Title of Invention

"A PROCESS FOR BIOLOGICAL DEINKING OF OFFICE WASTE PAPER"

Abstract This invention relates to a biological process for deinking of office waste paper, and more particularly the present invention relates to a biological process for deinking of xerographic and inkjet printed paper using a gram-negative coccoid bacterium deposited at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at the Agricultural Research Cultural Collection, and International Depository, having Accession Number NRRL B-30638.
Full Text Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a process for biological deinking of office waste paper. In particular, the invention relates to decolorization of office waste paper using microorganisms from marine habitats. More particularly, the present invention relates to a process for biological deinking of photocopied and inkjet-printed paper or toner photocopied paper pulp using a gram-negative coccoid bacterium deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at the Agricultural Research Cultural Collection, and International Depository, having Accession Number NRRLB-3 063 8.
Background of the Invention
Paper manufacturing is a major industry and a continuously growing one. Increased production of paper imposes a severe demand on plant raw material and thus harms the environment. Recycling of used paper is an alternative that can alleviate the stress that is exercised on the environment. The three major sources of raw material for such recycling are newsprint, photocopied paper and inkjet-printed papers. Recycling of paper requires the removal of the printing ink from the used paper, called deinking, so that the processed material is brighter. Printing on paper is accomplished by using two types of inks, the impact and the non-impact inks. In impact inks, used for newsprints, the ink does not fuse with the paper and is, therefore, easy to remove or disperse during the deinking, or recycling process. Such recycling is now well known and has been carried out for years. On the contrary, non┬Čimpact inks used in photocopying, ink-jet printing and laser printing results in the ink fusing with the paper and makes it non-dispersible, thus rendering the deinking process much more difficult (Jeffries, 2002). The toners used for photocopying generally contain iron oxide (about 55%0, olefins (about 5%) and plastic or polymer (Website:http://www.eng-tips.com).
Various hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, lipase, amylase of bacterial or fungal origin, individually or in combination have been used for deinking of office waste paper.
(i) A reference may be made to a publication wherein, a method for deinking of xerographic and printed paper, collectively called office waste, includes applying deinking solution to the paper to be deinked, the deinking solution being composed of a cleaning solution and a surfactant, abrading the paper to remove the ink from paper, and washing the paper to remove the deinking solution from the

paper (U.S. Pat. No. 6,022,423 Bhatia, S. 1996 Method for deinking paper dated 2000-02-08). However, this patent involves using a special device for deinking of whole sheets and cannot be used on pulp.
(ii) Another reference may be made to wherein, a monocomponent cellulase is used for removal of ink and toners from printed paper (U.S. Pat. No. 5,525,193 Neal, E., Steven, B. E., Hans, H. C. 1994. Use of monocomponent cellulase for removing inks, coatings and toners from printed paper). The technique of isolating monocomponent cellulase from microorganisms by various purifications, chromatographic steps is time consuming and expensive.
(iii) A reference may be made to a publication wherein, endogluconases and hemicellulases from several fungi are used effectively for deinking of Xerox and laser-printed paper (Gubitz, G. M., Mansfield, S. D., Bohm, D. Saddler, J. N. 1998. Effect of endoglucanases and hemicellulases in magnetic and flotation deinking of xerographic and laser-printed papers. Journal of Biotechnology. 65:209-215). As mentioned above the enzyme technology is still an expensive one for using on a large scale.
(iv) A reference may be made to a publication, wherein deinking of laser printed or xerographic paper is done using enzyme containing a resistant binder. Enzyme is added in the specified form to improve speck removal (Landley, J. G. Stockwell, J. O. 1997. Enzyme deinking of paper. Patent Number GB 2304741 dated 26 Mar. 1997). As with the above references, the technology to produce enzymes, their purification and application is an expensive process.
(v) A reference may be made to a publication, wherein deinking of office waste paper is carried out by contacting the pulp with a deinking agent containing enzymes cellulase, preferably active at pH 4 to 8. The treated paper is used in the production of newsprint and high quality paper (Jobbins, J. M. Asbrand, Jr. G. R. 1996. Composition and process for deinking office waste paper. Patent Number EP 717144 dated 19 Jun. 1996). As with the above references, the technology to produce enzymes, their purification and application is an expensive process.
(vi) A reference may be made to a publication, wherein deinking of waste paper is achieved by incubating the paper pulp with cellulase at 40.degree. C. for 1 hour under pressure. Following dissociation of ink particles, the resulting washed pulp is brighter (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. 1994. Deinking of waste paper. Patent number JP06346390 dated 20 Dec. 1994). As with the above references, the

