to protect the metal or the shape with an atmosphere that will inhibit undesirable surface oxidation or ignition, as is taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,079, 477.
It also has been found desirable to protect such metals and alloys when they are in a highly divided form, such as powders or chips, and are being fed into metals processing systems prior to melting, as is taught in International Publication No. WO
00/00311.
It is desired to have a process for preventing oxidation of molten metals and alloys which overcomes the difficulties and disadvantages of the prior art to provide better and more advantageous results.

It is further desired to have an improved method of processing metals and alloys at elevated temperatures using blanketing gases having lower global warming potentials than the gases used in prior art methods.
It also is desired to have an improved method of processing metals and alloys at elevated temperatures using blanketing gases which overcomes the difficulties and disadvantages of the prior art to provide better and more advantageous results.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A first embodiment of the present invention is an improvement in a method of processing a nonferrous metal and alloys of the metal using a blanketing gas having a global warming potential. The improvement comprises reducing the global warming potential of the blanketing gas by blanketing the nonferrous metal and alloys with a gaseous mixture including at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2j CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, NF3, S02CIF, SOF2, SOF4, NOF, F2 and SF4.
There are several variations of the first embodiment of the improvement in the method. In one variation, the at least one compound is provided at a first concentration of less than about 10% on a mole basis of the gaseous mixture. In addition, there, may be several variants of that variation. In one variant, the first concentration is less than about 6%. In another variant, the first concentration is less than about 3%. In yet another variant, the first concentration is greater than about 0.1% and less than about 1%.
In another variation, the gaseous mixture further comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of N2, Ar, C02, S02 and air. In a variant of that variation, the at least one member is C02 provided at a second concentration of about 30% to about 60% on a mole basis. In a variant of that variant, the at least one

compound is provided at the first concentration of less than about 3% on a mole basis and is selected from the group consisting of S02F2 and COF2.
In yet another variation, the gaseous mixture used in the method also includes an odorant. And in another variation, at least a portion of the gaseous mixture is recovered for reuse.
In still yet another variation, the nonferrous metal and alloys have a temperature of at least about 0.5 x Tmeit (in degrees Kelvin). In addition, there are several variants of this variation. In one variant, the temperature is at least about 0.7 x Tmeit (in degrees Kelvin). In another variant, the temperature is a solidus temperature of the metal and alloys. In yet another variant, the temperature is greater than a solidus temperature of the metal and alloys but less than a liquidus temperature of the metal and alloys. In still yet another variant, the temperature is greater than a liquidus temperature of the metal and alloys but less than about 2.0 x Tbilling (in degrees Kelvin).
Another aspect of the present invention is a method as in the first embodiment of the improvement in the method, wherein at least one operation is performed on the nonferrous metal and alloys, the at least one operation being selected from the group consisting of melting, holding, alloying, ladling, stirring, pouring, casting, transferring and annealing of the nonferrous metal and alloys.
The present invention also includes an improvement in a method of processing a melt comprising at least one nonferrous metal using a blanketing gas having a global warming potential. The improvement comprises reducing the global warming potential of the blanketing gas by blanketing said melt with a gaseous mixture including at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, NF3) S02CIF, SOF2, SOF4l NOF, F2 and SF4.
The present invention also includes a process for preventing oxidation of a nonferrous metal and alloys of the metal. A first embodiment of the process includes

blanketing the nonferrous metal and alloys with an atmosphere containing an effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(COF)2l S02F2l NF3, S02CIF, SOF2, SOF4l NOF, F2 and SF4.
There are several variations of the first embodiment of the process. In one variation, the at least one compound is provided at a first concentration of less than about 10% on a mole basis of the atmosphere. In addition, there may be several variants of that variation. In one variant, the first concentration is less than about 6%. In another variant, the first concentration is less than about 3%. In yet another variant, the first concentration is greater than about 0.1% and less than about 1%.
In another variation, the atmosphere further comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of N2) Ar, C02, S02 and air. In a variant of that variation, the at least one member is C02 provided at a second concentration of about 30% to about 60% on a mole basis. In a variant of that variant, the at least one compound is provided at the first concentration of less than about 3% on a mole basis and is selected from the group consisting of S02F2 and COF2.
In yet another variation, the atmosphere used in the process also includes an odorant. And in another variation, at least a portion of the atmosphere is recovered for reuse.
In still yet another variation, the nonferrous metal and alloys have a temperature of at least about 0.5 x Tmeit (in degrees Kelvin). In addition, there are several variants of this variation. In one variant, the temperature is at least about 0.7 x Tmeit 0n degrees Kelvin). In another variant, the temperature is a solidus temperature of the metal and alloys. In yet another variant, the temperature is greater than a solidus temperature of the metal and alloys but less than a liquidus temperature of the metal and alloys. In still yet another variant, the temperature is greater than a liquidus temperature of the metal and alloys but less than about 2.0 x Tboriing (in degrees Kelvin).

