Title of Invention A MODIFIED RELEASE BI-LAYER TABLET AND A MODIFIED RELEASE TABLET, CAPSULE AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCT
Abstract The invention relates to a modified release guaifenesin tablet which has two portion : the first portion comprises an immediate release formulation of guaifenesin and the second portion comprises a sustained release formulation of guaifenesin as described above. This two portion, or bi-layer, tablet has a maximum serum concentration equivalent to that of an immediate release guaifenesin tablet, and is capable of providing therapeutically effective bioavailability of guaifenesin for at least twelve hours after dosing in a human subject.
Full Text "A MODIFIED RELEASE BI-LAYER TABLET AND A MODIFIED RELEASE
TABLET, CAPSULE AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCT"
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a sustained release guaifenesin
formulation for oral administration and methods of its manufacture. In particular, it
relates to a sustained release guaifenesin formulation which maintains a
therapeutically effective blood concentration of guaifenesin for a duration of at least
twelve hours without an increase in dosage strength. The present invention further
relates to a modified release bi-layer guaifenesin tablet which demonstrates a
maximum serum concentration equivalent to an immediate release tablet yet
maintains a therapeutically effective blood concentration of guaifenesin for a
duration of at least twelve hours.
2. Description of Related Art
Sustained release pharmaceutical formulations provide a significant
advantage over immediate release formulations to both clinicians and their patients.
Sustained release dosage forms are administered to patients in much fewer daily
doses than their immediate release counterparts and generally achieve improved.
therapeutic effect and efficiency in the fewer daily doses.
For example, a 400 mg immediate release dosage form of an active
ingredient (hereinafter "drug" or "medicament") with a short half-life, such as
guaifenesin, may have to be administered to a patient three times within 12 hours to
maintain adequate bioavailability of the drug to achieve therapeutic effect. This
results in a series- of three serum concentration profiles in the patient in which there
is a rapid increase of drug followed by a similar rapid decrease. Such rapid
increases and decreases provide a patient with a short window of appropriate blood
concentration of the medicament for optimum therapy. A 1200 mg sustained release
dosage form, on the other hand, may only have to be administered to a patient once
every 12 hours to achieve therapeutic effect. Sustained release dosage forms
generally control the rate of active drug absorption, so as to avoid excessive drug
absorption while maintaining effective blood concentration of the drug to provide a
patient with a consistent therapeutic effect over an extended duration of time.
Besides reducing the frequency of dosing and providing a more
consistent therapeutic effect, sustained release dosage forms generally help reduce
side effects caused by a drug. Because sustained release dosage forms deliver the
drug in slow, incremental amounts versus the cyclic high and low concentrations of
immediate release formulations, it is easier for a patient's body to digest the drug,
thereby avoiding undesirable side-effects. For patients who self-administer
therapies, sustained release dosage forms generally result in greater compliance due
to the lower frequency of dosing, lower quantity of dosage units to be consumed,
and reduced undesired side-effects.
Sustained release formulations for the sequential or timed release of
medicaments are well known in the art. Generally, such formulations contain drug
particles mixed with or covered by a polymer material, or blend of materials, which
is resistant to degradation or disintegration in the stomach and/or in the intestine for
a selected period of time. Release of the drug may occur by leeching, erosion,
rupture, diffusion or similar actions depending upon the nature of the polymer
material or polymer blend used.
Conventionally, pharmaceutical manufacturers have used hydrophilic
hydrocolloid gelling polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose,
hydroxypropyl cellulose, or Pullulan to formulate sustained release tablets or
capsules. These polymers first form a gel when exposed to an aqueous environment
of low pH thereby slowly diffusing the active medicament which is contained within
the polymer matrix. When the gel enters a higher pH environment such as that
found in the intestines, however, it dissolves resulting in a less controlled drug
release. To provide better sustained release properties in higher pH environments,
some pharmaceutical manufacturers use polymers which dissolve only at higher
pHs, such as acrylic resins, acrylic latex dispersions, cellulose acetate phthalate, and
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, either alone or in combination with
hydrophilic polymers.
Generally, these formulations are prepared by combining the
medicament with a finely divided powder of the hydrophilic polymer, or the
hydrophilic and water-insoluble polymers. These ingredients are mixed and
granulated with water or an organic solvent and the granulation is dried. The dry
granulation is then usually further blended with various pharmaceutical additives
and compressed into tablets.
Although these types of formulations have been successfully used to
manufacture dosage forms which demonstrate sustained release properties, these
formulations generally do not have the desired release profile or serum concentration
of medicament over an extended period of time. These sustained release
formulations generally result in a delay in the appearance of drug in the blood
stream, thereby delaying therapeutic effect. Additionally, when the drug does
appear, its maximum serum concentration (Cmax) is lower than the maximum
concentration required for the most effective therapeutic result. Furthermore, most
formulations which claim twelve hour potency release almost all of their drug within
six to eight hours, making the formulation less therapeurically effective towards the
end of the twelve hour period. To prevent blood serum concentrations of active drug
from falling below a therapeutically effective level at extended time periods, many
manufacturers increase the drug strength of the dosage form. The increase in drug
strength, however, results in a concomitant increase in side-effects.
To improve the release profile of certain sustained release dosage
forms, some pharmaceutical manufacturers have made tablets and capsules which
comprise a combination of an immediate release formulation and a sustained release
formulation. Although this solution improves the Cmax and length of time before
the drug appears in the blood stream in some formulations, the extended therapeutic
effect is not improved.
Furthermore, every medicament has different solubility properties
and pH dependencies which affect its dissolution rate, and hence its bioavailability.
Bioavailability can also be affected by a number of factors such as the amounts and
types of adjuvants used, the granulation process, compression forces (in tablet
manufacturing), surface area available for dissolution and environmental factors
such as agitation in the stomach and the presence of food. Due to these numerous
factors, specific formulations play an important role in the preparation of prolonged
action solid dosage forms, particularly in the preparation of solid dosage forms
which achieve appropriate bio availability for optimum therapeutic effect.
Guaifenesin is known chemically as 3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-l,2-
propanediol. It is an expectorant, a drug which increases respiratory tract fluid
secretions and helps to loosen phlegm and bronchial secretions. By reducing the
viscosity of secretions, guaifenesin increases the efficiency of a cough reflex and of
ciliary action in removing accumulated secretions from trachea and bronchi.
Guaifenesin is readily absorbed from the intestinal tract and is rapidly metabolized
and excreted in urine. Guaifenesin has a typical plasma half-life of approximately
one hour. Because of the rapid metabolization and excretion of guaifenesin, typical
immediate release dosage tablets of guaifenesin provide only a short window of
therapeutic effectiveness for patients resulting in the various recognized problems
described above.