technology to produce enzymes, their purification and application is an expensive
process, (vii) A reference may be made to a publication, wherein deinking is achieved by using
lipase to remove ink from used paper. The procedure is carried out under neutral
or alkaline conditions which produces regenerated pulp having enhanced
brightness (Novo. 1990. Removing ink from used paper. Patent number
JP2160984 dated 20 Jun. 1990). (viii) A reference may be made to a publication, wherein deinking of waste paper is
done by using the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, which degrades the ink-based
resin (Jeonju-Paper. 1993. Waste-paper deinking. Patent Number KR 9303705
dated 8 May 1993). However, the ink floats on the surface and the pulp has to be
extensively washed to remove the detached ink. (ix) A reference may be made to a publication, wherein decolorization of Indian ink is
achieved by using thermostable alkaline cellulase from a Bacillus sp (Kao. 1998.
A microbiologically produced thermostable alkaline cellulase and a process for its
preparation. Patent number JP10313859).
OBJECTS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
The main object of the present invention is to provide a process for decolorization of waste paper.
Another object of the present invention is provide a process for biological deinking of photocopied and inkjet-printed paper pulp using a gram-negative coccoid bacterium deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at the Agricultural Research Cultural Collection, and International Depository, having Accession Number NRRL B-30638.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, the present invention provides process for biological deinking of office waste paper inclusive of xerographic and ink-jet printed paper printed with non-impact and non-dispersible ink, said process comprising:
[a] growing coccoid bacterial isolate having accession number NIO/DI/32 vis-a-vis
NRRL-B-30368 in a nutrient broth having salinity ranging between 30 to 35 parts
per thousand for 4 to 6 days to obtain a biomass;

[b] adding the biomass as obtained in step [a] at 20 % concentration to inoculate paper diluted to 6 to 10 % consistency and suspended in sea water with salinity diluted to 50%;
[c] incubating the inoculated pulp of step [b] for a period of 96 to 120 hours followed by diluting the pulp ten folds;
[d] adding 1 % by weight of a surfactant to the incubated pulp of step [c] and aerating for 10 to 15 minutes with compressed air to allow the stray residual ink particles and contaminants flow out;
[e] filtering the pulp of step [d] over a funnel under suction to obtain a sheet of pulp with uniform thickness.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
The present invention provides a process for biological deinking of office waste paper inclusive of xerographic and inkjet-printed paper printed with non-impact and non-dispersible ink, said process comprises: (a) growing coccoid bacterial isolate deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at the Agricultural Research Cultural Collection, and International Depository, having Accession Number NRRL B-30638, in a nutrient broth containing beef extract, peptic digest of animal tissue and salinity ranging between 30 to 35 parts per thousand for at least 4 days; (b) adding the resulting biomass of step (a) at 20% concentration to inoculate paper pulp diluted to at least 6% consistency suspended in sea water with salinity diluted to 50%; (c) incubating the inoculated pulp for a minimum period of 96 hours followed by diluting the pulp tenfold; (d) adding 1% by wt. of a surfactant and aerating for at least 10 minutes with compressed air to let the stray residual ink particles and contaminants flow out of the container, and (e) filtering the pulp of step (d) over a funnel under suction, to get a sheet of pulp with uniform thickness and reading the brightness by radiance measurement.
In an embodiment of the present invention, wherein in step (a), the bacterium is grown for a minimum of 4 days in nutrient broth containing beef extract and peptic digest of animal tissue in sea water with salinity diluted to 50%.