Another aspect of the present invention is a process as in the first embodiment of the process, wherein at least one operation is performed on the nonferrous metal and alloys, the at least one operation being selected from the group consisting of melting, holding, alloying, ladling, stirring, pouring, casting, transferring and annealing of the nonferrous metals and alloys.
The present invention also includes a process for preventing oxidation of a melt including at least one nonferrous metal, the process comprising blanketing the melt with an atmosphere containing an effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, NF3j S02CIF, SOF2, SOF4, NOF, F2 and SF4.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The invention provides a process for preventing oxidation of nonferrous metals or alloys thereof by blanketing the metals or alloys with an atmosphere containing an effective amount of at least one compound having a reduced GWP, preferably selected from the group consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2l SOF2, SOF4, NF3, S02CIF, NOF, F2 and SF4. The invention also provides an improved method of processing nonferrous metals and alloys thereof using a blanketing gas having a reduced GWP (relative to the prior art) by blanketing the nonferrous metals or alloys with a gaseous mixture including at least one compound having a reduced GWP, preferably selected from the group consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, SOF2, SOF4, NF3, S02CIF, NOF, F2 and SF4.
The invention may be applied in many types of operations, including but not limited to the melting, holding, alloying, ladling, stirring, pouring, casting, transferring and annealing of nonferrous metals and alloys thereof. Additional applications include such operations as cladding, plating, rolling, protecting scrap when compacting, preparing

powder for improved alloying, protecting reactive metals during electric arc spray coating or any other thermal spray coating, fusing, brazing, and joining/welding operations, and improving the corrosion and wear resistance of articles of magnesium or magnesium based alloys. Persons skilled in the art will recognize other operations where the invention also may be applied.
The gases used in the present invention have lower GWP's than the gases used in the prior art and/or provide greater protection to operators under operating conditions that utilize lower concentrations of the gases. Since the gases used in the present invention are more reactive than SF6, these gases can be used at concentrations supplying an equivalent or lower fluorine level. In other words, if SF6 can be beneficially used at a concentration in the range of about 0.3% to about 1%, then S02F2 will have a similar utility at concentrations from about 0.2% to about 3%.
In a preferred embodiment, the selected compound is provided at a concentration of less than about 10% (on a mole basis) of said gaseous mixture. It is more preferable that the concentration be less than about 6%, and it is even more preferable that it be less than about 3%.
However, since F2J GIF, and CIF3 are much more reactive than the other gases used in the present invention, these gases (F2, CIF and CIF3) should only be used at lower concentrations, i.e., at a concentration less than 5% and preferably less than 1%. In particular, if used at higher concentrations {e.g., 10%) in connection with a molten or hot metal, these gases (F2l CIF and CIF3) may ignite and cause a metal/fluorine fire. Also, as shown in Table 1 below, F2, CIF and CIF3 are very toxic. These gases will react relatively indiscriminately with any surfaces exposed to any of these gases, such as iron/steel structures used in melt processes {e.g., melt pots, furnaces, etc.). This could result in relatively thick metal fluoride layers that may increase the risk of "thermite" type

