|Title of Invention||
FUNGICIDAL MIXTURE FOR CONTROLLING RICE PATHOGENS
|Abstract||Fungicidal mixtures for controlling rice pathogens, comprising, as active components, 1) azoxystrobin of the formula I, I and 2) the compound of the formula II, II in a synergistically effective amount, methods for controlling harmful fungi using mixtures of the compound I with the compound II, the use of the compounds I and II for preparing such mixtures and compositions comprising these mixtures are described.|
Fungicidal mixtures for controlling rice pathogens
The present invention relates to fungicidal mixtures for controlling rice pathogens, 5 comprising, as active components
in a synergistically effective amount. 15
Moreover, the invention relates to a method for controlling rice pathogens using mixtures of the compound I with the compound II and to the use of the compound I with the compound II for preparing such mixtures and compositions comprising these mixtures.
20 The compound of the formula I, their preparation and their action against harmful fungi are known (common name: azoxystrobin; EP-A 382 375).
The compound II, 5-chloro-7-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-6-(2,4,6-trifluorophenylH1,2,4]tri-azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, its preparation and its action against harmful fungi are likewise 25 known from the literature (WO 98/46607).
Mixtures of triazolopyrimidines with azoxystrobin are described in a general manner in EP-A 988 790. Compound II is embraced by the general disclosure of this document, but not explicitly mentioned. Accordingly, the combination of the compound II with 30 azoxystrobin is novel.
The synergistic mixtures known from EP-A 988 790 are described as being fungicidally active against various diseases of cereals, fruit and vegetable, in particular mildew on wheat and barley or gray mold on apples.
Owing to the special cultivation conditions of rice plants, the requirements that a rice fungicide has to meet are considerably different from those that fungicides used in cereal or fruit growing have to meet. There are significant differences in modern rice cultivation systems: in addition to the spray application customary in many countries, the fungicide is applied in this case directly onto the soil during or shortly after sowing. The fungicide is taken up into the plant via the roots and transported in the sap of the plant to the plant parts to be protected. For rice fungicides, high systemic action is therefore essential. In contrast, in cereal or fruit growing, the fungicide is usually applied onto the leaves or the fruits; accordingly, in these crops the systemic action of the active compounds is considerably less important.
Moreover, rice pathogens are typically different from those in cereals or fruit. Pyricu-laria oryzae and Corticium solani (syn. Rhizoctonia sasakii) are the pathogens of the diseases most prevalent in rice plants. Rhizoctonia sasakii is the only pathogen of agricultural significance from the sub-class Agaricomycetidae. In contrast to most other fungi, this fungus attacks the plant not via spores but via a mycelium infection.
For this reason, findings concerning the fungicidal activity in the cultivation of cereals or fruit cannot be transferred to rice crops.
It was an object of the present invention to provide, with a view to a more effective control of rice pathogens at application rates which are as low as possible, mixtures which, at a reduced total amount of active compounds applied, have an improved effect against the harmful fungi.
We have found that this object is achieved by the mixtures defined at the outset. Moreover, we have found that simultaneous, that is joint or separate, application of the compounds I and the compound II or successive application of the compounds I and the compound II allows better control of rice pathogens than is possible with the individual compounds.
When preparing the mixtures, it is preferred to employ the pure active compounds I and II, to which further active compounds against harmful fungi or other pests, such as insects, arachnids or nematodes, or else herbicidal or growth-regulating active compounds or fertilizers can be added as required.
