|Title of Invention||
|Abstract||The invention describes a method of manufacturing frozen dessert, akin to sorbet, but having the organoleptic properties of ice cream from cooled liquid milk whey, from which the undissolved and dissolved fat and protein have been removed by suitable heat treatment, and to which suitable sweetening agent and binder have been added before it is subjected to a continuous process of agitation, aeration and freezing to obtain a frozen dessert with an over run.|
|Full Text||FORM 2
PATENT ACT, 1970
(39 of 1970)
30 TITLE: Frozen dessert.
APPLICANT: Niranjan Chhotalal Mehta, Indian National, having the permanent address at A-9, Sea Face Park, Bhulabhai Desai Road, Mumbai 400 026, Maharashtra
2 3 JUL 2008
35 The following specification particularly describes and ascertains the nature of this invention and the manner in which it is to performed:
FIELD OF INVENTION: The invention relates to a frozen dessert having the organoleptic properties of ice cream from milk whey and a method of manufacturing the same.
5 BACKGROUND OF INVENTION: The invention describes a method of manufacturing low calorie frozen dessert with little or no fat content. Ice creams have been perennial favourites as desserts. The palate has grown accustomed to the richness, creaminess and taste of ice creams. Present day emphasis on a low-fat diet has caused health conscious people to cut back on the fat and cream in ice cream, and hence the world over people are seeking techniques for making low 10 calorie frozen desserts. One such low calorie frozen dessert is sorbet.
Normal sorbet is made out of water, fruit pulp and/or flavor along with appropriate emulsifiers and stabilizers. It is light, fresh tasting and fluffy when consumed fresh on site. The difficulty with normal sorbet is that it tends to melt quickly and, in cold storage, tends to collapse in to an 15 icy mass, thus having a very limited shelf life.
The present invention describes for the first time a frozen dessert from milk whey which may be clarified or used as is, depending upon the extent of fat and smoothness desired in the end product. The frozen dessert, which is a kind of sorbet has the much desired low-fat and low 20 calorie value and the lightness, fluffiness and fresh taste of sorbet, and is akin to ice cream in its creaminess, smoothness, appearance and mouth-feel. In addition, it has a reasonable shelf life.
Whey is the serum remaining after most of the casein and fat from the milk has been removed, but still contains lactose, minerals, dissolved fat and proteins, often referred to as whey proteins. 25 Whey is a voluminous bi-product of the cheese making industry. The use of whey in the form of whey powder of various concentrations of proteins, fat and lactose has been known for some time in the manufacture of ice cream, especially as a cheaper substitute for milk or nonfat milk solids. However the commercial cost of manufacturing whey powder is quite high, which adds to the final cost of ice cream made using whey powders.
In US Patent 4840813, of 1989 a method of preparation of low-fat or non-fat frozen desserts using whey protein concentrates has been described. The multi-stage method described in this patent is both complex and elaborate.
In Canadian Patent WO 92/20239, the inventors have described a denatured whey protein product, which can be used in the production of dairy products especially ice cream This method again is an expensive and complex process, which involves concentrating the heat 5 treated whey.
In Canadian Patent No: WO/16637, the inventors have descnbed the preparation of a whey product with extended shelf life, which could be a frozen beverage, made from defatted whey to which an adjuvant is added, and the adjuvant is usually a milk protein preparation. 10
In Japanese Patent No: 61 224939 A, the inventors have described a method of preparing ices by freeze - agitation and aeration of milk whey( full whey). Ices prepared from full whey tend to be very opaque and heavy, and with very little creamy quality.
In U.S.Patent No. 5547697, the inventors have described a method of preparing a zero fat whipped dessert comprising of milksolids non-fat, whey solids or mixture thereof The invention describes an emulsion prepared from wheysolids, or milksolids using water or water containing liquid including whey. Zerofat as used herein is intended to mean that no fat is intentionally added to the whipped cream frozen dessert product and the ingredients used are substantially fat free. It has however made exception to the presence of fat traces present in milk solids not fat and small of triglycerides present in the emulsifiers used.
EP0308091 discloses an invention for a low and non-frit aerated frozen dairy desserts having the organoleptic characteristics of premium, high fat ice cream The product includes 0.1% to 7.0% by weight of fat. The dessert compositions essentially comprise 20% to 25% milk solids non-fat, 1% to 7% whey protein concentrate, com syrup solids, sucrose and water. The whey protein to casein weight ratio ranges from 1:0.5 to 4.0. The invention also requires a significant amount of whey protein to be denatured. The present invention is for a low fat or no fat frozen dessert , in which all milk solids , both fat and non fat(proteins) have been removed, including casein, which is present in significant proportion in the product disclosed in the afore mentioned patent
Loewenstein et al, 1975 have described a process wherein neutralised clarified whey has been 35 hydrolised prior to the concentration process. The neutralised clarified whey is obtained by
addition of potassium hydroxide, which precipitates out the protein. No mention has been made as to whether the clarified whey so obtained still contains the dissoved and undissolved fat. Concentrating whey to obtain whey solids is an expensive process, involving high energy costs, which makes the end products using an emulsion of whey solids or addition of whey solids 5 comercially unviable. Further the whey used in all known methods is whole whey which normally contains substantial amounts of dissolved and undissolved fat and protein.