reactions, generation of HF upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, and HF burns to operators due to accidental contact with metal fluoride layers.
In a preferred embodiment, the gaseous mixture further comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of N2, Ar, C02 and air as a diluent. S02 also could be used as the diluent, but is less desirable because of potential corrosion problems associated with S02. In addition, F2 is violently reactive with S02, which would make it extremely dangerous to use S02 as a diluent if F2 is present above trace levels.
The most efficacious mixtures for blanketing nonferrous metals contain significant concentrations of C02l preferably in the range of about 30% to about 60%. Some nonferrous metals also could benefit from the addition of chlorine or chlorine-containing species (such as S02-CIF) to the blanketing gas mixture.
For example, in one embodiment, C02 is the diluent in the blanketing atmosphere at a concentration of about 30% to about 60% on a mole basis, and S02F2 is provided at a concentration of less than about 3% on a mole basis. In another embodiment, C02 is the diluent in the blanketing atmosphere at a concentration of about 30% to about 60% on a mole basis, and COF2, either alone or in combination with S02F2l is provided in a concentration of less than about 3% on a mole basis (referring to COF2).
In a preferred embodiment, an odorant is added for safety purposes to the mixture jsed for the blanketing atmosphere. This is especially preferred for odorless gases, such as S02F2. In contrast, since F2, SOF2 and SF4 have distinctive odors, the addition of an xiorant is less important when these gases are used. The same is true when S02 is jsed as a diluent because of the odor of S02.
Table 1 compares the preferred gases used in the present invention to various gases used in the prior art with regard to GWP and other characteristics. Several gases which technically could be used in the present invention, but are likely to be too

expensive or too reactive to use, include GIF, CIF3) CF3COCI, (CF3)2NH, and CF2(0)CFCF3.







The comparison of GWPi00 shows that ten of the thirteen preferred gases used in :he present invention (COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2l S02F2l NF3l S02CIF, SF4t SOF2 NOF, F2 and SOF4) have significantly lower GWP100's than the gases used in the prior art. (Of the thirteen gases, only NF3 has a GWP100 greater than -1; out the GWP100 of NF3 is still several fold lower than the GWP100 of SF6, and the atmospheric life of NF3 also is shorter than that of SF6. For two of the other gases, CF3 COF and (CF3)2CO, the GWP10o's are not known.) Furthermore, the prior art did not teach or even appreciate the possible use of these gases for blanketing. For example, the IMA Technical Committee Report shows that S02F2 and SF4 are by-products of the SF6 protective chemistry for magnesium, but that report fails to realize that both S02F2 and SF4 can be potent sources of fluorine for protection of the melt. The gases used in the present invention may be recovered and recycled for reuse. Recovery techniques that may be used include the use of membranes, absorption, condensing and other means to concentrate the desirable gases for reuse.
While the present invention has been described in detail with reference to certain specific embodiments, the invention is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details described. Rather, it will be apparent to persons skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made in the details within the scope and range of the claims and without departing from the spirit of the invention and the scope of the claims.



1. In a method of processing a nonferrous metal and alloys of said metal using a blanketing gas having a global warming potential, the improvement comprising reducing said global warming potential of said blanketing gas by blanketing said nonferrous metal and alloys with a gaseous mixture including at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2l S02F2) NF3, S02CIF, SOF2l SOF4, NOF, F2 and SF4.
2. A method as in claim 1, wherein said at least one compound is provided at a first concentration of less than about 10% on a mole basis of said gaseous mixture.
3. A method as in claim 2, wherein said first concentration is less than about 6%.
4. A method as in claim 2, wherein said first concentration is less than about 3%.
5. A method as in claim 2, wherein said first concentration is greater than about 0.1% and less than about 1%.
6. A method as in claim 2, wherein said gaseous mixture further comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of N2, Ar, C02, S02 and air.

7. A method as in claim 6, wherein said at least one member is C02 provided at a second concentration of about 30% to about 60% on a mole basis.
8. A method as in claim 7, wherein said at least one compound is provided at said first concentration of less than about 3% on a mole basis and is selected from the group consisting of S02F2and COF2.
9. A method as in claim 1, wherein at least one operation is performed on said nonferrous metal and alloys, said at least one operation being selected from the group consisting of melting, holding, alloying, ladling, stirring, pouring, casting, transferring and annealing of said nonferrous metal and alloys.
10. A method as in claim 1, wherein said nonferrous metal and alloys have a temperature of at least about 0.5 x Tmeit (in degrees Kelvin).
11. A method as in claim 10, wherein said temperature is at least about 0.7 x Tmeit (in degrees Kelvin).
12. A method as in claim 10, wherein said temperature is a solidus temperature of said metal and alloys.
13. A method as in claim 10, wherein said temperature is greater than a solidus temperature of said metal and alloys but less than a liquidus temperature of said metal and alloys.