Other suitable active compounds in the above sense are in particular active compounds selected from the following groups:
• acylalanines, such as benalaxyl, metalaxyl, ofurace or oxadixyl,
• amine derivatives, such as aldimorph, dodine, dodemorph, fenpropimorph, fen-propidin, guazatine, iminoctadine, spiroxamine or tridemorph,
• anilinopyrimidines, such as pyrimethanil, mepanipyrim or cyprodinyl,
• antibiotics, such as cycloheximide, griseofulvin, kasugamycin, natamycin, polyoxin or streptomycin,
• azoles, such as bitertanol, bromoconazole, cyproconazole, difenoconazole, dinitro-conazoie, epoxiconazole, fenbuconazole, fluquiconazole, flusilazole, flutriafol, hex-aconazole, imazalil, ipcanazole, metconazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, propi-conazole, prochloraz, prothioconazole, simeconazole, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, triadimefon, triadimenol, triflumizole or triticonazole,
• dicarboximides, such as iprodione, myclozolin, procymidone or vinclozolin,
• dithiocarbamates, such as ferbam, nabam, maneb, mancozeb, metam, metiram, propineb, polycarbamate, thiram, ziram or zineb,
• heterocyclic compounds, such as anilazine, benomyl, boscalid, carbendazim, car-boxin, oxycarboxin, cyazofamid, dazomet, dithianon, famoxadone, fenamidone, fenarimol, fuberidazole, flutolanil, furametpyr, isoprothiolane, mepronil, nuarimol, picobenzamide, probenazole, proquinazid, pyrifenox, pyroquilon, quinoxyfen, silthiofam, thiabendazole, thifluzamide, thiophanate-methyl, tiadinil, tricyclazole or triforine,
• copper fungicides, such as Bordeaux mixture, copper acetate, copper oxychloride or basic copper sulfate,
• nitrophenyl derivatives, such as binapacryl, dinocap, dinobuton or nitrophthal-isopropyl,
• phenylpyrroles, such as fenpiclonil or fludioxonil,
• other fungicides, such as acibenzolar-S-methyl, benthiavalicarb, carpropamid, chlorothalonil, cyflufenamid, cymoxanil, dazomet, diclomezine, diclocymet, diethofencarb, edifenphos, ethaboxam, fenhexamid, fentin acetate, fenoxanil, ferimzone, fluazinam, fosetyl, fosetyl-aluminum, iprovalicarb, hexachlorobenzene, metrafenone, pencycuron, propamocarb, phthalide, tolclofos-methyl, quintozene or zoxamide,
• strobilurins, such as fluoxastrobin, kresoxim-methyl, metominostrobin, orysastrobin, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin or trifloxystrobin,
► sulfenic acid derivatives, such as captafol, captan, dichlofluanid, folpet or tolylflua-nid,
► cinnamides and analogous compounds, such as dimethomorph, flumetover or flu-morph.
n one embodiment of the mixtures according to the invention, the compounds I and II are admixed with a further fungicide III or two fungicides III and IV.
suitable components III and IV are in particular the azotes mentioned.
Reference is given to mixtures of the compounds I and II with a component III. Particu-arly preferred are mixtures of the compounds I and II.
The mixtures of compounds I and II, or the compounds I and the compound II used simultaneously, that is jointly or separately, exhibit outstanding action against rice Dathogens from the classes of the Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes. They have high systemic action and can therefore be used for the treatment of seed and as foliar- and soil-acting fungicides.
They are especially important for controlling harmful fungi on rice plants and their seeds, such as Bipolaris and Drechslera species, as well as Pyricularia oryzae. They are particularly suitable for controlling sheath blight on rice, caused by Corticium solani [syn. Rhizoctonia sasakii).
n addition, the combination according to the invention of the compounds I and II is also suitable for controlling other pathogens, such as, for example, Septoria and Puccinia species in cereals and Alternaria and Botrytis species in vegetables, fruits and grape-/ines.
The compounds I and the compound II can be applied simultaneously, that is jointly or separately, or in succession, the sequence, in the case of separate application, generally not having any effect on the result of the control measures.
The compounds I and the compound II are usually applied in a weight ratio of from 100:1 to 1:100, preferably from 20:1 to 1:50, in particular from 5:1 to 1:20.
The components III and IV are added to the compound I, if required, in a ratio of from 20:1 to 1:20.
Depending on the compounds and the desired effect, the application rates of the mixtures according to the invention are from 5 g/ha to 2000 g/ha, preferably from 50 to 1500 g/ha, in particular from 50 to 750 g/ha.
Correspondingly, the application rates of the compound I are generally from 1 to 1000 g/ha, preferably from 10 to 750 g/ha, in particular from 20 to 500 g/ha.
Correspondingly, the application rates of the compound II are generally from 1 to 1000 g/ha, preferably from 10 to 750 g/ha, in particular from 20 to 500 g/ha.
