|Title of Invention||
SATIETY ENHANCING FOOD COMPOSITIONS
|Abstract||An edible composition comprising from 1 to 25% wt protein, from 0.1 to 6%wt of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate, and from 2 to 30% wt based on the weight of the alginate of a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ions.|
|Full Text||F7733 / V
FORM - 2
THE PATENTS ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
The Patents Rules, 2003
(See Section 10 and Rule 13)
SATIETY ENHANCING FOOD COMPOSITIONS
HINDUSTAN LEVER LIMITED, a company incorporated under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 and having its registered office at Hindustan Lever House, 165/166, Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai -400 020, Maharashtra, India
The following specification particularly describes the invention and the manner in which it is to be performed
Field of Invention
The present invention relates to food compositions comprising an alginate that has an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate, the food composition having an enhanced satiety effect.
Background of the invention
The incidence of obesity and the number of people considered overweight in countries where a so-called Western diet is adopted has drastically increased over the last decade. Since obesity and being overweight are generally known to be associated with a variety of diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and arthereosclerosis, this increase is a major health concern for the medical world and for individuals alike. Furthermore, being overweight is considered by the majority of the Western population as unattractive.
This has led to an increasing interest by consumers in their health and has created a demand for products that help to reduce or control daily caloric intake and/or control body weight and/or bodily appearance.
Several solutions have been proposed to help individuals to control their weight. Among these solutions is the use of drugs e.g. to suppress the activity of enzymes in the digestive system. However the use of drugs is often not preferred unless strictly required for medical purposes.
Another proposed solution is to prescribe the individuals a specific diet, for example, a diet with a restricted caloric intake per day. A problem with these diets is that often they do
not provide a healthy nutritional balance and/or they are difficult to accommodate in modern lifestyles.
Meal replacer products have also been proposed as part of a healthy diet in order to control or reduce body weight. For example, US 5,688,547 discloses a nutritional meal replacement composition comprising dietary fibre, protein and a cellulose gum and gel.
These meal replacer products are generally products that are intended to be consumed as a single-serving food product, such as a bar, drink etc to replace one or two meals per day. The meal replacer products are designed such that on the one hand they provide a restricted caloric intake, but on the other hand they provide a healthy balance of nutritional ingredients and are convenient to incorporate into an individual's daily diet.
However, a general problem with products intended to be used in a weight loss or weight maintenance plan, e.g. meal replacer products or low-calorie snacks, is that feelings of hunger may occur sooner than desired after consumption and/or the feeling of satiety obtained may not be as great as desired. Both of these considerations may render it difficult for the individual to adhere to the plan or it may make it and/or the products used therein less appealing to consumers.
Recognising the demand for effective and convenient satiety-inducing food products, research has been carried out to try to address the problems associated with the above approaches to controlling or reducing body weight.
One approach to addressing the aforementioned problems has been to investigate the use of satiety agents in food products in order to increase the satiety effect obtained from consuming a food product comprising the satiety agents.
Alginates, and their derivatives, have been used in food compositions claiming to have an advantageous satiety effect.
WO 01/17377 discloses uronic acid-containing polysaccharides cross-linked to each other to form a sponge-like structure that dissolves poorly in water and gastro-intestinal fluids, and which are poorly reabsorbed, in order to provide a satiety effect.
WO 02/096223 discloses a method of blunting the post-prandial glycaemic response in humans by feeding an induced viscosity fibre system. The system comprises a lightly hydrolysed starch, a soluble dietary fibre source and acid-soluble multi-valent cations. Digestive enzymes act upon the lightly hydrolysed starch to produce an increase in viscosity of the system.
US 5 866 190 discloses beverages comprising a mixture of pectin and alginate as a stabiliser. The alginate has a G/M ratio of 0.5.
US 5 283 076 and US 5 324 526 disclose beverage formulations that may be used as health foods. The beverages preferably comprise 5-20%wt of low molecular weight alginates. Use of these alginates in the prevention of obesity is proposed.
US 5,688,547 discloses shakes, puddings or mousses comprising protein, cellulose gel and gum and dietary fibres including pectin, alginate, gum arabic and guar gum.
WO 01/56404 discloses that 0.01 to 5%wt of a low molecular weight polymannuronate derived from alginate may be used in a functional beverage.
US 2003/0013679 and WO 02/096353 disclose a method of blunting the post-prandial glycemic response in humans by feeding an
induced viscosity fibre system comprising a lightly hydrolysed . starch, and a soluble dietary fibre source in amounts of at least
Wolf et al in the paper * Glycemic and insulinemic responses of non-diabetic healthy adult subjects to an experimental acid-induced viscosity complex incorporated into a glucose beverage", Nutrition, Volume 18, numbers 7/8, 2002, disclose an acid induced viscosity complex comprising alginates.
Furthermore, alginates containing more guluronic acid units than mannuronic acid units are known for use as setting agents in food products. Examples of the use of such alginates include: in preparing fruit purees and mixtures (see FR-A-2,649,299, GB 1,428,362, GB 1,369,199), dried fruit, vegetable or protein based foods (see GB 1,531,219) and olive products (see WO 03/047365).
However, the satiety effect obtained by the above compositions can still be improved and thus there is still a need in the art for edible compositions that provide a good satiety effect for consumers, especially those wishing to control their calorie intake and/or body weight.