14. A method as in claim 10, wherein said temperature is greater than a liquidus temperature of said metal and alloys but less than about 2.0 x Tiling (in degrees Kelvin).
15. A method as in claim 1, wherein said gaseous mixture further comprises an odorant.
16. A method as in claim 1, wherein at least a portion of said gaseous mixture is recovered for reuse.
17. In a method of processing a melt comprising at least one nonferrous metal using a blanketing gas having a global warming potential, the improvement comprising reducing said global warming potential of said blanketing gas by blanketing said melt with a gaseous mixture including at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2) CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, NF3l S02CIF, SOF2) SOF4, NOF, F2 and SF4.
18. A process for preventing oxidation of a nonferrous metal- and alloys of said metal comprising blanketing said nonferrous metal and alloys with an atmosphere containing an effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of COF2] CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, NF3) S02CIF, SOF2, SOF4l NOF, F2 and SF4.
19. A process as in claim 18, wherein said at least one compound is provided at a first concentration of less than about 10% on a mole basis of said atmosphere.

20. A process as in claim 19, wherein said first concentration is less than about 6%.
21. A process as in claim 19, wherein said first concentration is less than about 3%.
22. A process as in claim 19, wherein said first concentration is greater than about 0.1% and less than about 1%.
23. A process as in claim 19, wherein said atmosphere further comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of N2) Ar, C02, S02 and air.
24. A process as in claim 23, wherein said at least one member is C02 provided at a second concentration of about 30% to about 60% on a mole basis.
25. A process as in claim 24, wherein said at least one compound is provided at said first concentration of less than about 3% on a mole basis and is selected from the group consisting of S02F2 and COF2.
26. A process as in claim 18, wherein at least one operation is performed on said nonferrous metal and alloys, said at least one operation being selected from the group consisting of melting, holding, alloying, ladling, stirring, pouring, casting, transferring and annealing of said nonferrous metal and alloys.

27. A process as in claim 18, wherein said nonferrous metal and alloys have a temperature of at least about 0.5 x Tmett (in degrees Kelvin).
28. A process as in claim 27, wherein said temperature is at least about 0.7 x Tmeit (in degrees Kelvin).
29. A process as in claim 27, wherein said temperature is a solidus temperature of said metal and alloys.
30. A process as in claim 27, wherein said temperature is greater than a solidus temperature of said metal and alloys but less than a liquidus temperature of said metal and alloys.
*
31. A process as in claim 27, wherein said temperature is greater than a liquidus temperature of said metal and alloys but less than about 2.0 X Tb0j|ing (in degrees Kelvin).
32. A process as in claim 18, wherein said atmosphere further comprises an odorant.
33. A process as in claim 18, wherein at least a portion of said atmosphere is recovered for reuse.
34. A process for preventing oxidation of a melt comprising at least one nonferrous metal, said process comprising blanketing said melt with an atmosphere containing an effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group

consisting of COF2, CF3COF, (CF3)2CO, F3COF, F2C(OF)2, S02F2, NF3l S02CIF, S0F2, SOF4, NOF, F2 and SF4.
35. A method of processing a nonferrous metal and alloys of said metal using a blanketing gas having a global warming potential, substantially as herein described . and exemplied.


Documents:

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002%20abstract%20granted.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002%20claims%20granted.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002%20description%20(complete)%20granted.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20abstract.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20claims.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20correspondence%20others.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20correspondence%20po.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20description%20complete.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20form%201.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20form%203.pdf

http://ipindiaonline.gov.in/documents/71-MAS-2002/71-mas-2002-%20other%20documents.pdf


Patent Number 227254
Indian Patent Application Number 71/MAS/2002
PG Journal Number 07/2009
Publication Date 13-Feb-2009
Grant Date 05-Jan-2009
Date of Filing 30-Jan-2002
Name of Patentee AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS, INC.
Applicant Address 7201 HAMIL TON BOULEVARD, ALLENTOWN, PA 18195-1501,
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 JOHN PETER HOBBS 700 TROXELL ROAD, LANSDALE, PA 19446-4629,
2 ANDERW JOSEPH WOYTEK MEDOWBROOK CIRCLE SOUTH, ALLENTOWN, PA 18103,
3 ZBIGNIEW ZUURECKI FIELD VIEW DRIVE, MACUNGIE, PA 18062,
4 JAMES FRANCIS HEFFRON 1581 BRICKHILL ROAD, ORWIGSBURG, PA 17961,
PCT International Classification Number C22B9/00
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 09/781099 2001-02-09 U.S.A.