None of the prior art has described a sustained release dosage form of
guaifenesin which is capable of sustaining therapeutic effective for at least twelve
hours. Likewise, none of the prior art has described a sustained release dosage form
cf guaifenesin which has a Cmax equivalent to that of an immediate release
formulation, appears in the blood stream as quickly as an immediate release
formulation, yet sustains therapeutic effect for at least twelve hours.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention overcomes the problems and disadvantage
associated with current strategies and designs in formulation of modified release
guaifenesin dosage forms.
This invention relates to a novel sustained release pharmaceutical
formulation comprising guaifenesin. The sustained release formulation may
comprise a combination of at least one hydrophilic polymer and at least one water-
insoluble polymer. The total weight ratio of hydrophilic polymer to water-insoluble
polymer may be in a range of about one-to-one (1:1) to about six-to-one (6:1), more
preferably a range of about three-to-two (3:2) to about four-to-one (4:1), and most
preferably about two-to-one (2:1). When a tablet comprising the sustained release
formulation is exposed to an aqueous medium of low pH, such as that found in the
stomach, the polymer combination gels causing guaifenesin to diffuse from the gel.
When the tablet passes to the intestines where an aqueous medium of higher pH is
present, the gel begins to dissolve, thereby releasing guaifenesin in controlled
amounts. The tablet is capable of releasing therapeutically effective amounts of
guaifenesin over an extended period, i.e. twelve or more hours.
This invention also relates to a modified release guaifenesin tablet
which comprises two discrete portions ( a bi-layer tablet), a rapid release portion and
a sustained release portion, each portion comprising a specific quantity of
guaifenesin. The rapid release portion is formulated to dissolve in aqueous acidic
medium, such as that found in the stomach, to quickly release guaifenesin contained
within the portion. The sustained release portion may comprise a combination of
hydrophilic polymer in a ratio range of about one-to-one (1:1) to about six-to-one
(6:1), more preferably a range of about three-to-two (3:2) to about four-to-one (4:1),
and most preferably about two-to-one (2:1, with a water-insoluble polymers as
described above.
The present invention also relates to modified release guaifenesin
preparations of the type described above in the form of capsules having beads of
both rapid release formulation and beads of sustained release formulation.
The bi-layer tablet of the present invention demonstrates a maximum
serum concentration (Cmax) and time of availability in the blood stream that are
equivalent to an immediate release tablet. The bi-layer tablet also provides sustained
release of guaifenesin over at least a twelve hour period from one dose. The bi-layer
tablet of the present invention further maintains serum concentration levels of
guaifenesin at a therapeutically effective level for at least a twelve hour period
without an increase in the drug strength of the dosage form.
The present invention also relates to methods of manufacturing
sustained release formulations and bi-layer guaifenesin tablets of the present
invention.. An example of a manufacturing method for a sustained release
formulation comprises mixing a hydrophilic polymer and active ingredients in a
mixer, adding water to the mixture and continuing to mix and chop, drying the
mixture to obtain hydrophilic polymer encapsulated granules, milling and screening
the resulting granulation, and blending it with various pharmaceutical additives,
additional hydrophilic polymer, and water insoluble polymer. The formulation may
then be tableted and may further be film coated with a protective coating which
rapidly dissolves or disperses in gastric juices.
An example of a bi-layer tablet manufacturing method comprises
blending a quantity of guaifenesin with various excipients, colorants, and/or other
pharmaceutical additives to form a rapid release formulation, blending another
quantity of guaifenesin with a hydrophilic polymer, a water-insoluble polymer, and
various excipients, colorants, and/or other pharmaceutical additives to form a
sustained release formulation, and compressing a quantity of the rapid release
formulation with a quantity of the sustained release formulation to form a bi-layer
tablet. The tablet may then be optionally coated with a protective coating which
rapidly dissolves or disperses in gastric juices.
Other objects, advantages and embodiments of the invention are set
forth in part in the description which follows, and in part, will be obvious from this
description, or may be learned from the practice of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS
Figure 1 is a flow diagram depicting steps in a wet granulation
method for manufacturing the sustained release formulation of the present invention.
Figure 2 is a flow diagram depicting steps in a dry granulation
method for manufacturing the sustained release formulation of the present invention.
Figure 3 is a flow diagram depicting steps in a method for
manufacturing the bi-layer tablet of the present invention.
Figure 4 is a graph demonstrating the dissolution profiles of tablets
comprising two different sustained release formulations of the present invention.
Figure 5 is a graph demonstrating the dissolution profiles of an
immediate release dosage form and two sustained release dosage forms of
guaifenesin, all of which are known in the art.
Figure 6 is a graph demonstrating the plasma concentration of
guaifenesin over time in healthy human volunteers who were dosed three different
guaifenesin formulations; an immediate release formulation known in the art, and
two different sustained release formulations of the present invention.
Figure 7 is a graph demonstrating the plasma concentration of
guaifenesin over time in healthy human volunteers from an immediate release tablet
lot which is known in the art, a non-layered modified release tablet lot of the present
invention, and two bi-layered modified release tablet lots of the present invention
(one comprising 600 mg of immediate release formulation and 600 mg of sustained
release formulation and the other one comprising 400 mg of immediate release
formulation and 800 mg of sustained release formulation).
Figure 8 is a graph demonstrating the dissolution profiles of four
sustained release tablets of the present invention: one tablet is non-layered,
comprising 1200 mg of sustained release formulation; another tablet is bi-layered,
comprising 600 mg of sustained release formulation and 600 mg of immediate
release formulation; another tablet is bi-layered, comprising 800 mg of sustained
release formulation and 400 mg of immediate release formulation; and yet another
tablet is bi-layered comprising 1000 mg of sustained release formulation and 200 mg
of immediate release formulation.
Figure 9 is a graph demonstrating the plasma concentration of
guaifenesin over an averaged 12 hour interval (taken from 11 twelve hour intervals
over 5.5 days) in healthy human volunteers from an immediate release tablet lot
known in the art and a bi-layered modified release tablet lot of the present invention.
Figure 10 is a graph demonstrating the plasma concentration of
guaifenesin over time (the last twelve hour interval of the 11 twelve hour intervals
described above) in healthy human volunteers from an immediate release tablet lot
known in the art and a bi-layered modified release tablet lot of the present invention.