In another embodiment of the present invention, wherein in step (b), the resulting bacterial
biomass is concentrated by centrifugation and diluted to get final optical density of 1.0
measured at 600 nm in a spectrophotometer.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the diluted bacterial culture is inoculated
to at least 6% pulp suspended in seawater with salinity diluted to 50% and incubated for a
minimum period of 4 days within to completely bleach the pulp.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, the resulting bleached pulp is diluted
tenfold, to which 1% surfactant is added, aerated using compressed air, and any free residual
ink particles and contaminants are allowed to flow out of the solution.
In a further embodiment of the present invention, wherein after step (d) the xerographic or
inkjet-printed paper is soaked in hot water for 1-2 hours and macerated after adding 1%
surfactant to pulp.
In one more embodiment of the present invention, the paper is macerated using conventional
mixers.
In one another embodiment of the present invention, wherein in step (e), the washed pulp is
filtered over a Buchner funnel under suction to get a pulp sheet of uniform thickness.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the pulp sheet is pressed at 60.degree. C. for a
minimum of 4-5 hours to make it uniform and dried.
In another embodiment of the present invention, the radiance of the resultant sheet is read
from 412 to 684 nm and the radiance expressed as Lux units (LU) {wherein one LU is
equivalent to .mu.W/cm.sup.2/nm/Sr}.
In still another embodiment of the present invention, the pulp sheet made out of recycled
paper is used as a reference.
In yet another embodiment of the present invention, wherein in steps (a) and (b), pure water
containing 1.5% by wt of sodium chloride can be used in the place of sea water.
Deinking of paper is a limiting factor in recycling of paper. Newsprint and office waste paper is generally deinked using chemicals which go into the effluent and cause pollution of the water bodies. The newsprint or offset printing is done using dispersible or non-impact ink whereas laser, xerographic and ink-jet printer ink does not disperse and is also called impact ink. There are several papers describing various methods of deinking by using hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, hemicellulase and lipase of microbial origin which release toner particles from fibers. However, enzyme action is affected by the paper constituents in the deinking condition. The chemically pulped fibers are more susceptible than mechanically

pulped fibers. Office waste paper is high in laser and toner content and the technology for taking the toner particles out is not very good at the moment (Jefferies, 2002).
In the present invention, the Applicants report a process for deinking of office waste paper comprising xerographic and ink-jet printed paper by a bacterium isolated from marine sediment of an estuary in Goa, India. The salinity of the water at the time of isolation was around 15 papers per thousand which is equivalent to half-strength sea water.
The present invention provides a process for biological deinking of office waste paper comprising xerographed, ink-jet printed, and similar other non-impact ink printed papers. The process is achieved by using a coccoid bacterium deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at the Agricultural Research Cultural Collection, and International Depository, having Accession Number NRRL B-30638, said culture may be grown in nutrient broth containing beef extract, and peptic digest of animal tissue and prepared with sea water with its salinity diluted to 50%.
The present invention more particularly provides a process wherein the aforesaid pre-grown bacterial culture is inoculated on the office pulp suspended in seawater with its salinity diluted to 50% and incubated for a minimum period of 4 days to decolorize the paper pulp.
The paper pulp becomes brighter, the black ink is totally decolorized and the supernatant water remains clear. The water needs to be simply drained to recover the deinked pulp. The pulp can be diluted tenfold optionally to remove any free residual ink particles and other contaminants. Conventional surfactant at 1% concentration may be added to the diluted paper pulp, aerated for at least 10 minutes by which the particles float and go out of the pulp slurry. The washed pulp can be filtered over a large funnel under suction and dried at 60.degree. C. for at least 6 hours to obtain decolorized paper pulp.
The organism given in the present invention is a gram-negative, coccoid bacterium isolated from coastal marine sediment. The coccoid bacterium has been deposited at National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 043, India having Accession No. NIO/DI/32 and being deposited at the Agricultural Research Cultural Collection, and International