In the treatment of seed, the application rates of the mixture are generally from 1 to 1000 g/100 kg of seed, preferably from 1 to 200 g/100 kg, in particular from 5 to 100g/100kg.
In the control of harmful fungi pathogenic to rice plants, the separate or joint application of the compounds I and II or of the mixtures of the compounds I and II is carried out by spraying or dusting the seeds, the seedlings, the plants or the soils before or after sowing of the plants or before or after emergence of the plants. Preferably the compounds are applied jointly or separately, by applying granules or by dusting the soils.
The mixtures according to the invention or the compounds I and II can be converted into the customary formulations, for example solutions, emulsions, suspensions, dusts, powders, pastes and granules. The application form depends on the particular purpose; in each case, it should ensure a fine and uniform distribution of the compound according to the invention.
The formulations are prepared in a known manner, for example by extending the active compound with solvents and/or carriers, if desired using emulsifiers and dispersants. Solvents/auxiliaries which are suitable are essentially:
- water, aromatic solvents (for example Solvesso products, xylene), paraffins (for example mineral oil fractions), alcohols (for example methanol, butanol, pentanol, benzyl alcohol), ketones (for example cyclohexanone, gamma-butyrolactone), pyrrolidones (NMP, NOP), acetates (glycol diacetate), glycols, fatty acid dimethylamides, fatty acids and fatty acid esters. In principle, solvent mixtures may also be used.
- carriers such as ground natural minerals (for example kaolins, clays, talc, chalk) and ground synthetic minerals (for example highly disperse silica, silicates); emulsifiers such as nonionic and anionic emulsifiers (for example polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers, alkylsulfonates and arylsulfonates) and dispersants such as lignin-sulfite waste liquors and methylcellulose.
Suitable surfactants are alkali metal, alkaline earth metal and ammonium salts of lignosulfonic acid, naphthalenesulfonic acid, phenolsulfonic acid, dibutylnaphthalenesulfonic acid, alkylarylsulfonates, alkyl sulfates, alkylsulfonates, fatty alcohol sulfates, fatty acids and sulfated fatty alcohol glycol ethers, furthermore condensates of sulfonated naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives with formaldehyde, condensates of naphthalene or of naphthalenesulfonic acid with phenol and formaldehyde, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether, ethoxylated isooctylphenol, octylphenol, nonylphenol, alkylphenyl polyglycol ethers, tributylphenyl polyglycol ether, tristearylphenyl polyglycol ether, alkylaryl polyether alcohols, alcohol and fatty alcohol/ethylene oxide condensates, ethoxylated castor oil, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, ethoxylated polyoxypropylene, lauryl alcohol polyglycol ether acetal, sorbitol esters, lignin-sulfite waste liquors and methylceilulose.
Substances which are suitable for the preparation of directly sprayable solutions, emulsions, pastes or oil dispersions are mineral oil fractions of medium to high boiling point, such as kerosene or diesel oil, furthermore coal tar oils and oils of vegetable or animal origin, aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, for example toluene, xylene, paraffin, tetrahydronaphthalene, alkylated naphthalenes or their derivatives, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, isophorone, strongly polar solvents, for example dimethyl sulfoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone and water.
Powders, materials for spreading and dusting agents can be prepared by mixing or concomitantly grinding the active substances with a solid carrier.
Granules, for example coated granules, impregnated granules and homogeneous granules, can be prepared by binding the active compounds to solid carriers. Examples of solid carriers are mineral earths such as silica gels, silicates, talc, kaolin, attaclay, limestone, lime, chalk, bole, loess, clay, dolomite, diatomaceous earth, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, ground synthetic materials, fertilizers, such as, for example, ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, ureas, and products of vegetable origin, such as cereal meal, tree bark meal, wood meal and nutshell meal, cellulose powders and other solid carriers.
In general, the formulations comprise from 0.01 to 95% by weight, preferably from 0.1 to 90% by weight, of the active compounds. The active compounds are employed in a purity of from 90% to 100%, preferably 95% to 100% (according to NMR spectrum).