In particular, there is a need for compositions which provide good satiety effects, which are of acceptable taste and texture for the consumer, which are convenient and/or economical to manufacture and which are stable during manufacture and storage. This is especially applicable to meal replacement products or other calorie-controlled products intended to be consumed as part of a weight loss or weight control plan.
The present invention seeks to address one or more of the above-mentioned problems.
In particular, it is an object of the invention to provide food products that have a good satiety effect. It is also an object of the invention to provide food products to be used in a method of preventing or treating obesity, especially human obesity.
It is a further object of the invention to provide food products, especially meal replacer products and products to be used in a weight loss or weight control plan, that have an improved satiety effect compared to conventional types of such food products.
It is also an object of the invention to provide a method, and food products to be used therein, to aid an individual adhere to a weight loss or weight control plan (e.g. a calorie controlled diet), and/or to control body weight and/or to improve or maintain the perception of body image or body weight.
It is also an object of the invention to provide food products which can be prepared by, and which are not substantially negatively affected by, conventional food processing and food preparation techniques.
In particular, there is a need for food products, especially meal replacer products and food products to be used as part of a weight loss or weight control plan which address one or more of the above problems.
Summary of the Invention
Surprisingly we have now found that by including certain alginates in food compositions excellent results are obtained with respect to satiety effects.
Thus according to a first aspect, the present invention provides an edible composition comprising from 1 to 25%wt protein, from 0.1 to 6%wt of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate, and from 2 to 30%wt based on the weight of the alginate of a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ion.
According to a second aspect, the present invention provides a nutritional bar, pasta or cereal product comprising a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ions and from 0.1 to 6%wt of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate.
According to a third aspect, the invention provides the use of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate and a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ions in the manufacture of an edible composition for use in providing an enhanced feeling of satiety to a person consuming the edible composition and/or in aiding adherence to a weight loss or weight control plan and/or in a method of preventing or treating obesity.
According to a fourth aspect, the invention provides a method for inducing satiety in a human or animal, the method comprising the step of administering to a human or animal an edible composition comprising a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ion and from 0.1 to 6%wt of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate.
Preferably the alginate has a L-guluronic acid content of at
least 65%. Also, preferably the alginate has a molecular
weight of at least 0.5 x 10 .
Preferably the edible composition is a meal replacer or other food composition intended to be used in a weight loss or weight control plan.
Preferably the edible composition comprises carbohydrate.
The alginate of the invention is believed to have beneficial effects upon satiety, possibly, through changes to nutrient delivery in the small intestines. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the consuming the edible composition of the invention may result in the distension of the stomach of the person consuming the composition which may lead to an increased satiety effect.
The present invention provides an effective and convenient method of providing good satiety effects to food compositions, especially those intended to be used in a weight loss or weight control plan. Furthermore, the products can be manufactured by
conventional techniques and are economical to produce. They are also stable upon storage.
The advantages of the present invention include greater efficacy of the satiety effect after consumption of a food composition according to the invention; for example an enhanced feeling of satiety, feeling satiated sooner whilst eating and/or remaining satiated for a longer period of time after eating. These advantages are especially beneficial for compliance with weight loss or weight control plans and/or the control or maintenance of body weight and/or body perception. There are also longer-term heath advantages associated with helping in the prevention of diseases related to being overweight.
The terms wmeal replacer" or "meal replacement products" as used herein refer to products (compositions) which are intended to replace one or more conventional meals a day as part of a weight loss or weight plan; they are of a controlled calorie
content and are generally eaten as a single product or portion.
The terms wcomprising" is not meant to be limiting to any subsequently stated elements but rather to encompass non-specified elements of major or minor functional importance. In other words the listed steps, elements or options need not be exhaustive. Whenever the words * including" or "having" are used, these terms are meant to be equivalent to " comprising" as defined above.
Spoonable edible compositions according to the invention typically display at 20°C the following characteristics:
(a) a yield value (also called: yield stress) of more than 50
extrapolated from shear rates between 100 and 300 s
(b) a Bingham viscosity of less than 500 mPa.s between shear
rates of 100 and 300 s~ .
Yield stress and Bingham viscosities may be determined utilising the Carrimed Rheometer. Measurements are performed at 5 °C using 4"cone and plate geometry. The shear stress is increased from zero at a rate of 60 Pa/min and shear rates are measured until values in excess of 600 s-1 are achieved. The measurement is then terminated. A graph of shear stress vs. shear rate is plotted and a straight line fitted to the curve between the shear rates of 100 to 300 s-1. The slope of this line is the Bingham viscosity. The yield stress is determined by extrapolation of this line back to zero shear rate.
Except in the operating and comparative examples, or where otherwise explicitly indicated, all numbers in this description indicating amounts of material or conditions of reaction, physical properties of materials and/or use are to be understood as modified by the word " about." All amounts are by weight, based on the total w.eight of the relevant composition, unless otherwise specified.
Unless stated otherwise or required by context, the terms "fat" and "oil" are used interchangeably herein. Also, unless stated otherwise or required by context, the terms "nutritional bar(s)" and *nutrition bar(s)" are used interchangeably herein.