Depository, having Accession Number NRRL B-30638. Said bacterium can be grown in nutrient broth containing beef extract, peptic digest of animal tissue, prepared with sea water with salinity diluted to 50% and having a pH of at least 7.5. The bacterium when grown in nutrient agar medium appears as circular colonies off-white in color, having 2 mm diameter colonies in the beginning and growing to a size of 5 mm within 3-4 days. The bacterium is capable of producing lipase and amylase in the presence of Tween 80 and starch respectively. It is fermentative and catalase-negative bacterium. The bacterium is grown at room temperature (30.degree. C.) for about 4 days, the bacterial cells are collected by centrifugation under sterile conditions, diluted appropriately to get optical density of 1 at 660 nm. Xerographic, ink-jet printed paper and other papers having printed with impact ink are pulped by soaking in hot water for a minimum of 2 hrs, macerated in a domestic mixer with surfactant such as Tween 80. An example for the process for deinking involves suspending such a pulp at least at 6% consistency in seawater with salinity diluted to 50%, inoculating with 20% bacterial suspension prepared as described above and incubating at room temperature for a minimum of 4 days to get completely decolorized pulp and the ink is disappeared from water also. The pulp can be diluted, aerated from bottom to remove free contaminating particles, salts and bacterial cells. A surfactant such as Tween 80 can be added at 1% concentration for flotation of any residual ink particles. The pulp is filtered over a Buchner funnel under suction, pressed with flat stainless steel plates to make the pulp sheet uniform in thickness. The radiance of the resultant sheet is read from 412 to 684 nm and the radiance expressed in Lux units (Lu). One LU is equivalent to .mu.W/Cm.sup.2/nm/Sr. The ratio of radiance between recycled paper purchased from the market and biologically deinked paper is taken as a measure of brightness.
In a typical example plain toner powder of Xerox machine suspended in seawater with its salinity diluted to 50% also became completely colorless within 7 days after inoculating it with the said bacterial suspension.
Most of the organisms used for biological deinking release ink particles from the fibers and they need to be subsequently washed off from the pulp. In the process described in the present invention, this problem does not arise as the ink and toner particles are totally decolorized. The method is very cost effective as the only step involved is raising the bacterial inoculum in any conventional nutrient broth containing assimilable carbon and nitrogen source. A

comparative statement given in Table 1 explains the novelty of our invention in comparison with prior art known in this field.
TABLE 1: Comparative statement

(Table Removed)
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS
In the drawings accompanying the specification:
FIG. 1 shows the radiance of Xerox paper pulp (XP) is lowest in comparison with that of recycled paper pulp (RP) and biologically deinked pulp (BP);
FIG. 2 shows the ratio of radiance of biologically deinked paper to that of recycled paper;
FIG. 3 compares the deinking done by the present invention on papers of three different photocopier machines;
FIG. 4 compares the radiance of decolorized paper pulp after 4 days at different concentration of inoculum;
FIG. 5 compares the reflectance ratio of the deinked paper pulp at different concentrations of inoculum;
FIG. 6 compares the radiance ratio of the deinked paper pulp with the number of days;
FIG. 7 shows the ratio of radiance between recycled paper and deinked paper;
FIG. 8 shows that with an inoculum concentration of 2 ml, maximum brightness is achieved after 72 hours; and
FIG. 9 shows that with an inoculum concentration of 10 ml, maximum brightness is achieved by 72 hours.