- The following are examples of formulations: 1. Products for dilution with water
A) Water-soluble concentrates (SL)
10 parts by weight of the active compounds are dissolved in water or in a water-soluble solvent. As an alternative, wetters or other auxiliaries are added. The active compound dissolves upon dilution with water.
B) Dispersible concentrates (DC)
20 parts by weight of the active compounds are dissolved in cyclohexanone with addition of a dispersant, for example polyvinylpyrrolidone. Dilution with water gives a dispersion.
C) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)
15 parts by weight of the active compounds are dissolved in xylene with addition of calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate (in each case 5% strength). Dilution with water gives an emulsion.
D) Emulsions (EW, EO)
40 parts by weight of the active compounds are dissolved in xylene with addition of calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate (in each case 5% strength). This mixture is introduced into water by means of an emulsifier (Ultraturax) and made into a homogeneous emulsion. Dilution with water gives an emulsion.
E) Suspensions (SC, OD)
In an agitated ball mill, 20 parts by weight of the active compounds are comminuted with addition of dispersant, wetters and water or an organic solvent to give a fine active compound suspension. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active compound.
F) Water-dispersible granules and water-soluble granules (WG, SG)
50 parts by weight of the active compounds are ground finely with addition of dispersants and wetters and made into water-dispersible or water-soluble granules by means of technical appliances (for example extrusion, spray tower, fluidized bed). Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active compound.
G) Water-dispersible powders and water-soluble powders (WP, SP)
75 parts by weight of the active compounds are ground in a rotor-stator mill with addition of dispersant, wetters and silica gel. Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution with the active compound.
2. Products to be applied directly
H) Dusts (DP)
5 parts by weight of the active compounds are ground finely and mixed intimately with
95% of finely divided kaolin. This gives a dusting agent.
I) Granules (GR, FG, GG, MG)
0.5 part by weight of the active compounds is ground finely and associated with 95.5% carriers. Current methods are extrusion, spray-drying or the fluidized bed. This gives granules to be applied directly.
J) ULV solutions (UL)
10 parts by weight of the active compounds are dissolved in an organic solvent, for
example xylene. This gives a product to be applied directly.
The active compounds can be used as such, in the form of their formulations or the use forms prepared therefrom, for example in the form of directly sprayable solutions, powders, suspensions or dispersions, emulsions, oil dispersions, pastes, dusting agents, materials for spreading, or granules, by means of spraying, atomizing, dusting, spreading or pouring. The use forms depend entirely on the intended purposes; it is intended to ensure in each case the finest possible distribution of the active compounds according to the invention.
Aqueous use forms can be prepared from emulsion concentrates, pastes or wettable powders (sprayable powders, oil dispersions) by adding water. To prepare emulsions, pastes or oil dispersions, the substances, as such or dissolved in an oil or solvent, can be homogenized in water by means of a wetter, tackifier, dispersant or emulsifier. Alternatively, it is possible to prepare concentrates composed of active substance, wetter, tackifier, dispersant or emulsifier and, if appropriate, solvent or oil, and such concentrates are suitable for dilution with water.
The active compound concentrations in the ready-to-use preparations can be varied within relatively wide ranges. In general, they are from 0.0001 to 10%, preferably from 0.01 to 1%.
The active compounds may also be used successfully in the ultra-low-volume process (ULV), it being possible to apply formulations comprising over 95% by weight of active compound, or even to apply the active compound without additives.
Various types of oils, wetters, adjuvants, herbicides, fungicides, other pesticides, or bactericides may be added to the active compounds, if appropriate just immediately prior to use (tank mix). These agents can be admixed with the agents according to the invention in a weight ratio of 1:10 to 10:1.
The compounds I and II or the mixtures or the corresponding formulations are applied by treating the harmful fungi or the plants, seeds, soils, areas, materials or spaces to be kept free from them with a fungicidally effective amount of the mixture or, in the case of separate application, of the compounds I and II. Application can be carried out
I before or after infection by the harmful fungi.