Figure 11 is a graph demonstrating the averaged plasma
concentration of guaifenesin over a 16 hour period in 27 healthy human volunteers
from 600 mg bi-layered modified release tablets of the present invention
administered to fasting volunteers, 1200 mg bi-layered modified release tablets of
the present invention administered to fasting volunteers, and 1200 mg bi-layered
modified release tablets of the present invention administered to volunteers who had
been fed a high fat meal.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a novel modified release formulation
comprising guaifenesin. In a preferred embodiment, a modified release formulation
comprises a combination of a hydrophilic polymer in a ratio range of about one-to-
one (1:1) to about six-to-one (6:1), more preferably a range of about three-to-two
(3:2) to about four-to-one (4:1), and most preferably about two-to-one (2:1), with a
water-insoluble polymer. The sustained release formulation may be compressed into
a tablet. The present invention also relates to a novel compressed tablet which is
made of two portions (a bi-layer tablet): a portion which comprises a modified
release formulation of the present invention and a portion which is an immediate
release formulation.
a) Sustained Release Formulation
In one embodiment of the present invention, a sustained release
formulation comprises guaifenesin mixed with a polymer blend which consists of at
least one hydrophilic polymer and at least one water-insoluble polymer. In a further
embodiment, the sustained release formulation may comprise a combination of
guaifenesin and at least one other drug including, but not limited to, an antitussive
such as dextromethorphan hydrobromide, a decongestant such as phenylephrine
hydrochloride, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride
or ephedrine, an antihistamine such as chlorpheniramine maleate, brompheniramine
maleate, phenindamine tartrate, pyrilamine maleate, doxylamine succinate,
phenyltoloxamine citrate, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, promethazine, and
clemastine fumerate, or a combination thereof.
Hydrophilic polymers suitable for use in the sustained release
formulation include: one or more natural or partially or totally synthetic hydrophilic
gums such as acacia, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, guar gum, or karaya gum,
modified cellulosic substances such as methylcellulose, hydroxomethylcellulose,
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose,
carboxymethylcellulose; proteinaceous substances such as agar, pectin, carrageen,
and alginates; and other hydrophilic polymers such as carboxypolymethylene,
gelatin, casein, zein, bentonite, magnesium aluminum silicate, polysaccharides,
modified starch derivatives, and other hydrophilic polymers known to those of skill
in the art or a combination of such polymers.
These hydrophilic polymers gel and dissolve slowly in aqueous
acidic media thereby allowing the guaifenesin to diffuse from the gel in the stomach.
When the gel reaches the intestines, it dissolves in controlled quantities in the higher
pH medium, where the guaifenesin itself is fairly absorbable, to allow sustained
release of guaifenesin throughout the digestive tract. Preferred hydrophilic polymers
are the hydroxypropyl methylcelluloses such as those manufactured by The Dow
Chemical Company and known as METHOCEL ethers. In one preferred
embodiment of a sustained release formulation the hydrophilic polymer is a
METHOCEL ether known as METHOCEL E10M.
Water-insoluble polymers which are suitable for use in the sustained
release formulation are polymers which generally do not dissolve in solutions of a
pH below 5, and dissolve more slowly in basic solutions than the hydrophilic
polymer. Because the polymer is insoluble in low pH environments such as those
found in gastric fluid, it aids in retarding drug release in those regions. Likewise,
because the polymer dissolves more slowly in solutions of higher pH than
hydrophilic polymers, it aids in retarding drug release throughout the intestines.
This overall delayed release results in a more uniform serum concentration of
guaifenesin.
The water-insoluble polymers suitable for use in this invention
include: polyacrylic acids, acrylic resins, acrylic latex dispersions, cellulose acetate
phthalate, polyvinyl acetate phthalate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate and
other polymers common to those of skill in the art. In a preferred embodiment, a
sustained release formulation comprises the acrylic resin CARBOPOL 974P
supplied by BF Goodrich.
A sustained release formulation of the present invention may further
comprise pharmaceutical additives including, but not limited to: lubricants such as
magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, zinc stearate, powdered stearic acid,
hydrogenated vegetable oils, talc, polyethylene glycol, and mineral oil; colorants
such as Emerald Green Lake and various FD&C colors; binders such as sucrose,
lactose, gelatin, starch paste, acacia, tragacanth, povidone polyethylene glycol,
Pullulan and com syrup; glidants such as colloidal silicon dioxide and talc; surface
active agents such as sodium lauryl sulfate, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate,
triethanolamine, polyoxyethylene sorbitan, poloxalkol, and quarternary ammonium
salts; preservatives and stabilizers; excipients such as lactose, mannitol, glucose,
fructose, xylose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, xylitol, sorbitol, chloride, sulfate and
phosphate salts of potassium, sodium, and magnesium; and/or any other
pharmaceutical additives known to those of skill in the art. In one preferred
embodiment, a sustained release formulation further comprises magnesium stearate
and Emerald Green Lake. In another preferred embodiment, a sustained release
formulation further comprises magnesium stearate and FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum
Lake Dye.
A sustained release formulation of the present invention may
comprise at least one drug ingredient, at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one
water-insoluble polymer, and at least one pharmaceutical additive in any appropriate
percent quantity which permits dissolution of drug ingredients that results in a
therapeutically effective serum concentration profile for a full twelve hours. In a
preferred embodiment, a sustained release formulation comprises approximately
95.5% guaifenesin, approximately 2.4% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose,
approximately 1.2% acrylic resin, approximately 0.5% magnesium stearate, and
approximately 0.3% colorant such as Emerald Green Lake or FD&C Blue #1.,
The present inventive sustained release formulation controls release
of guaifenesin into the digestive tract slowly over time. The drug guaifenesin
experiences a shift in water solubility as the pH of the environment in which it
resides (i.e. stomach versus intestinal tract) changes. In a more acidic environment,
such as that found in the stomach, guaifenesin is less soluble while in a higher pH
environment, such as that found in the intestines, guaifenesin is readily soluble.
Dissolution rate of guaifenesin throughout the digestive tract is thus of primary
importance in determining concentrations of guaifenesin attained in the blood and
tissues as a drug formulation is digested.
To maintain a blood concentration of guaifenesin which provides
good therapeutic effect, the release, or dissolution, of guaifenesin from a formulation
matrix is preferably retarded and/or controlled through the intestines. The
combination of hydrophilic and water-insoluble polymers of the sustained release
formulation of the present invention gels when exposed to media of low pH. This
creates a matrix out of which guaifenesin can diffuse. When the gelled polymer
combination is exposed to media of a higher pH, the gel begins to slowly dissolve
thereby releasing guaifenesin at a controlled rate.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a sustained
release formulation comprises a hydrophilic polymer, preferably hydroxypropyl
methylcellulose, in a ratio range of about one-to-one (1:1) to about six-to-one (6:1),
more preferably a range of about three-to-two (3:2) to about four-to-one (4:1), and
most preferably about two-to-one (2:1), with a water-insoluble polymer, preferably
acrylic resin. Further in a preferred embodiment, a sustained release formulation
comprises not more than 6% hydrophilic polymer. In another preferred
embodiment, a sustained release formulation comprises not more than 2.5%
hydrophilic polymer. The inventors have discovered that this combination results in
a serum concentration profile of guaifenesin that provides an optimal therapeutic
concentration for at least twelve hours.
A sustained release formulation of the present invention may be
manufactured according to any appropriate method known to those of skill in the art
of pharmaceutical manufacture. In one embodiment, guaifenesin and a hydrophilic
polymer may be mixed in a mixer with an aliquot of water to form a wet granulation.