A feeling of satiety as referred to herein means a greater or enhanced feeling of satiety (satiation) after eating and/or a
longer lasting feeling of satiety after eating. Such effects typically reduce feelings of hunger and/or extend the time between food intake by an individual and can result in a smaller amount of food and/or fewer calories consumed in a single or subsequent sitting. The references herein to satiety include both what is strictly referred to as satiation and satiety, including end of meal satiety and between meals satiety. Satiety may also be perceived by an individual as a feeling of 'fullness', reduced hunger and/or reduced appetite. Detailed description of invention
High G alginate
The edible compositions of the invention comprise 0.1 to 6%wt,
based on the total weight of the composition, of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate, preferably of at least 65%, most preferably of at least 67% are preferred. Alginates having a guluronic acid content of up to 75% are preferred.
Alginates are naturally occurring linear co-polymers of L-guluronic acid and D-mannuronic acid. It has been found according to the present invention that compositions comprising such alginates provide especially good satiety effects when used in combination with a non-solubilised divalent metal ion
Suitable alginates according to the present invention include
the commercially available alginates Protanal LF5/60
(available from FMC Biopolymer) and Manugel DMB (available from ISP/Kelco).
Salts of the alginates may be used, for example the alkaline and alkaline earth metal salts, especially sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium salts thereof.
Preferably, the compositions of the present invention comprise 0.4 to 4 %wt, most preferably 0.5 to 3 %wt, especially 1 to 2 %wt of the claimed alginate. Additionally for a bar, pasta or cereal product, the alginate may in some formulations preferably be present in an amount of up to l%wt, for example 0.4 to l%wt, such as 0.5 to 0.8%wt.
It is preferred that these alginates have a weight average
5 molecular weight of at least 0.5 x 10 , more preferably of at
least 1 x 10 , most preferably of at least 2 x 10 , such as at
5 least 2.5 x 10 . It is also preferred that these alginates have
a molecular weight of up to 5 x 10 , more preferably of up to
4.5 x 10 , most preferably of up to 4 x 10 .
Divalent metal ion source
The edible compositions of the invention also comprise a divalent metal ion source.
The edible composition comprise an amount of from 2 to 30%wt based on the weight of the alginate, more preferably 5 to 20%wt, most preferably 7 to 15%wt, of the divalent metal ion source. However, if the edible composition is a bar, cereal or pasta product, then amounts outside of the range 2 to 30%wt may be used and the aforementioned ranges are the preferred ranges.
Any suitable non-solubilised divalent metal ion source may be used. Calcium is a preferred divalent metal ion. Preferred are divalent metal ion salts which are substantially water insoluble, for example tricalcium phosphate and calcium carbonate,
The non-solubilised divalent metal ion source may be present in the edible composition through the addition of another ingredient therein, for example, through the addition of a milk source wherein colloidal calcium phosphate will be present.
The divalent metal ion source may be rendered non-solubilised by virtue of being encapsulated so that it does not predominantly dissolve in the product when it is not under gastric conditions. Preferably the non-solubilised divalent metal ion source is a salt which is predominantly insoluble under product conditions (when not under gastric conditions). The divalent metal ion source becomes predominantly solubilised under gastric conditions.
The edible compositions may optionally comprise one or more other polysaccharides in addition to the claimed alginate. Preferably, these optional other polysaccharides are selected from ionic, preferably anionic, non-starch polysaccharides and neutral non-starch polysaccharides.
Preferred ionic non-starch polysaccharides are alginates having an L-guluronic acid content of less than 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate, pectins including amidated pectins, carrageenans, xanthans, gellans, furcellarans, karaya gum, rhamsan, welan, gum ghatti, gum arabic and salts or
mixtures thereof. Suitable salts include the alkaline and alkaline earth metal salts, especially sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium salts.
The molecular weights of these optional ionic non-starch polysaccharides are preferably in the range given hereinabove for the alginates of the invention.
The edible composition may optionally additionally comprise a neutral non-starch polysaccharide. Especially preferred neutral non-starch polysaccharides are galactamannan, guar gum, locust bean gum, tara gum, ispaghula, ß-glucans, konjacglucomannan, methylcellulose, gum tragacanth, detarium, tamarind or mixtures thereof. Of these, galactamannan, guar gum, locust bean gum and tara gum are especially preferred.
It is preferred that the neutral non-starch polysaccharides
5 have a-weight average molecular weight of at least 3 x 10 ,
5 more preferably of at least 5 x 10 , most preferably of at
5 least 7 x 10 . It is also preferred that these biopolymers have
6 a molecular weight of up to 3 x 10 , more preferably of up to
2.5 x 10 , most preferably of up to 2.3 x 10 .
These optional ionic and neutral non-starch polysaccharides, if present in the compositions, are preferably present in an amount of from 0.1 to 2%wt of the composition, more preferably 0.5 to 1.5%wt.
If a mixture of ionic non-starch polysaccharide and neutral non-starch polysaccharide is used, the weight ratio thereof is preferably in the range of from 5:1 to 1:5, more preferably 3:1
to 1:3, such as 2:1 to 1:2. One preferred mixture is a mixture of alginate according to the invention and guar gum.
Type of composition
The edible composition according to the present invention may be of any type, for example a liquid or spoonable composition, a bar product or a cereal or rice based product such as a pasta. The comments herein for the levels and types of ingredients apply to all types of edible compositions according to the present invention, unless otherwise stated.
Especially preferred food compositions are those which are intended to be used as part of a weight loss or weight control plan, such as a meal replacer product.