The fungicidal action of the compound and the mixtures can be demonstrated by the experiments below:
i The active compounds, separately or jointly, were prepared as a stock solution with 0.25% by weight of active compound in acetone or DMSO. 1 % by weight of the emulsi-fier Uniperol® EL (wetting agent having emulsifying and dispersing action based on ethoxylated alkylphenols) was added to this solution, and the solution was diluted with water to the desired concentration.
Use example - Activity against sheath blight on rice caused by Corticium solani (syn. Rhizoctonia sasakii)
Pots of rice plants of the cultivar „Tai-Nong 67" were sprayed to runoff point with an i aqeuous suspension having the concentration of active compound stated below. The next day, oat grains infected with Corticium solani were placed into the pots (in each case 5 grains per pot). The plants were then placed in a chamber at 26°C and maximum atmospheric humidity. After 11 days, the sheath blight on the untreated but infected control plants had developed to such an extent that the infection could be ) determined visually in %.
Evaluation is carried out by determining the infected leaf areas in percent. These percentages were converted into efficacies.
i The efficacy (E) is calculated as follows using Abbot's formula:
E = (1-a/p)100
a corresponds to the fungicidal infection of the treated plants in % and ) 3 corresponds to the fungicidal infection of the untreated (control) plants in %
An efficacy of 0 means that the infection level of the treated plants corresponds to that of the untreated control plants; an efficacy of 100 means that the treated plants were not infected. >
The expected efficacies of the mixtures of active compounds are determined using Colby's formula [R.S. Colby, Weeds 15, 20-22 (1967)] and compared with the observed efficacies.
) Colby's formula:
E = x + y-xy/100
E expected efficacy, expressed in % of the untreated control, when using the mix
ture of the active compounds A and B at the concentrations a and b
x efficacy, expressed in % of the untreated control, when using active compound A
i at the concentration a
y efficacy, expressed in % of the untreated control, when using active compound B at the concentration b
The comparative compound used was compound A, known from the mixture described ) in EP-A 988 790:
- We claim:
1. A fungicidal mixture, comprising
in a synergistically effective amount.
2. A fungicidal mixture, comprising the compound of the formula I and the com-
15 pound of the formula II in a weight ratio of from 100:1 to 1:100.
3. A fungicidal mixture as claimed in claim 1 or 2, additionally comprising an active
compound III selected from the group consisting of bitertanol, bromoconazole,
cyproconazole, difenoconazole, dinitroconazole, epoxiconazole, fenbuconazole,
20 fluquinconazole, flusilazole, flutriafol, hexaconazole, imazaiil, ipconazole, met-
conazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, propiconazole, prochloraz, prothiocona-zole, simeconazole, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, triadimefon, triadimenol, tri-fumizole and triticonazole.
25 4. A fungicidal composition, comprising a liquid or solid carrier and a mixture as claimed in any of claims 1 to 3.
5. A method for controlling harmful fungi which are rice pathogens, which comprises treating the fungi, their habitat or the plants, the soil or the seeds to be protected
* against fungal attack with synergistically effective amount of the compound I and
the compound II as set forth in claim 1.
6. A method as claimed in claim 5, wherein the compounds I and II as set forth in
5 claim 1 are applied simultaneously, that is jointly or separately, or in succession.
7. A method as claimed in claim 5, wherein the mixture as claimed in claims 1 to 3
is applied in an amount of from 5 g/ha to 2000 g/ha.
10 8. A method as claimed in claim 5 or 6, wherein the mixture as claimed in claims 1 to 3 is applied in an amount of from 1 to 1000 g/100 kg of seed.
9. A method as claimed in any of claims 5 to 8, wherein the harmful fungus Corti-
cium solani is controlled.
10. Seed, comprising the mixture as claimed in claims 1 to 3 in an amount of from 1
to 1000 g/100kg.
11. The use of the compound I and the compound II as set forth in claim 1 for prepar-
20 ing a composition suitable for controlling harmful fungi.
|Indian Patent Application Number||3584/CHENP/2005|
|PG Journal Number||47/2008|
|Date of Filing||28-Dec-2005|
|Name of Patentee||BASF AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT|
|Applicant Address||D-67056, LUDWIGSHAFEN,|
|PCT International Classification Number||A01N 43/90|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/EP04/05323|
|PCT International Filing date||2004-05-18|