The granulation may be dried to obtain hydrophilic polymer encapsulated granules
of guaifenesin. The resulting granulation may be milled, screened, then blended
with various pharmaceutical additives, water insoluble polymer, and additional
hydrophilic polymer. The formulation may then tableted and may further be film
coated with a protective coating which rapidly dissolves or disperses in gastric
juices.
A preferred embodiment of a method of preparing a sustained release
formulation of the present invention may comprise loading approximately 126 kg of
GUAIFENESIN and about 2 kg of METHOCEL E10M into a high shear mixer.
The METHOCEL E10M and GUAIFENESIN may be mixed for about seven
minutes at a mixing speed of about 150 RPM and a chopper speed of about 2000
RPM. The mixing and chopping speeds may then be increased to about 200 RPM
and 3000 RPM respectively for about five minutes while about 49 kg of water are
added to the mixer contents. The mixer may be run for two additional minutes to
complete granulation. In a further preferred embodiment, the shut off for the mixer
load is set to 21 kilowatts.
The wet granulation may be emptied into a fluid bed bowl and placed
into a fluid bed dryer set to a dryer air flow of 900 CFM and an inlet temperature of
about 50 to about 55°C until the outlet temperature increases at a rate of 1° per
minute. The air flow may then be decreased to 600 CFM, and the inlet temperature
may be decreased to 43°C until the granulation is dried to a moisture content of no
more than 0.5%. In another preferred embodiment, the outlet temperature is set to a
cut-off of 48°C. In yet another preferred embodiment, an agitator in the fluid bed
bowl may be run intermittently during drying. The dried granulation may be passed
through a mill fitted with a suitable screen size so that not more than about 30% of
the resulting granulation comes through a 100 mesh screen and not more than about
10% of the resulting granulation is retained on a 10 mesh screen. In one preferred
embodiment, the dried granulation may be passed through a mill fitted with a 0.109"
size screen at a mill speed of about 500 to about 1500 RPM and a screw feed rate of
about 35 to about 45 RPM. The resulting screened granulation is about 95%
GUAIFENESIN and is called GUAIFENESIN DC (Direct Compressed) herein
after. Screened granulation may be transferred to a 10 cubic foot V blender,
combined with about another 0.6 kg of METHOCEL E10M, about 0.3 kg of a
colorant such as EMERALD GREEN LAKE or FD&C BLUE #1, about 0.7 kg of
magnesium stearate, and about 1.3 kg of CARBOPOL 974P. The combination may
be blended for about three minutes.
The resulting formulation may further be compressed on a tablet
compressor machine using tooling to form tablets. The tablets may be any
appropriate weight, size, and shape depending on the desired dosage strength of
tablet. In one embodiment, these tablets may further be loaded into a coating pan
and film coated with OPADRY Y-S-3-714 (supplied by COLORCON, INC.) and air
dried in the pan.
Another embodiment of a method of preparing a sustained release
formulation of the present invention may comprise blending the drug ingredients,
hydrophilic polymer, water insoluble polymer, and any pharmaceutical additives.
The resulting blend may then be compressed into tablets and, if desired, film coated
with a protective coating which rapidly dissolves or disperses in gastric juices. In a
preferred embodiment of such a method, about 126 kg of GUAIFENESIN DC
(about 95% purity), about 2.6 kg of METHOCEL E10M, about 1.3 kg of
CARBOPOL 974P and about 0.333 kg of a colorant such as EMERALD GREEN
LAKE or FD&C BLUE #1 may be loaded into a 10 cubic foot V BLENDER. The
ingredients may be blended for about 20 minutes at which time about 0.6 kg of
magnesium stearate may be added to the blended ingredients. This mixture may be
blended for about another 10 minutes. The resulting formulation may further be
compressed on a tablet compressor machine using tooling to form tablets. The
tablets may be any appropriate weight, size, and shape depending on the desired
dosage strength of the tablet. These tablets may further be loaded into a coating pan
and film coated with OPADRY Y-S-3-714 (supplied by COLORCON, INC.) and air
dried in the pan.
Tablets comprising a sustained release formulation of the present
invention were prepared and tested for both in vitro and in vivo release
characteristics as described in Examples 1, 2, and 3 below. In the in vitro testing,
the dissolution rates of these tablets were compared against modified release tablets
formulated without acrylic resin (EXAMPLE 1), and three commercially available
tablets, one being an immediate release formulation and the other two being
modified release formulations. Tablets comprising the sustained release formulation
of the present invention demonstrated a slower, more controlled release of
guaifenesin over a twelve hour period than any of the other tablets (see EXAMPLE
1 and 2, and Figures 4 and 5).
In the in vivo testing, serum concentrations of subjects talcing tablets
comprising the sustained release formulation of the present invention were
compared with serum concentrations of subjects taking immediate release
guaifenesin tablets and modified release guaifenesin tablets formulated without
acrylic resin (see EXAMPLE 3 and Figure 6). Tablets comprising the sustained
release formulation of the present invention demonstrated improved sustained
release and therapeutic concentration at extended time periods that the other two
formulations. However, in the subjects taking tablets comprising the sustained
release formulation of the present invention, it took longer for guaifenesin to appear
in the blood stream and the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of guaifenesin in
these subject was less than half of that of the subjects taking the immediate release
tablets.
(b) Bi-Laver Tablets
To improve the Cmax and speed of appearance of guaifenesin in
patients while maintaining therapeutic effect for at least twelve hours, a portion of a
sustained release formulation of the present invention as described above may be
combined with a portion ot an immediate release formulation in a bi-layer tablet.
The immediate release formulation may comprise guaifenesin and
various pharmaceutical additives such as lubricants, colorants, binders, glidants,
surface active agents, preservatives, stabilizers, as described above and/or any other
pharmaceutical additives known to those of skill in the art. In a preferred
embodiment, an immediate release formulation comprises guaifenesin,
microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and magnesium stearate. In a
further preferred embodiment, an immediate release formulation may comprise
about 58% guaifenesin, about 33% microcrystalline cellulose, about 8% sodium
starch glycolate, and about 0.3% magnesium stearate.
The bi-layer tablet may be manufactured according to any method
known to those of skill in the art. The resulting tablet may comprise the two
portions compressed against one another so that the face of each portion is exposed
as either the top or bottom of the tablet, or the resulting tablet may comprise the
sustained release portion in the center coated by the immediate release portion so
that only the immediate release portion is exposed. In a preferred embodiment, a bi-
layer tablet of the present invention comprises the two portions compressed against
one another so that the face of each portion is exposed.
In a preferred method of manufacturing the bi-layer tablets of the
present invention a sustained release formulation is prepared according to either a
wet granulation or dry granulation method as described above. The immediate
release formulation may be prepared by simply blending the guaifenesin with any
pharmaceutical additives. In a further preferred embodiment, appropriate quantities
of GUAIFENESIN DC, macrocrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate are
blended in a 10 cubic foot blender for about twenty minutes. An appropriate
quantity of magnesium stearate is then added to the ingredients and blended for
about ten more minutes to make an immediate release formulation. Portions of the
sustained release formulation and immediate release formulation are then
compressed by a tablet compressor machine capable of forming bi-layer tablets. In
one embodiment, these tablets may further be coated with a protective film which
rapidly disintegrated or dissolves in gastric juices.