If the composition is a liquid or spoonable composition, then it is preferred that the edible composition comprises a polysaccharide continuous phase comprising at least a part of the alginate of the invention. The phase volume of the polysaccharide continuous phase is preferably in the range of from 30 to 60% of the total volume of the edible composition, more preferably 35 to 50%. The phase volume can be calculated from confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) using suitable image analysis software as is readily available.
This can be used to calculate the percentage of the ionic, non-starch polysaccharides (including the alginate of the invention) and neutral non-starch polysaccharides in the polysaccharide continuous phase. It is preferred that the polysaccharide continuous phase comprises from 0.5 to 10% wt of these ingredients based on the weight of the polysaccharide
continuous phase, more preferably 1 to 7% wt, most preferably 1.5 to 5% wt.
Suitable types of liquid or spoonable compositions according to the invention include dairy or vegetable based drinks such as milk or soy based drinks; oil-in-water emulsions (such as dressings and mayonnaise); creams; desserts such as mousses, custards, rice or other similar puddings, yogurts; frozen confectionery including ice cream, water ices, sorbets, and frozen yoghurts; breakfast type cereal products such as porridge; soups, sauces, sport drinks and fruit juices etc.
Frozen confectionery is considered to be a spoonable edible composition because even though it is in a frozen state, it still meets the definition of a spoonable composition herein at the temperature at which it is consumed.
Preferred liquid or spoonable compositions are dairy or vegetable based drinks, desserts, yogurts and soups. Meal replacement dairy or vegetable based drinks and soups are especially preferred. These food compositions may be obtained from a powder or concentrate which is mixed with a liquid, e.g. water or milk, to produce the composition.
Preferably the total amount of water in the liquid or spoonable compositions (including any water present in other ingredients) is in the range of from 20 to 95%wt, more preferably from 30 to 90%wt.
Alternatively, the food composition may be a nutritional bar or a cereal based product such as a pasta or rice product.
The terms "meal replacer" or "meal replacement products" as used herein also include compositions which are eaten as part of a meal replacement weight loss or weight control plan, for example snack products which are not intended to replace a whole meal by themselves but which may be used with other such products to replace a meal or which are otherwise intended to be used in the plan; these latter products typically have a calorie content in the range of from 50-200 kilocalories per serving.
Meal replacers are generally used by consumers following a calorie controlled diet and are especially preferred food compositions according to the invention. They have been found to be especially suitable as they can provide good satiety effects combined with restricted calorie content in a convenient form.
Other food compositions intended to be used as part of a weight loss or weight control plan typically have fewer calories per serving (or per 100 g of product) than their 'non-diet' equivalents. The calorie content of these foods is deliberately restricted accordingly. Examples include the so-called low-calorie options of every day foods. Meal replacer composition do not generally fall in this category as there may be no 'full calorie equivalent' product and also it is necessary to provide a reasonable number of calories per meal replaced.
The amounts of protein, carbohydrate and fat in the edible compositions will of course vary according to the type of composition.
The compositions of the invention comprise from 1 to 25%wt protein. However, if the composition is a nutritional bar, pasta or cereal powder, then it is preferred that the compositions comprise from 1 to 25%wt protein. Preferably the composition comprises protein in an amount of from 1.5 to 25%wt, more preferably 2 to 20%wt, most preferably 3 to 15%wt, such as 4 to 10%wt.
Preferred sources for the protein which may be used in the present invention include dairy protein sources such as whole milk,' skim milk, condensed milk, evaporated milk, milk solids non-fat, and mixtures thereof and includes whey protein such as whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrate and caseins; egg proteins; vegetable protein sources such as soy, wheat, rice or pea and mixtures thereof; and animal sources of protein including gelatin. Soy and dairy proteins are particularly preferred according to the invention for dairy type food compositions such as drinks, puddings etc and animal proteins are preferred for savoury compositions such as soups.
Especially preferred, to minimize the caloric impact, is the addition of protein as such rather than as one component of a food ingredient such as whole milk. Preferred in this respect are protein concentrates such as one or more of whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, caseinates such as sodium and/or calcium caseinate and soy protein concentrates.
The protein may be present as the isolated protein, as a protein concentrate or as a protein hydrolysate.
The protein may be included in any suitable physical form, depending upon the type of edible composition, including as a powder or as nuggets as appropriate. Powder sources are
typically most suitable for use according to the present invention for reasons of organoleptic properties.
The amount of protein in the compositions will vary within the amounts above according to the invention according to the type of composition and also, where required, according to national or regional legislation.
It is further preferred that the protein provides up to 75% of the total calories of the composition, more preferably between 10 % and 45%, most preferably between 15 and 40%.
The compositions of the invention preferably comprise carbohydrate.
The carbohydrates are preferably present in an amount of from 2 to 60 % by weight based on the weight of the composition, more preferably 5 to 40 %wt.
The amount of carbohydrate in the food composition will vary according to the composition and also, where required, according to national or regional legislation.
The amounts of carbohydrate given herein, and the calories therefrom, are inclusive of the amount of the alginate of the invention and any other optional non-starch polysaccharides that are present in the compositions.
Any suitable carbohydrates may be included in the edible compositions. Suitable examples include starches such as those contained in rice flour, flour, tapioca flour, tapioca starch and whole wheat flour, modified starches or mixtures thereof.