The present invention is further described with reference to the accompanying examples, which are given by way of illustration and therefore, should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention in any manner.
EXAMPLE 1
The bacterial isolate NIO/DI/32 was isolated from the coastal esturine sediment, Dona Paula, Goa, India in nutrient agar medium containing beef extract and peptic digest of animal tissue and agar in sea water with its salinity diluted to 50%. The culture was maintained in the slants of nutrient agar medium for all further experiments.
The said bacterium can be grown in nutrient broth containing beef extract, peptic digest of animal tissue in sea water with its salinity diluted to 50%. The bacterium is grown at room temperature (30.degree. C.) for about 4 days, the bacterial cells are collected by centrifugation under sterile conditions, diluted appropriately to get optical density of 1 at 660 nm using a spectrophotometer. Xerographic paper printed with impact ink from HP machine are pulped by soaking in hot water for a minimum of 2 hrs, macerated in a conventional domestic mixer with surfactant such as Tween 80. An example for the process for deinking involves suspending such a pulp at least at 6% consistency (6 g wet pulp in 100 ml of water) in sea water with its salinity diluted to 50%, inoculating with 20% bacterial suspension prepared as described above and incubating at room temperature for a minimum of 4 days to get completely bleached pulp with the ink totally disappearing from the supernatant water. The pulp can be diluted, aerated from bottom to remove free contaminating particles, salts and bacterial cells. A surfactant such as Tween 80 can be added at 1% concentration for flotation of any residual ink particles. The pulp is filtered over a Buchner funnel under suction, pressed with flat stainless steel plates to make the pulp sheet uniform in thickness. The radiance of the resultant sheet is read from 412 to 684 nm and the radiance expressed in Lux units (Lu). One Lu is equivalent to .mu.W/cm.sup.2/nm/Sr. The ratio of radiance between recycled paper available in any stationery shop and biologically deinked paper is taken as a measure of brightness.
Accordingly, FIG. 1 shows the radiance of Xerox paper pulp (XP) is lowest in comparison with that of recycled paper pulp (RP) and biologically deinked pulp (BP). This brightness was achieved 4 days after inoculation with the said bacterium. As the target was to achieve

brightness of recycled paper, the Applicants have shown the same data as ratio of radiance of Xerox paper to recycled paper and similarly, the ratio of radiance of biologically deinked paper to that of recycled paper is shown in FIG. 2.
Xerographic printed paper obtained from various Xerox machines were compared for their efficiency in being deinked by the said bacterium. Accordingly FIG. 3 shows that out of 3 different machines, Xerox paper obtained from Lanier machine were deinked effectively by the process described in the present invention.
EXAMPLE 2
As seen in the previous example, the bacterium could grow in the plain paper pulp suspended in water, and bleach the pulp in 4 days, the Xerox toner (HP make) at 1% concentration was suspended in sterile sea water and inoculated with the said bacterial suspension and incubated at room temperature for 15 days. The control flask did not receive any bacterial inoculum. The contents of experimental flask and the control flask did not receive any bacterial inoculum. The contents of experimental flask and the control flask were filtered over pre-weighed filter paper, rinsed with sterile distilled water to remove salts and dried to a constant weight at 60.degree. C. The difference in weight of residual toner powder was compared in the two sets.
Accordingly, in the experimental flask after 15 days the dry weight was 143 mg whereas, in the control flask it was 220 mg. Thus, almost 65% toner was degraded in the inoculated flasks. Besides, the water in the experimental flask became almost colorless.
EXAMPLE 3
The ability of the bacterial isolate having Accession Number NIO/DI/32 (also being deposited
at an international depository) to deink ink-jet printed paper was tried as follows:
The inkjet-printed paper was prepared into pulp as described in Example 1 and inoculated with the said bacterium as described in Example 1. However, the inoculum dose varied from 2 ml to 10 ml with the increment of 2 ml. The other procedures used were the same as described in the Example 1.
Accordingly, FIG. 4 shows radiance of decolorized paper pulp after 4 days in comparison

with Xerox and recycled paper. The radiance of biologically deinked paper was more than the recycled paper and there was not much difference between inoculum concentration of 6 to 10 ml in the final radiance achieved.
FIG. 5 shows the ratio of reflectance between Xerox paper to recycled paper in comparison with paper pulp deinked using different concentrations of the said bacterial suspension. The brightness achieved by using 8 ml or 10 ml inoculum was almost similar.
EXAMPLE 4
The deinking of inkjet-printed paper in relation to time of incubation (in days) was carried out
as follows:
The preparation of pulp, inoculum and experimental set up were the same as in the previous example, but the inoculum concentration used here was 10 ml and radiance of the pulp was tested on day 2, 4, 6 and 8 days after incubating the pulp with the said bacterial culture.
According, FIG. 6 shows that by day 6 maximum brightness is achieved and here also the radiance of biologically deinked pulp was slightly greater than that of recycled paper purchased from the market. The control was the inkjet-printed paper pulp.
FIG. 7 shows the ratio of radiance between recycled paper and deinked paper. The control was the inkjet-printed paper pulp which showed lowest radiance ratio.
EXAMPLE 5
Ability of the said bacterium to deink the inkjet-printed paper with two concentrations of the
inoculum at varying incubation period was compared to arrive at a combination where
deinking is achieved in a shortest time.
Accordingly, FIG. 8 shows that with an inoculum concentration of 2 ml, maximum brightness
is achieved after 72 hours.
FIG. 9 also shows that with an inoculum concentration of 10 ml, maximum brightness is
achieved by 72 hours.