The tablets may be made with any ratio of sustained release to
modified release formulation which results in a blood profile demonstrating
appropriate therapeutic effect over extended time periods. In one preferred
embodiment, the bi-layer tablets comprise portions of sustained release formulation
and immediate release formulation which result in about a five-to-one (5:1) ratio of
guaifenesin respectively. For example, in a 1200 mg bi-layer modified release
guaifenesin tablet of the present invention, there may be about 200 mg of
guaifenesin in the immediate release layer and about 1000 mg of guaifenesin in the
sustained release layer.
In one preferred embodiment of manufacturing a 1200 mg bi-layer
modified release guaifenesin tablet, about 105 kg of GUAIFENESIN DC, about 2.5
kg of METHOCEL E10M, about 1.25 kg of CARBOPOL 974P, and about 0.333 kg
of EMERALD GREEN LAKE or FD&C BLUE #1 in a 10 cubic foot P.K. blender
for about twenty minutes. About 0.6 kg of magnesium stearate may then be added
and blending continued for about another ten minutes to prepare the sustained
release formulation. Approximately 21 kg of GUAIFENESIN DC, approximately
11.75 kg of microcrystalline cellulose, and approximately 3 kg of sodium starch
glycolate may be blended in a 3 cubic foot P.K. blender for about twenty minutes.
Approximately 0.1 kg of magnesium stearate may then be added and blending
continued for about another ten minutes to prepare the immediate release
formulation. The two formulations may then be compressed to make bi-layer tablets
wherein about 75% of each tablet may be sustained release formulation and about
25% if each tablet may be immediate release formulation. The tablets may be any
dosage strength, size, or shape, hi a preferred embodiment, 1200 mg tablets are
round and about 5/8 inch in diameter, about 0.28 inch - 0.31 inch in thickness, weigh
about 1.46 grams and have a hardness range of about 15-40 SCU. In another
preferred embodiment, 600 mg tablets are round and about 1/2 inch in diameter,
about 0.218 inch - 0.230 inch in thickness, weigh about 0.729 grams and have a
hardness range of about 12-30 SCU.
The immediate release portion of the bi-layer tablet is formulated to
dissolve in aqueous media of low pH, such as that found in the stomach, to quickly
release the guaifenesin contained within the portion. This results in rapid
bioavailability of a high concentration of guaifenesin. As demonstrated in
EXAMPLE 6 and Figures 9 and 10 below, the immediate release portion of the bi-
layer tablet results in a maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and time of
maximum serum concentration (Tmax) equivalent to that of immediate release
tablets.
The sustained release portion gels when exposed to media of low pH
allowing the sustained release portion of the tablet to be passed into the intestinal
tract. In the intestines, the gelled sustained release portion is exposed to media of a
higher pH, causing the gel to slowly dissolve, thereby allowing guaifenesin to
diffuse and dissolve out of the gelled matrix. This results in controlled
bioavailability over an extended time period (i.e. twelve or more hours) causing the
tablet to provide extended therapeutic effect. This result is evidenced in EXAMPLE
6 and Figures 9 and 10 below - the half-life of the modified release bi-layer tablet is
increased to more than 3 hours and the tablet has an AUCinf (the area under a
plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to infinity) of greater than 8000
hr* mg/mL. As demonstrated in EXAMPLE 7 and Figure 11, the bi-layer tablets of
the present invention had a further surprising result in that a 600 mg tablet had a
Tmax equivalent to that of a 1200 mg and a Cmax and AUCinf approximately half
of a 1200 mg tablet. Thus, without adjusting or changing the composition of the
sustained release formulation or bi-layer tablet, a lower dosage strength guaifenesin
tablet of the present invention exhibits plasma concentration profile that is
approximately directly proportional to that of a higher dosage strength guaifenesin
tablet also of the present invention. As further demonstrated in EXAMPLE 7 and
Figure 11, the bi-layer tablets of the present invention had another surprising result
in that the Cmax and AUCinf of a 1200 mg tablet administered to volunteers who
had been fasting and the Cmax and AUCinf of a 1200 mg tablet administered to
volunteers who had consumed a high fat meal were approximately equivalent. Thus,
a bi-layer tablet of the present invention demonstrates a reduced food effect, being
approximately equally effective when administered to a patient on an empty or full
stomach.
EXAMPLE 1
A batch of sustained release guaifenesin tablets, Lot# 7LB-31FC,
with the following composition was prepared:
Another batch of sustained release guaifenesin tablets, Lor# 7LB-
32FC, with the following composition was prepared :
Six tablets from Lot /LB-31FC and six tablets bom Lot 7LB-32FC
were tested for in vitro guaifenesin release using an Acid/Base dissolution (slightly
modified USP 23/NF 18 Drug Release using Apparatus 2). Six dissolution
vessels of a USP calibrated Hanson dissolution bath, equipped with shafts and
paddles, were filled with 675 ml of 0.1N hydrochorlic acid at 37.0°C. The bath and
vessels were maintained at a temperature of 37.0 ± 0.5°C throughout the 12 hr.
dissolution test. The paddles were set to rotate at 50 RPM and slowly lowered into
the vessels. One tablet of lot 7LB-31 was then dropped into each vessel.
At the one hour and two hour intervals of testing, 5 mL samples of
dissolution solution were withdrawn from each vessel and filtered through a 10
micron polyethylene filter into glass IIPLC vials. Immediately after the two hour
samples were withdrawn, 225 mL of 0.2M sodium phosphate tribasic was added to
each vessel to increase the solution pH to about 6.8. The dissolution was run for ten
more hours, 2.0 mL samples being withdrawn from each vessel at the 4 hr., 8 hr., 10
hr., and 12 hr. intervals. The filtered samples from each sampling interval were then
run on an HPLC to determine percent guaifenesin released from each tablet at each
of the sampling intervals.
The same dissolution testing procedure was performed for lot 7LB-32
FC. The lots gave dissolution profiles shown below and depicted in Figure 4.
Both formulations demonstrated sustained release of guaifenesin over
a 12 hour period. Lot 7LB-32FC demonstrated identical release properties to Lot
7LB-31FC in 0.1N HC1. In buffered solution, however, Lot 7LB-32FC, the lot
comprising a 2:1 ratio of METHOCEL E10M to CARBOPOL 974P, demonstrated a
statistically slower release than Lot 7LB-31FC, comprising METHOCEL E10M and
no CARBOPOL 974P. A slower release rate in viti-o translates to a slower, more
controlled release with longer drug action in vivo — a favorable characteristic for
pharmaceutical products containing a high concentration of an active ingredient with
a short half-life.