Generally the edible compositions will be naturally sweetened and this is preferred as a source of carbohydrate. Suitable natural sweeteners include sugars and sugar sources such as sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose, corn syrup (including high fructose corn syrup), sugar alcohols, maltodextrins, high maltose corn syrup, starch, glycerine, brown sugar and mixtures thereof.
Levels of sugars and sugar sources preferably result in sugar solids levels of up to 40 wt%, preferably from 5 to 20 wt% based on the weight of the edible compositions. The artificial sweeteners mentioned below as optional ingredients may also be used the whole, or a part, of the carbohydrate source.
The compositions preferably contain a total amount of from 0.1 to 10%wt dietary fibre, more preferably 0.2 to 7.5%wt, most preferably 0.5 to 5%wt, especially 1 to 3.5%wt. Suitable fibre sources which may be included in the edible compositions of the invention, in addition to the biopolymer thickening agent, include fructose oligosaccharides such as inulin, soy fiber, fruit fibre.e.g. apple, oat fiber, celluloses and mixtures thereof.
It is further preferred that the total amount of carbohydrate in the edible compositions provides from 10 to 80% of the total calories therein, more preferably 25 to 75%.
The compositions of the invention preferably comprise edible fats, preferably in art amount of up to 30 %wt based on the weight of the composition, more preferably from 0.1 to 20 %wt, most preferably from 0.2 to 10 %wt fat, especially 0.5 to 5%wt.
According to the present invention, 50% or less of the kilocalories in the edible composition are preferably provided from the fat. It is more preferred that 40% or less of the kilocalories are provided from the fat, more preferably 5 to 20%.
The amount of fat will vary according to the composition and also, where required, according to national or regional legislation.
Any edible fat may be used for example, animal fats including fish oils, vegetable fats including plant oils, nut oils, seed oils, or mixtures thereof. Monosaturated and/or polyunsaturated fats and mixtures thereof are especially preferred although saturated fats can be used for taste reasons, e.g. butter, although these are less preferred on health grounds. Preferred polyunsaturated fats include omega 3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C20:5) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C22:5). Preferred omega 3 fatty acids include the following C18:3, C18:4, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6.
Preferably the fat is selected from vegetable fats, such as for example, cocoa butter, illipe, shea, palm, palm kernal, sal, soybean, safflower, cottonseed, coconut, rapeseed, canola, corn and sunflower oils, tri and di-glyceride oils including linoleic acids and conjugated linoleic acids, linolenic acids, and mixtures thereof.
The food compositions of the invention may comprise one or more of the following optional ingredients.
The compositions of the invention may further comprise encapsulated satiety agents which are predominantly released in the intestines. Suitable satiety agents include lipids, especially mono, di or tri-glycerides, their free fatty acids, their edible salts, their non-glyceryl esters, hydrolyzable in the presence of gastro-intestinal enzymes, and mixtures thereof. These satiety agents may be encapsulated in any suitable cross-linked encapsulating agent whereby they are predominantly released in the intestines. Encapsulant materials comprising gelatin and at least one of gum arabic, carrageenan, agar agar, alginate or pectins, especially gelatin and gum arabic, have been found to be very suitable. These encapsulated satiety agents may be included in suitable amounts.
The composition may comprise one or more emulsifiers. Any suitable emulsifier may be used, for example lecithins, egg yolk, egg-derived emulsifiers, diacetyl tartaric esters of mono, di or tri glycerides or mono, di, or triglycerides. The composition may comprise of from 0.05 to 10% by weight, preferably from 0.5% to 5%wt of the emulsifier based on the weight of the product.
Flavorings are preferably added to the edible compositions in amounts that will impart a mild, pleasant flavor. The flavoring may be any of the commercial flavors typically employed. When a non-savoury taste is desired the flavours are typically selected from varying types of cocoa, pure vanilla or artificial flavor, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, chocolate, malt, mint, yogurt powder, extracts, spices, such as cinnamon, nutmeg and ginger, mixtures thereof, and the like. It will be appreciated that many flavour variations may be obtained by
combinations of the basic flavors. When a savoury taste is desired the flavours are typically selected from varying types of herbs and spices. Suitable flavorants may also include seasoning, such as salt, and imitation fruit or chocolate flavors either singly or in any suitable combination. Flavorings which mask off-tastes from vitamins and/or minerals and other ingredients are preferably included in the edible compositions.
The edible compositions may comprise one or more conventional colourants, in conventional amounts as desired.
The composition may also comprise 0.1 to 5% by weight of edible buffering salts based on the weight of the composition. Any suitable edible buffering salt may be used.
The composition may comprise up to 60% by weight of fruit or vegetables particles, concentrates, juice or puree based on the weight of the composition. Preferably the composition comprise 0.l to 40%wt, more preferably 1 to 20%wt of these ingredients. The amount of these ingredients will depend upon the type of product; for example soups will typically comprise higher levels of vegetables than will a milk based meal replacement drink.
The composition may comprise one or more cholesterol lowering agents in conventional amounts. Any suitable, known, cholesterol lowering agent may be used, for example: isoflavones, phytosterols, soy bean extracts, fish oil extracts, tea leaf extracts.
The composition may optionally comprise, in suitable amounts, one or more agents which may beneficially influence (post¬prandial) energy metabolism and substrate utilisation, for example caffeine, flavonoids (including tea catechins, capsaicinoids and canitine).