The present invention describes for the first time the preparation of a frozen dessert more akin to sorbet, from liquid milk whey, wherein the undissolved and dissolved fat and protein have 10 been removed.
The serum after the dissolved and undissolved fat and protein have been removed, contains minerals, lactose, all water soluble vitamins, inorganic nitrogen compounds, peptones and some polypeptides.
Sorbet made out of clear whey instead of water thus has the positive characteristics of sorbet, while mitigating some of the limitation of normal sorbet. The physico chemical properties of whey, including its colloidal properties promote locking in of air and foaming and allow for sorbet made out of whey to have the smoothness without ice crystal formation, the lightness, the 20 fluffiness and mouth-feel akin to ice cream , without the high calorie and fat of ice cream. Its slow melting and storage behaviour allows for longer shelf life of the sorbet-like product This invention describes a simple, low cost method for producing an essentially fat- free frozen dessert using clear milk whey..
In its main aspect the invention relates to a cost effective method of making a frozen dessert having the organoleptic properties of ice cream such as appearance, smoothness, creaminess, fluffiness and mouth-feel from cooled liquid milk whey from which the undissolved and dissoloved protein and fat have been removed by suitable treatment. A suitable sweetening
30 agent and binder are added to the whey, and this mixture is subjected to a continuous process of simultaneous agitation, aeration and freezing resulting in a frozen dessert with an over run. In another aspect of this invention, the liquid milk whey is subject to a suitable acid heat treatment for the removal of dissolved and undissolved fat and protein, so as to obtain clear liquid whey before it is subjected to a continuous process of agitation, aeration and freezing resulting in an
35 over run to obtain a frozen dessert mass which is creamy, fluffy and light. Preferably the whey is
subject to acid-heat treatment, which results in the coagulation of fat and protein, and the coagulate is removed to obtain clear whey. Preferably the pH is adjusted to the range of 6.2 to 6.6 with citric acid to facilitate coagulation
5 In yet another aspect of this invention, the liquid milk whey is subjected to a process of ultrafilteration, and the residue of proteins and fats is removed to obtain liquid clarified whey. Preferably, the whey irrespective of its fat and protein content, is pasteurised before it is further processed.
10 In yet another aspect of this invention lactase is added, prior to addition of sweetening agent, so that the lactose in the whey may be converted to glucose and galactose. This would reduce the extent of external sweetening agent to be added. In a further aspect of this invention, an emulsifier is added to the whey mix either by itself or along with fruit pulp and/or flavouring agents. In one other aspect of this invention, a small amount of coagulate is also added to the
15 whey mix. In its final aspect, the invention describes a frozen dessert comprising essentially of clear liquid whey obtained after suitable treatment of milk whey to remove dissolved fat and protein, to which requisite amounts of sweetening agent, binder, emulsifier, fruit pulp and/or flavouring agents are added.
The invention can be better understood by the following description of the process. In its preferred embodiment, the invention describes a method of manufacturing a frozen dessert, with very low or no fat, having the organoleptic properties of ice cream such as smoothness, creaminess, fluffiness and mouth-feel, from cooled liquid milk whey. Whey is a major bi-product
25 in the cheese manufacturing industry, but for the purpose of this invention the manner of milk whey production is immaterial. The source of the milk whey, whether it is from sheep, goat, camel, cow or buffalo milk is not significant. Defatted whey (DFW) is obtained by heating the whey to about 70°C when most of the dissolved fat is precipitated out, and the precipitate is removed. The defatted whey is subjected to an acid heat treatment. The whey is heated to a
30 temperature of 90° to 95°centigrade in a double walled vessel, with very gentle or no stirring until a residue of coagulated protein and fat is formed. Just before the coagulated residue is formed, at a temperature of about 90 C, the pH of the milk whey is adjusted to the range of 6.2 to 66, preferably with 6ml of 50% solution of citric acid for every 10L of whey, to facilitate complete coagulation of the dissolved and undissolved protein and fat in the milk whey. The
35 coagulation of fat occurs at about 70° C to 80° C and the coagulation of protein occurs at 90° to
95° C. The aforementioned residue, which is commonly referred to as ricotta is removed, with a sieve so as to obtain clear whey. The clear whey so obtained is the serum after the dissolved and undissolved fat and protein have been removed from milk whey, leaving behind minerals, lactose, all water soluble vitamins, inorganic nitrogen compounds, peptones and some 5 polypeptides.
TABLE I depicts the extent of over run , appearance and creaminess obtained when full
whey (FW), Defatted whey (DFW) and Clarified whey (CLW), along with a sweetening agent
and binder are subjected to a process of simultaneous agitation, aeration and freezing.