EXAMPLE 2
A dissolution study was run to compare dissolution profiles of lots
7LB-32FC and 7LB-31FC with currently available guaifenesin dosage forms. One
immediate release tablet, ORGANIDIN NR, and two sustained release tablets,
HUMEBID L.A. and DURATUSS, were subjected to the same dissolution study as
described for lots 7LB031FC and 7LB-32FC in Example 1 above. The following is
a summary of the results which are also depicted in Figure 5.

The immediate release ORGANIDIN released 100% of guaifenesin
content within the first hour of dissolution. The two sustained release dosage forms
which are currently available both demonstrated a slower release of guaifenesin.
However, both the HUMIBID LA and DURATUSS released guaifenesin more
rapidly than either Lot 7LB-31FC or 7LB-32FC. Both HUMIBID LA and
DURATUSS would, therefore, exhibit a faster rate of release and thus a shorter lived
therapeutic effect in vivo.
EXAMPLE 3
The in vivo behavior of sustained release tablets of Lot 7LB-31FC
and Lot 7LB-32 FC from Example 1 were compared to the in vivo behavior of an
immediate release formulation (ORGANIDIN NR). The open-label study involved
9 healthy volunteers averaging 38 ±11.01 years of age with a range of 23 years to
55 years of age. The subjects weighed 175.56 ± 24,22 lbs. with a range of 143 to
210 lbs. One subject was female and the remainder were male. Each subject
received either one 1200 mg dose of one of the two above described sustained
release tablets or 400 mg every four hours for 3 doses of the immediate release
formulation.
Blood samples (7 mL with sodium heparin as anticoagulant) were
taken prior to dosing and at specific intervals up to 12 hours after dosing. All blood
samples were chilled and centrifuged within 30 minutes of being drawn. The
plasma was separated, transferred to a polypropylene tube, frozen at -20°C or below
and stored frozen until being shipped for guaifenesin analysis.
The plasma samples were analyzed by a fully validated HPLC
method. The results are depicted in Figure 6. This resulting plasma concentration v.
time data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis using non-compartmental
analysis with Winnonlin 1.5. The results of the pharmacokinetic parameters analysis
are below.
Subjects given the 1200 mg formulation 7LB-32FC reached
maximum plasma guaifenesin concentrations of 1016 g/mL in 1.25 hours and had
an AUCinf of 7663 hr* g/mL. The subjects given formulation 7LB-31FC reached
maximum plasma guaifenesin concentrations of 821 g/mL in 1.67 hours and had
an AUCinf of 5453 hr* g/mL. The subjects given the immediate release
formulation, ORGANIDIN NR, reached maximum plasma guaifenesin
concentrations of 2263 g/mL in 1.75 hours (2 subjects peaked at 0.5 hours after the
first dose and the third peaked at 0.25 hours after the second dose at 4 hours) and
had an AUCinf of 7752 hr* g/mL. The two controlled release formulations
demonstrated sustained release in that their half-lives were longer, 5.77 hours for the
7LB-32FC and 3.59 hours for the 7LB-31 FC compared to 0.8 hours for the
immediate release formulation, ORGANIDIN NR.
Both formulations 7LB-32FC (with both METHOCEL E10M and
CARBOPOL 974P) and 7LB-31FC (with METHOCEL E10M only) control the
release of guaifenesin from the tablet compared to the immediate release
ORGANIDIN NR. Formulation 7LB-32FC, the formulation containing a 6:1 ratio
of METHOCEL E10M to CARBOPOL 974P, had the longest half life at 5.77 hours
with the largest AUCinf between the two sustained release formulation. However,
both sustained release formulation has a Cmax that was less than half of the Cmax of
the immediate release ORGANIDIN NR.
EXAMPLE 4
Three different modified release tablet lots were prepared with the
following compositions:
Modified Release Formulation I, non-layered tablet
The in vivo behavior of each of the three modified release tablets and
an immediate release formulation (ORGANIDIN NR) were compared. The open-
label study involved 15 healthy volunteers averaging 31.67 ± 11.89 years of age
with a range of 20 years to 51 years of age. The subjects weighed 162.00 ± 25.05
lbs. with a range of 123 to 212 lbs. All 15 subjects were administered 400 mg of the
immediate release formulation every 4 hours for a total of 12 hours in on one day.
On another day, 5 subjects were administered Modified Formulation I, another 5
subjects were administered Modified Formulation n, and yet another 5 subjects were
administered Modified Formulation IE.
Blood samples (7 mL with sodium heparin as anticoagulant) were
taken prior to dosing and at specific intervals up to 12 hours after dosing. All blood
samples were chilled and centrifuged within 30 minutes of being drawn. The
plasma was separated, transferred to a polypropylene tube, frozen at -20°C or below
and stored frozen until being shipped for guaifenesin analysis.
The plasma samples were analyzed by a fully validated HPLC
method. The results are depicted in Figure 7. This resulting plasma concentration v.
time data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis using non-compartmental
analysis with Winnonlin 1.5. The results of the pharmacokinetic parameters analysis
are below.
Modified Formulations II and III exhibited a Cmax more comparable
to the immediate release formulation and an increased AUCinf from that of the non-
layered Modified Formulation I. However, the half-lives of both Modified
Formulation II and III were reduced from the half-life of Modified Formulation I.
Although these bi-layer tablets showed an improved serum concentration of
guaifenesin and an increased overall concentration with time, their half-life was
compromised.
EXAMPLE 5
A dissolution study was run to compare dissolution profiles of
Formulation I, Formulation II and Formulation HI prepared as defined in
EXAMPLE 4 above, and Formulation IV, a bi-layer lable lot with 200 mg IR and
1000 mg SR prepared with the following composition:
Formulation I, the non bi-layered tablet, demonstrated the slowest
release of GUATFENESIN. Formulation II and Formulation III had the fastest rates
of release and would, therefore, exhibit a faster rate of release and thus a shorter
lived therapeutic effect in vivo. Formulation IV has a rate of release which was
faster than Formulation I, comprising no immediate release blend, but slower than
Formulation II and Formulation III, both comprising more immediate release blend
than Formulation IV.
EXAMPLE 6
The in vivo behavior of Formulation IV bi-layered tablets, prepared
as described above in EXAMPLE 5, was compared to an immediate release
formulation (ORGANIDIN NR). The open-label, multiple dose, randomized, 2-way
crossover study involved 26 healthy volunteers averaging 31.31 ±9.81 years of age
with a range of 19 years to 50 years of age. The subjects weighed 166.77 ±29.83
lbs. The subjects were placed into one of two treatment groups. Group 1 received
Formulation IV tablet with 240 mL of water after an overnight fast every 12 hours
for 5 days and a single dose on day 6 Group 2 received 400 mg of ORGANIDIN
NR (2 x 200 mg tablets) with 240 mL of water every 4 hours for 5 days and one 400
mg dose every four hours for a total of 3 doses on day 6.