The composition may comprise up to 10 or 20% by weight, based on the weight of the composition, of minor ingredients selected from added vitamins, added minerals, herbs, spices, antioxidants, preservatives or mixtures thereof. Preferably the compositions comprise of from 0.05 to 15% by weight, more preferably 0.5 to 10% of these ingredients.
The composition preferably comprises added vitamins selected
from at least one of; Vitamin A Palmitate, Thiamine Mononitrate
(Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacinamide (Vitamin
B3), d-Calcium Pantothenate (Vitamin B5), Vitamin B6, Vitamin B11, Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12), biotin, Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), Vitamin D, Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E), Biotin (Vitamin H), and Vitamin K. The composition also preferably comprises added minerals selected from at least one of; calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, selenium and chromium. The vitamins and/or minerals may be added by the use
of vitamin premixes, mineral premixes and mixtures thereof or
alternatively they may be added individually.
In particular the edible compositions preferably comprise alkaline metals such as sodium and/or potassium. Calcium is preferably present in the edible compositions in amounts of from 5 to 50% of the amounts given in the European Commission Directive 96/8/EC of 26 February 1996 on foods
intended for use in energy-restricted diets for weight reduction, more preferably about 10 to 35%, most preferably 15 to 35% per serving. Any suitable calcium source may be used and a part, or the whole, of the calcium present may form the non-solubilised divalent metal ion source.
It is preferred that the edible compositions comprise potassium, especially in an amount of at least 300 mg of potassium per serving of the edible composition, more preferably 400-1000, most preferably 450-700mg. Any suitable potassium source may be used.
One or more of the above-mentioned vitamins and minerals are preferably present at amounts of from 5 to 45% of the amounts given in the above European Commission Directive 96/8/EC, especially 5 to 40%, most especially 10 to 30%.
Other ingredients which may be present in the compositions include, but are not limited to, rolled oats, chocolate chips or other chocolate pieces, cookie and/or cookie dough pieces, fruit pieces, such as dried cranberry, apple, etc., vegetable pieces such as rice, honey and acidulants such as malic and citric acids. The type of edible composition will of course dictate the type and amount of optional ingredients used.
Calories / serving sizes
The edible compositions preferably have a calorie content in the range of from 50 kilocalories (kcals) to 500 kcals, more preferably 100 kcals to 400 kcals. However, it will be understood that the calorie content per serving will vary according to the type of edible composition. For a dairy or soy based beverage or pudding the calorie content is typically in the. range of from 50 kcals to 400 kcals, more preferably 100
or 150 kcals to 350 kcals, most preferably 200 kcals to 350 Kcals per serving. For a soup the calorie content is typically in the range of from 50 kcals to 350 kcals, more preferably 100 kcals to 250 kcals. These products may be consumed either to replace a meal (a meal replacer product) or as a snack product which is not intended to replace a meal.
If the edible composition is a meal replacer product the calorie content per serving is typically in the range of from 150 to 350 Kcal. If the edible composition is a product which is intended to be eaten as a snack product (i.e. not intended by itself to replace a whole meal) the calorie content per serving is typically in the range of from 50 to 150 Kcal.
The size of a serving of the edible composition will depend upon the type of composition. A serving of the edible composition as referred to herein refers to the amount of the edible composition that is intended to be consumed as a single portion, typically in a single sitting. For beverages and soups, the typical serving size is in the range of from 100 to 500 ml, preferably 150 to 400ml, such as 200 to 350ml. For puddings the typical serving size is in the range of from 75g to 300g, preferably lOOg to 250g, such as 125g to 200g. For bars the typical serving size is in the range of from 45g to 70g, especially 50g to 65g, such as 55g to 60g.
The composition of the invention may be prepared by any suitable conventional technique according to the type of edible composition. Such techniques are well known to those skilled in the art and do not need to be described further here but may include mixing, blending, extrusion homogenising, high-pressure homogenising, emulsifying, dispersing, or extruding. The
compositions may be subject to a heat treatment step, for example pasteurisation or U.H.T. treatment.
Satiety and consumption of the composition
Consuming a composition according to the invention is intended to enhance and/or prolong the feeling of satiety for the consumer and/or extend the time interval between meals and/or reduce the amount of calories consumed in the following meal. This in turn aids the individual concerned to better adhere to a weight loss or weight control plan.
The consumption of a composition according to the invention may occur as a part of a dietary plan, such as those to reduce or control body weight.
The edible composition of the present invention may be consumed as desired. Preferably a composition is consumed at least daily in order to provide advantageous satiety effects, more preferably at least twice daily.
The food composition may be consumed by a human or an animal in connection with any one or more of the following; the treatment or prevention of obesity or being overweight; to improve or maintain the perception of body image; aiding compliance with a dietary plan e.g. to control, reduce or maintain body weight, including maintenance of desired body weight following previous weight loss; to extend the time elapsed between taking meals; to control, maintain or reduce daily calorie intake; to suppress appetite. The subject following that plan may be thus better able to reduce, control or maintain their body weight, e.g. by following the dietary plan for a longer period of time and/or adhering more closely to the plan as they feel less temptation to snack or over-eat.