We claim:
1. A process for biological deinking of office waste paper inclusive of xerographic and
ink-jet printed paper printed with non-impact and non-dispersible ink, said process comprising:
[a] growing coccoid bacterial isolate having accession number NIO/D1/32 vis-a-vis NRRL-B-30368 in a nutrient broth having salinity ranging between 30 to 35 parts per thousand for 4 to 6 days to obtain a biomass;
[b] adding the biomass as obtained in step [a] at 20 % concentration to inoculate paper diluted to 6 to 10 % consistency and suspended in sea water with salinity diluted to 50%;
[c] incubating the inoculated pulp of step [b] for a period of 96 to 120 hours followed by diluting the pulp ten folds;
[d] adding 1 % by weight of a surfactant to the incubated pulp of step [c] and aerating for 10 to 15 minutes with compressed air to allow the stray residual ink particles and contaminants flow out;
[e] filtering the pulp of step [d] over a funnel under suction to obtain a sheet of pulp with uniform thickness.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bacterium is grown for a period of 4 days.
3. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein in steps [a] and [b] pure water containing 1.5% by weight of sodium chloride can be used instead of sea water.
4. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein after step [d] the pulp is soaked in hot water for 1 to 2 hours and macerated after adding 1% surfactant.
5. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the paper is macerated using conventional mixers.

6. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pulp sheet is pressed at 60 degree C for a period of 4 to 5 hours to make it uniform and dried.
7. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the paper sheet made of recycled pulp is used as a reference.
8. A process for biological deinking of office waste paper substantially as herein described with reference to the foregoing examples.

Documents:

131-DEL-2003-Abstract-(12-09-2008).pdf

131-del-2003-abstract.pdf

131-del-2003-assignment.pdf

131-DEL-2003-Claims-(12-09-2008).pdf

131-del-2003-claims.pdf

131-DEL-2003-Correspondence-Others-(12-09-2008).pdf

131-DEL-2003-Correspondence-Others-(14-10-2008).pdf

131-del-2003-correspondence-others.pdf

131-del-2003-correspondence-po.pdf

131-DEL-2003-Description (Complete)-(12-09-2008).pdf

131-del-2003-description (complete).pdf

131-del-2003-drawings.pdf

131-DEL-2003-Form-1-(14-10-2008).pdf

131-del-2003-form-1.pdf

131-del-2003-form-18.pdf

131-DEL-2003-Form-2-(12-09-2008).pdf

131-DEL-2003-Form-3-(12-09-2008).pdf

131-del-2003-form-3.pdf

131-DEL-2003-Others-Document-(14-10-2008).pdf

131-DEL-2003-Petition-137-(12-09-2008).pdf


Patent Number 224559
Indian Patent Application Number 131/DEL/2003
PG Journal Number 13/2009
Publication Date 27-Mar-2009
Grant Date 17-Oct-2008
Date of Filing 18-Feb-2003
Name of Patentee COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Applicant Address RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001, INDIA.
Inventors:
# Inventor's Name Inventor's Address
1 CHANDRALATHA RAGHUKUMAR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
2 C. MOHANDASS NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
3 TELMO OLIVIERA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
4 SAESHGIRI RAGHUKUMAR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
5 D. CHANDRAMOHAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
6 P. A. LOKA BHARATHI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
7 SHANTHA NAIR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
8 N. RAMAIOH NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANAGROPHY, GOA, INDIA.
PCT International Classification Number D21C 005/02
PCT International Application Number N/A
PCT International Filing date
PCT Conventions:
# PCT Application Number Date of Convention Priority Country
1 NA