SORBET EXPERIMENTS: RESULTS OF TRIALS
Scale for overrun, appearance, creaminess: 1 to 3 (1 being best). For overrun: 1=30 to 35%
The clear whey is cooled to about 3° C, to which the sweetening agent and binder as mentioned above are added. For safety purposes the mixture of clarified whey, sugar and binder are pasteurised, and cooled to 3°C before it is subject to a process of simultaneous agitation, aeration and freezing for 4 minutes to obtain a creamy frozen mass with an overrun. Usually an over run 25 of 40% to 120 % by volume of clear whey used is obtained.
In yet another embodiment of mis invention, the milk whey is subject to ultra- filtration, to remove the whey protein and fat and obtain a clear permeate of whey .
30 In a commercially viable embodiment of this invention suitable sweetening agent like confectioner's sugar, an emulsifier like Softeen ( 06070, Mec 3 (water emulsifier E471, Sorbit);
Via Cerro, 13-47832, S.Andrea di S.Clemente, Italy), and a binder like Neutro (Guarkernmehl E 412, Fa PRE GEL, SPA, Comparoni64, Villa Gavassetto, 42029, Reggio Emilia, Italy) is added to the cooled clarified whey to form a dessert premix. The emulsifier enhances storage quality and shelf life. Depending upon the desired flavour, suitable flavoring agents or fruit pulp is also 5 added to the dessert premix. Addition of fruit pulp like peach, or flavours like coffee or malaga results in an excessive over run, of over 110 %. The approximate composition of the premix is as follows:
For every 3 litres of whey (Full whey, clarified whey or defatted whey: 10 sugar 750g
In yet another embodiment of this invention, lactase may be added to the clear whey, so that the
lactose in the whey is converted to glucose and galactose. This would reduce the quantity of 15 sweetening agent required to be added to the dessert premix by 50%. Preferably lg lactase is
added to every 3L of clear whey and allowed to stand for about 6 hours for the lactose to be
hydrolysed to glucose and galactose.
In yet another embodiment of this invention, a small amount of ricotta is added to the dessert 20 premix
TABLE II gives the description of the quality of the final product, when to the premix (whey + binder+ sweetening agent), fruit pulp is added with or without addition of ricotta. No emulsifier is added.
5 TABLE II
Premix (Whey + sugar + binder) +/- fruit pulp +/- ricotta
TABLE III gives the descnption of the final proudct when to the premix, emulsifier and fruit pulp are added, with
or without addition of ricotta.
Premix (Whey, binder, sugar) + emulsifier + mango pulp with or without ricotta
5 Scale for overrun, appearance, creaminess. 1 to 3 (being best) For over run 1= 30 to 35% over run.
TABLE IV gives the description of the final product when to the premix, emulsifier and
flavours are added.
Scale for overrun, appearance, creaminess: 1 to 3 (being best). For over run 1 = 30 to 35% over run
1. A method of manufacturing a frozen dessert having organoleptic properties of ice cream
from cooled liquid milk whey from which dissolved and undissolved protein and fat are
removed , to obtain clear whey and a suitable sweetening agent, and binder are added,
5 before it is subjected to a continuous process of simultaneous agitation, aeration and freezing
resulting in a frozen dessert with an over run.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, where in the liquid nulk whey is subject to acid heat
treatment, resulting in complete coagulation of the dissolved and un-dissolved protein and
10 fat, and removal of the coagulate so formed.
3. A method as claimed in claim 2 wherein the pH of the liquid milk whey is adjusted to a
range of 6.2 to 6.6, just prior to the point when coagulation of proteins and fat occurs.
15 4. A method as claimed in claim 3 wherein the pH is adjusted with citric acid.
5. A memod as claimed in claim 1 wherein the cooled liquid milk whey is subjected to a
process of ultrafilteration, and the residue of proteins and fats is removed, to obtain clear
6. A method as claimed in claim 4 and 5, wherein the clear whey is pasteurised.
7. A method as claimed in claim 6 wherein lactase is added to the clear whey, prior to addition of sweetening agent.
8. A method as claimed in claim 6 or 7 where, in addition, an emulsifier is added to the clear whey.
9. A method as claimed in claim 8 where, in addition, fruit pulp is added to the clear whey.
10. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein flavour is added in addition to the fruit pulp or
instead of the fruit pulp.
11. A method as claimed in claim 8, claim 9 and claim 10 wherein less than 5 % by weight of the coagulate of proteins and fat obtained from the liquid milk whey is added to the clear whey.
5 12. A low-fat frozen dessert having organoleptic properties of ice cream comprising essentially of clear liquid milk whey, obtained removal of dissolved and undissolved protein and fat, together with requisite amounts of emulsifier, binder, sweetening agent, fruit pulp and/or flavoring agent.
Dated this 3rd day of June 2003
15 Usha A, Chandrasekhar
Patent Attorney for
The Controller of Patents
|Indian Patent Application Number||632/MUM/2003|
|PG Journal Number||06/2009|
|Date of Filing||17-Jun-2003|
|Name of Patentee||NIRANJAN CHHOTALAL MEHTA|
|Applicant Address||A-9, SEA FACE PARK, BHULABHAI DESAI RAOD, MUMBAI 400 026, MAHARASHTRA.|
|PCT International Classification Number||A23L1/212|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|