The term "weight control or weight loss plan" as used herein includes regimes, plans and diets followed for controlling body weight and also those followed for medical reasons e.g. to loose weight or to aid other health problems adversely affected by being overweight or obese.
The invention is further exemplified by the following examples, which are to be understood as to be non-limiting. Further examples within the scope of the invention will be apparent to the person skilled in the art. Examples
1.75% Protanal LF5/60 (alginate with an L-guluronic acid content of 69 % and a weight average molecular weight of 1.0-1.2 x 105, available from FMC Biopolymer) was added to a commercially available meal replacement beverage (OS Slim*Fast™ Chocolate Royale Ready-to-drink beverage, purchased in cans from the same batch) by the method given below, such that 325ml of the beverage contained 5.69g of the alginate. The meal replacement beverage comprised about 6.6g of protein.
The cans were shaken, opened and weighed and brought over in a Wolff food processor. The alginate, lactulose (5g, added for intestinal transit time calculation) and tricalcium phosphate (10% wt based on the weight of alginate) were blended and mixed in at a speed of 1500 rpm for 2 minutes at ambient temperature. The mixture was then vacuumed and mixed for a further 5 minutes. The Wolff jacket was heated with steam until the content was at 60°C and mixed at this temperature for 15 minutes at 1500 rpm. The mixture was then poured in a UHT plant premix
tank and slowly stirred during further processing. DHT processing was carried out by heating to 78-85°C, sterilisation at 140°C for 9 seconds and cooling to 9°C in two steps without a homogenisation step. The drink was then filled in aseptic transparent bags containing approximately 1.0-1.5 kg. The sample bags were then stored at 5-7°C until use.
The Protanal was determined to be present in the polysaccharide continuous phase of the composition by Confocal Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. The amount of Protanal in the polysaccharide continuous phase was estimated by Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM) using suitable image analysis software, as is readily available, to be about 4.05%wt, based on the weight of the polysaccharide continuous phase.
The satiety effect of the edible composition was tested upon 25 human volunteers using the following test conditions. The volunteers entered the study centre at 11.30am, after consuming a standard breakfast at their own home. The edible composition was consumed at 12:00 and satiety was determined before consumption and for five hours following consumption of the test meal. A VARS (Visual Analogue Rating Scale) questionnaire was used in order to determine a number of satiety parameters (fullness, hunger, appetite).
A control test meal was also consumed by the same volunteers on a different day. The control test meal was the same commercially available meal replacement beverage but without the added alginate and tricalcium phosphate.
Figure 1 shows the reported satiety of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 2 shows the reported feeling of fullness of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 3 shows the reported feeling of hunger of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 4 shows the reported appetite for a meal of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 5 shows the reported appetite for something in-between (a snack) of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 6 shows the reported appetite for something sweet of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Statistical analysis were carried out according to a Dunnet test. The area under the curve of the satiety scores was measured and all parameters analysed using regression analysis.
All satiety parameters (satiety, hunger, fullness, appetite for a meal, appetite for something in between) were significantly different between the 1.75% Protanal LF5/60 and control test meals at p
The above results demonstrate that the edible compositions of the invention have a significant statistical improvement on the satiety effect compared to other compositions.
A control composition without alginate was prepared according to the formulation given in Table 1 below. All weights are given as percentages by weight based on the total weight of the composition.
% by weight
Skimmed Milk Powder (SMP) 6.50
Calcium Caseinate 1.60
Flavour (French Vanilla) 0.54
Canola Oil 0.33
The control composition was prepared as follows. The water was heated to 50°C and pre-blended Skimmed Milk Powder (SMP), caseinate and sucrose was added and mixed. This mixture was heated to 55°C and mixed with an Ultra-Turrax for 15 minutes. The pre-heated fat phase (>60°C) (oil, lecithin and emulsifier) was added and mixed for 2 minutes. This mixture was homogenised in two-stages; 100/40 bars (Niro homogeniser: throughput -14 kg/hr; back pressure 4 bar) and then sterilised using a small DHT line (heating/holding section at 145°C;
cooling section at 72°C). The samples were filled in a flow cabinet into 250ml bottles and cooled in ice water.
1.0%wt Manugel DMB (alginate with an L-guluronic acid content
of 72 % and a weight average molecular weight of 2.83 x 10 , available from ISP/Kelco) was added to the control formulation, by the method given below, such that 325ml of the composition contained 3.25g of the alginate. This provided a composition according to the invention. The SMP provided the non-soluble divalent metal source (which was a mixture of different salts naturally occurring in SMP) at a level of 8.32%wt based on the weight of the alginate.
The control composition was stirred using a magnetic stirrer
TM and the Manugel DMB alginate was sprinkled into the solution
at room temperature. The composition was then heated to 80°C for 10 minutes, the temperature then reduced to 37°C and maintained for 2 hours with continued stirring.
The control composition comprised about 7.9g of protein.
Addition of the Manugel DMB alginate to the edible control
composition produced a polysaccharide continuous system determined by Confocal Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy.
To provide a further control composition comprising an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of less than 60% of the
total uronic acid units in the alginate, l%wt Manucol DM (L-guluronic acid content of 39%) was added to the control
composition in the way described for Manugel DMB above.