Blood samples (5 mL with sodium heparin as anticoagulant) were
taken prior to dosing on days 1, 4, 5, and 6. On Day 1, additional blood samples (5
mL with sodium heparin as anticoagulant) were also obtained at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2,
3, 4, 4.5, 4.75, 5, 5.5, 6, 7, 8, 8.5, 8.75, 9, 9.5, 10. 11, and 12 hours after the initial
dose. On Day 6, additional blood samples (5 mL with sodium heparin as
anticoagulant) were also obtained at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 4.75, 5, 5.5, 6, 7, 8,
8.5, 8.75, 9, 9.5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, and 24 hours after the initial dose. Plasma was
separated and the plasma frozen until analyzed for guaifenesin content. The
resulting plasma concentration data was subjected to pharmacokinetic and statistical
analysis in order to determine if the sustained release tablets performed as controlled
release tablets at steady state.
The results of the pharmacokinetic parameters analysis are below.
Averaged Testing - 11 Twelve-Hour Intervals

The results of the testing are depicted in Figure 9.
The results of the testing are depicted in Figure 10.
The 200/1000 mg bi-layered tablet exhibited a Cmax and a AUCinf
equivalent to that of the immediate release blend, a short Tmax and an extended
half-life. Thus, a bi-layered tablet with 200 mg guaifenesin in the immediate release
formulation and 1000 mg of guaifenesin in the sustained release formulation results
in a tablet which delivers a high serum concentration in a short period of time, yet
maintains an effective concentration of guaifenesin in the blood stream for a full
twelve hours.
EXAMPLE 7
A study was performed to examine the relative bioavailability of two
different dosage strengths of modified release guaifenesin formulations of the
present invention as well as the effect of food on the relative bioavailability of a
guaifenesin formulation of the present invention in normal, healthy male and/or
female volunteers. Two batches of guaifenesin bi-layer tablets, one 600 mg and one
1200 mg, were prepared according to the following composition.
600 mg Tablet
IR Formulation

Note: the 600 mg and 1200 mg tablets were similarly prepared, the
only difference between the dosage forms being that the 1200 mg tablet contained
about twice as much of each ingredient as the 600 mg tablet.
The in vivo behaviors of a 600 mg tablet administered to volunteers
in the fasting state (about 10 hours pre-dose until about 4 hours after dosing), the
1200 mg tablet administered to volunteers in the fasting state (about 10 hours pre-
dose until about 4 hours after dosing), and the 1200 mg tablet administered to
volunteers after a high fat meal (consumed within 30 minutes of dosing) were
compared. The open-label study involved 27 healthy volunteers between the ages of
18 and 55. The subjects weighed within 15% of their Ideal Body Weight as defined
by the 1983 Metropolitan Life chart. The 27 volunteers were divided into 3
treatment groups, 9 receiving the 600 mg tablet, 9 receiving the 1200 mg tablet
while fasting, and 9 receiving a 1200 mg tablet after consuming a high fat meal for
Period 1 of the trial. After completion of Period 1, the volunteers were crossed-over
for Period 2 (e.g. so that the 9 volunteers who had been receiving the 600 mg tablet
in Period 1 received the 1200 mg tablet while fasting in Period 2). After completion
of Period 2, the volunteers were crossed-over again into their 3rd and final treatment
group (i.e. the 9 volunteers who received the 1200 mg tablet while fasting in Period
2 and the 600 mg tablet while fasting in Period 1 received the 1200 mg tablet after
consumption of a high fat meal in Period 3). Each volunteer was administered one
dose of the appropriate tablet and then monitored over a 16 hour period.
Blood samples (7 mL with sodium heparin as anticoagulant) were
taken about one hour prior to dosing and at specific intervals up to 16 hours after
dosing (at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 hours). All blood
samples were chilled and centrifuged within 30 minutes of being drawn. The
plasma was separated, transferred to a polypropylene tube, frozen at -20°C or below
and stored frozen until being shipped for guaifenesin analysis. The volunteers were
then given at least a seven day washout period (where no guaifenesin was
administered to them under the study) prior to being crossed-over to the next
treatment group.
The plasma samples were analyzed by a fully validated HPLC
method. The results are depicted in Figure 11. This resulting plasma concentration
v. time data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis using non-compartmental
analysis with Winnonlin 1.5. The results of the pharmacokinetic parameters analysis
are below.

The 600 mg tablet demonstrated a serum profile approximately
directly proportional to the serum profile of the 1200 mg tablet. The Cmax of the
600 mg tablet was about 55% that of the 1200 mg tablet. The AUC0-12 of the 600
mg tablet was about 48% that of the 1200 mg tablet and the AUCinf of the 600 mg
tablet was about 46% that of the 1200 mg. improved serum concentration of
guaifenesin and an increased overall concentration with time, their half-life was
compromised.
The 1200 mg tablet demonstrated that the bi-layer tablets of this
invention greatly reduce the food effect in bioavailability and serum concentration of
guaifenesin. The Cmax of the 1200 mg tablet administered after a high fat meal (fed
tablet) was about 102% of the Cmax of the 1200 mg tablet administered after fasting
(fasted tablet). The AUC0-12 of the 1200 mg fed tablet was about 99% that of the
fasted tablet and the AUCing of the 1200 mg fed tablet was about 94% that of the
fasted tablet.
Other embodiments and uses of the invention will be apparent to
those of skill in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the
invention disclosed herein. The specification and examples should be considered
exemplary only with the true scope and spirit of the invention indicated by the
following claims. As will be easily understood by those of skill in the art, variations
and modifications of each of the disclosed embodiments can be easily made within
the scope of this invention as defined by the following claims.
WE CLAIM:
1. A modified release bi-layer tablet comprising:
(a) an immediate release portion; and
(b) a sustained release portion;
wherein the immediate release portion comprises guaifenesin which becomes fully
bioavailable in a subject's stomach and the sustained release portion is capable of
providing therapeutically effective bioavailability of guaifenesin for at least twelve
hours after dosing, wherein the sustained release portion comprises:
(a) guaifenesin;
(b) a hydrophilic polymer; and
(c) a water-insoluble polymer;
wherein the hydrophilic polymer and the water-insoluble polymer are in a weight
ratio range of about l: 1 to about 6:1.
2. The modified release bi-layer tablet as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
maximum serum concentration, the area under a plasma concentration versus time
curve from time 0 to infinity and the area under a plasma concentration versus time
curve from time 0 to 12 hours are approximately directly proportional for each
dosage strength.