The satiety effect of the edible composition was tested upon 12 human volunteers using the following test conditions. The volunteers fasted overnight, abstained from alcohol for the previous 24 hours and caffeine and strenuous exercise for the previous 18 hours. The test meals were randomised according to the Latin Squares procedure. A satiety questionnaire was carried out before ingestion of the meals and 4 hours after ingestion. 500ml of water was consumed 2 hours after ingestion of the test meals. The results were statistically significant for a number of satiety scores (hunger, fullness, appetite) at a number of time points (see figures).
Figure 7 shows the reported feeling of fullness of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 8 shows the reported feeling of hunger of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Figure 9 shows the reported feeling of appetite of the subjects over time after consuming the compositions of the invention and the control meal.
Table 2: P-values from Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests for areas under normalised questionnaire time series curves comparing
l%wt Manugel DMB meal with the control meal without alginate
(A) and comparing the l%wt Manucol DM meal with the control meal without alginate (B).
Fullness 115 minutes 0.031* 0.071
Fullness 240 minutes 0.028* 0.034*
115 minutes 0.041* 0.289
240 minutes 0.041* 0.170
Appetite 115 minutes 0.182 0.530
Appetite 240 minutes 0.045* 0.583
statistically significant (p The above results demonstrate that the edible compositions of the invention have a significant statistical improvement on the satiety effect compared to the control composition comprising no alginate. Also the edible composition comprising the alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of
the total uronic acid units in the alginate showed more statistically significant results over the compositions without alginate (see column A) than did the edible composition comprising the alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of less than 60% (see column A). This demonstrates the
' effectiveness of the shows the alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% in providing good satiety effects etc.
Example 3 Granola-style nutrition bars may be made by mixing the following ingredients in the amounts given below. The percentages by weight refer to the weights of the ingredients.
A %wt B %wt
Glucose syrup 12.0 13.2
Polydextrose syrup 11.0 10.0
Inulin syrup 6.0 6.0
Sugar 2.5 2.5
Pectose paste 6.0 6.0
Coconut oil 3.0 3.05
Lecithin 0.7 0.7
Glycerol 5.5 5.5
Invert syrup 4.4 4.4
Date paste 3.3 3.3
Corn oil 2.3 2.3
Flavourings 0.5 0.5
Colourings 0.2 0.2
Manugel DMB*4 1.0 0.8
Calcium carbonate 0.2 0.15
Oatflakes 7.5 7.5
Coconut flakes, sweetened and shredded 5.0 5.0
Fruit fibre 5.0 5.0
Soy protein nuggets 1*1 5.0 5.0
Soy protein nuggets
2 Z 15.0 15.0
Vitamin/mineral mix *3 3.90 3.90
*1 - soy protein nuggets comprising 60%wt soy protein, available from Dupont Protein Technologies Inc., USA. *2 - soy protein nuggets comprising 80%wt soy protein, available from Dupont Protein Technologies Inc., USA.
*3 - vitamin/mineral mix comprising zinc, iron, copper. Mix provides 2mg of zinc, 1mg of iron and 0.18mg of copper per bar.
- as used in examples 1 and 2.
The bars may be prepared by the following method of preparation;
The glucose syrup, polydextrose syrup, inulin syrup, sugar, Pectose paste, coconut oil and lecithin, are heated together to about 250oF, 86.5 Brix . The glycerol is was added with mixing. Separately the invert syrup and date paste are mixed together and heated to 230oF whereafter the mixture is added to the glycerol-containing mixture with stirring. The mixture is allowed to cool to 180oF and the corn oil is added with mixing. After further cooling to 140oF, the flavours and colourings are added. The dry materials are mixed separately and added to the cooled mixture above with mixing until a uniform mixture is formed. Bars are formed by pressing the mixture into a mould, and when cooled to room temperature, cutting the cooled mixture into dimensions of the desired size. The bar may be coated with the dairy coating which is allowed to set. .
1. An edible composition comprising from 1 to 25% wt protein, from 0.1 to 6%wt of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate, and from 2 to 30% wt based on the weight of the alginate of a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ions.
2. An nutritional bar, pasta or cereal product comprising a source of a non-solubilised divalent metal ion and from 0.1 to 6%wt of an alginate having an L-guluronic acid content of at least 60% of the total uronic acid units in the alginate,
3. An edible composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 or 2 wherein the alginate has a L-guluronic acid content of at least 65%.
4. An edible composition as claimed in any claims 1 to 3, wherein the alginate has a molecular weight of at least 0.5 X 105.
5. An edible composition as claimed in any one of the claims 1 to 4, wherein the composition comprises 0.5 to 3%wt of the alginate.
6. An edible composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the composition comprises 2 to 20%wt protein.
7. An edible composition as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the composition comprises carbohydrate.
8. An edible composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein the edible composition is a liquid or spoonable edible composition.
9. An edible composition as claimed in claim 8, wherein the liquid or spoonable edible comprises water in an amount of from 20 to 95%wt.
Dated this 3rd day of March, 2006 Anjan Sen
of Anjan Sen & Associates (Applicants Agent)
|Indian Patent Application Number||248/MUMNP/2006|
|PG Journal Number||06/2009|
|Date of Filing||03-Mar-2006|
|Name of Patentee||HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED|
|Applicant Address||HINDUSTAN LEVER HOUSE, 165/166, BACKBAY RECLAMATION, MUMBAI-400 020. MAHARASHTRA, INDIA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23L1/29|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/EP2004/009286|
|PCT International Filing date||2004-08-19|