3. A modified release bi-layer tablet comprising:
(a) an immediate release portion; and
(b) a sustained release portion;
wherein the immediate release portion comprises guaifenesin which becomes fully
bioavailable in a subject's stomach, and the sustained release portion comprises:
(a) guaifenesin;
(b) a hydrophilic polymer;
(c) a water-insoluble polymer; and
(d) a pharmaceutical additive;
wherein the sustained release formulation is capable of providing
therapeutically effective bioavailability of guaifenesin for at least twelve hours after
dosing; wherein the hydrophilic polymer and the water-insoluble polymer are in a
weight ratio range of about l:l to about 6:l; and wherein about 95.5% of the
formulation by weight is the guaifenesin, about 2.4% of the formulation by weight
is the hydrophilic polymer, about 1.2% of the formulation by weight is the water-
insoluble polymer, and about 1% of the formulation by weight is the
pharmaceutical additive.
4. A modified release capsule comprising:
(a) an immediate release portion; and
(b) a sustained release portion;
wherein the immediate release portion comprises guaifenesin which becomes fully
bioavailable in a subject's stomach, and the sustained release portion comprises:
(a) guaifenesin;
(b) a hydrophilic polymer;
(c) a water-insoluble polymer; and
(d) a pharmaceutical additive;
wherein the sustained release formulation is capable of providing
therapeutically effective bioavailability of guaifenesin for at least twelve hours after
dosing; wherein the hydrophilic polymer and the water-insoluble polymer are in a
weight ratio range of about 1:1 to about 6:l; and wherein about 95.5% of the
formulation by weight is the guaifenesin, about 2.4% of the formulation by weight
is the hydrophilic polymer, about 1.2% of the formulation by weight is the water-
insoluble polymer, and about 1% of the formulation by weight is the
pharmaceutical additive.
5. A modified release tablet having two portions, wherein a first portion is an
immediate release formulation comprising:
(a) a first quantity of guaifenesin; and
(b) a first pharmaceutical additive;
and a second portion is a sustained release formulation comprising:
(a) a second quantity of guaifenesin;
(b) a hydrophilic polymer;
(c) a water-insoluble polymer; and
(d) a second pharmaceutical additive;
wherein the hydrophilic polymer and the water-insoluble polymer are in a weight
ratio range of about l: 1 toabout 6:1.
6. The tablet as claimed in claim 5 wherein the hydrophilic polymer and the
water-insoluble polymer are in a weight ratio range of about 3:2 to about 4:l.
7. The tablet as claimed in claim 5 wherein the hydrophilic polymer and the

water-insoluble polymer are in a weight ratio range of about 2:l.
8. The tablet as claimed in claim 5 wherein the first pharmaceutical additive
and the second pharmaceutical additive are selected from the group consisting of
magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, zinc stearate, powdered stearic acid,
hydrogenated vegetable oils, talc, polyethylene glycol, mineral oil, Emerald Green
Lake, an FD&C color, sucrose, lactose, gelatin, starch paste, acacia, tragacanth,
povidone, polyethylene glycol, Pullulan, corn syrup, colloidal silicon dioxide, talc,
sodium lauryl sulfate, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, triethanolamine,
polyoxyethylene sorbitan, poloxalkol, quarternary ammonium salts, mannitol,
glucose, fructose, xylose, galactose, maltose, xylitol, sorbitol, potassium chloride,
potassium sulfate, potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium
phosphate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, magnesium phosphate,
microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and combinations thereof.
9. The tablet as claimed in claim 5 wherein the hydrophilic polymer is
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
10. The tablet as claimed in claim 9 wherein the water insoluble polymer is an
acrylic resin.
11. The tablet as claimed in claim 10 wherein a ratio of the second quantity of
guaifenesin to the first quantity of guaifenesin is 5:1.
12. The tablet as claimed in claim 9 wherein a ratio of the second quantity of
guaifenesin to the first quantity of guaifenesin is about 5:l.
13. The tablet as claimed in claim 12 wherein the first pharmaceutical additive
is a combination of microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, and
magnesium stearate, and the second pharmaceutical additive is a combination of
magnesium stearate and Emerald Green Lake.
14. A modified release pharmaceutical product comprising:
(a) an immediate release guaifenesin formulation; and
(b) a sustained release guaifenesin formulation;
wherein the guaifenesin demonstrates a maximum serum concentration
equivalent to an immediate release guaifenesin tablet and wherein the product is
capable of providing therapeutically effective bioavailability of guaifenesin for at
least twelve hours after dosing in a human subject according to serum analysis.
15. The product as claimed in claim 14 wherein the guaifenesin is in a quantity
of 1200 mg.
16. The product as claimed in claim 15 wherein the maximum serum
concentration of said guaifenesin is from about 1600 to 2500 g/mL and said
guaifenesin has an the area under a plasma concentration versus time curve from
time 0 to infinity of from about 5600 to 8750 hr* g/mL.
17. The product as claimed in claim 16 wherein the maximum serum
concentration of said guaifenesin is at least 1900 mg/mL and said guaifenesin has an
the area under a plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to infinity of
at least 7000 hr*mg/mL.
18. The product as claimed in claim 14 wherein the guaifenesin is in a quantity
of 600 mg.
19. The product as claimed in claim 18 wherein the maximum serum
concentration of said guaifenesin is from about 800 to 1250 mg/mL and said
guaifenesin has an the area under a plasma concentration versus time curve from
time 0 to infinity of from about 2800 to 4375 hr*mg/mL.
20. The product as claimed in claim 19 wherein the maximum serum
concentration of said guaifenesin is at least 1000 mg/mL and said guaifenesin has an
the area under a plasma concentration versus time curve from time 0 to infinity of
at least 3500 hr*mg/mL.

21. The product as claimed in claim 14 wherein said guaifenesin has a half life,
according to serum analysis, of at least 3 hours.
The invention relates to a modified release guaifenesin tablet which has
two portion : the first portion comprises an immediate release formulation of
guaifenesin and the second portion comprises a sustained release formulation of
guaifenesin as described above. This two portion, or bi-layer, tablet has a
maximum serum concentration equivalent to that of an immediate release
guaifenesin tablet, and is capable of providing therapeutically effective
bioavailability of guaifenesin for at least twelve hours after dosing in a human
subject.

Documents:


Patent Number 225468
Indian Patent Application Number IN/PCT/2002/01238/KOL
PG Journal Number 46/2008
Publication Date 14-Nov-2008
Grant Date 12-Nov-2008
Date of Filing 30-Sep-2002
Name of Patentee ADAMS LABORATORIES INC.
Applicant Address 14801, SOVEREING ROAD, FORT WORTH, TEXAS
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 KEYSER DONALD J. 1216, WYNDHAM HILL LANE, SOUTHLAKE TEXAS 76092
2 BLUME RALPH W 6709 WELCH AVENUE, FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76155-2645
3 DAVIS ROBERT D. 1600 RIDGE HAVEN DRIVE, APARTMENT 208 ARLINGTON, TEXAS 76011
PCT International Classification Number A61K 9/20
PCT International Application Number PCT/US01/13379
PCT International Filing date 2001-04-26
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 09/559,542 2000-04-28 U.S.A.