|Title of Invention||
"AN IMPROVED DEVICE FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTION OF AN EDIBLE FUNGUS"
|Abstract||The present invention relates to an improved device for economic production of edible fungus. The present invention deals specifically with an improved device for the production of an edible fungus on chopped straw, on commercial scales.|
|Full Text||The present invention relates to an improved device for economic production of edible fungus. The present invention deals specifically with an improved device for the production of an edible fungus on chopped straw, on commercial scales.
Species of Pleurotus are cultured as edible fungi on rice straw for production of economic yields. The rice straw substrate after inoculation (spawning) is incubated in polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) bags and depending on the size of bag as related to the amount of rice straw packed, 0.5 to 1kg mushrooms are harvested in ~ 30 days. When required to cultivate the mushrooms in large scale, like one or several tons per day, this procedure is tedious, in that it requires to handle innumerable number of mushroom beds in PE/PP bags that require more ground space/ racks, for arrangement/incubation, as also labour intensive and time consuming. To overcome these problems, a vertical model system was introduced from this laboratory, about 20 years back.
Reference may be made to the work of Zakia Bano et. al., (1978) Mushroom Science X (2) : 597-608, wherein, vertical model system using asbestoes / cement pipe was used for large scale mushroom production. The system however has draw backs of the central column (with perforations) used for aeration and heat dissipation of the rice straw so inoculated, either carcinogenic (while using asbestoes pipe) or brittle (while using cement pipe).
The present invention entails the use of PVC/aluminium pipe, forming the central column of the vertical model system, its efficacy to biologically favor the mushroom growth and produce optimum mushroom yields.
The main object of the present invention is to provide a vertical model system, free of danger to human health whilst using a vertical model like asbestoes or liable for easy breakage whilst using a cement pipe.
Another object of the present invention is to provide balance to the tall vertical model structure when using to hold inoculated straw substrate of about 80 kg.
Yet another object is to achieve production of maximum mushroom yields per unit weight of straw substrate.
Accordingly, the present invention provides an improved device for economic production of an edible fungus, which comprises (a) treating chopped rice straw (5-8 cm long) with hot water at 70-80°C for 15-20 minutes, (b) followed by soaking in tap water for 3-4 h, draining excess water, to a residual water content of ~ 75% (c) followed by inoculation (spawning) @ 10% using grain spawn (20-50 days old) and 1-3% coarse horse gram (~ 1 mm particle size) powder (d) filling the spawned straw substrate into the space between the vertical central PVC/aluminium column and 200 guage polyethylene sheet to form vertical mushroom beds measuring 60 cm width and 180 cm tall, at room
temperature (22-28°C) in a period of ~ 20-30 days to obtain a maximum BCE of 100-200% (fresh mushrooms to dry straw).
The improved device (Figure) has a stand with 4 legs (a) (each of 10 cm long) and 2 metallic rings having diameters of 8 (b) and 40 (c) cm connected together by a 1/2 cm sq. wiremesh (d). Connected to the inner ring, there are 4 iron rods (e) (each 180 cm long and 1 cm in diameter) which support a PVC or aluminium pipe (20 guage) (f) tube of 1.6 meter length and 10 cm diameter (having 4 vertical rows of holes, each hole being 1 cm in diameter, 7 cm apart). The polyethylene (200 guage) tube (g) (40 cm in diameter) with perforations (h), was placed on the stand around the PVC or aluminium pipe.
In an embodiment of the present invention, it is to provide vertical model system for large-scale production of mushrooms.
In another embodiment, it is to render the vertical model system safe and durable.
In yet another embodiment, the improved vertical model system should serve to promote mycelial growth and produce optimum mushroom yields.
Every 15 kg of dry chopped rice straw (5-8 cm long) was dipped in hot water at 70-80°C for 20 min. followed by draining excess water and resoaking in tap water for 3-4 h, draining the excess water, to a residual water content of ~ 75%. The wet straw was inoculated using 20 days old grain spawn @ 10%.
During the process of thorough mixing, the straw was also mixed with 1% coarse horse gram powder (~ 1mm particle size) powder. The spawned straw was filled into the space between the central vertical pipe and the 200 guage perforate polyethylene, to form the vertical mushroom bed measuring 60 cm width and 180 cm tall. The beds were incubated at 22-28°C, till the formation of pinheads, emerging through the perforations of polyethylene. At this time, the polyethylene is removed and the beds watered, to get fully grown mushrooms in the next 2-3 days. Mushroom yields of 100-120 % fresh, to dry straw were recorded.
The following examples are given by way of illustration of the present invention and its use in the production of mushrooms in large scale, and therefore should not be construed to limit the scope of the present invention.
The chopped rice straw after pre-treatment in hot water was used to make the mushroom beds using the vertical model of figure as described in the process details, using the 20 days spawn of the white oyster mushroom, Pleurotus florida. In about 15 days, the polyethylene was removed, the pinheads started appearing on the bed surface, and they grew to maximum size in next 3 days, by watering twice a day, at a temperature of 22-28X. Eighty percent of the yield appeared in the first flush and the remaining yield in second flush, in a period of 7-12 days. Net yields of 100-120 kg fresh mushrooms per 100 kg dry straw were recorded.
EXAMPLE - 2
Here, the twenty days old grain spawn of Pleurotus sajor-caju (grey variety) was used with the repetitions of conditions as in example -1. Yields appeared in more than two flushes and the net yield was more than 120 kg fresh mushrooms per 100 kg dry straw in ~ 30 days.
EXAMPLE - 3
Here, the experiment was repeated using the spawn (20 days old) of the pink colored mushroom variety, Pleurotus eous. In a period of 30 days, in two flushes, net yield of 100-120 kg fresh mushrooms per 100 kg dry straw were produced.
The novelty of the invention is as follows :
This improved vertical model system considers the use of PVC or aluminium pipe, and at the same time balancing the weight of the mushroom bed in wet form of straw inoculated with spawn. The simplicity and newness are the replacement of central asbestoes pipe known to be carcinogenic particularly when subjected to drilling for making perforations (to aid mycelial aeration and dissipation of heat). The use of cement pipe that is very brittle and easily liable for breakage is also avoided. The altered conditions of the vertical model structure (Figure), when experimented for production of mycelial growth and optimization of mushroom yields proved effective. Accordingly, this is a safer
and durable system to produce optimum mushroom yields, as applicable to the industrial needs, when considered for large scale production of mushrooms.
The main advantages of the present invention are :
1. It serves to save space, time and labour, to produce maximum mushroom yields per unit weight of straw substrate, unlike the preparation of mushroom beds in polyethylene bags.
2. Use of asbestoes pipe that is known for carcinogenicity, while drilling perforations (for mycelial aeration and dissipation of heat) and cement pipe is brittle, liable for easy breakage.
3. The present system of PVC or aluminium pipe is long durable.
4. The system is experimented to support optimum mycelial growth and production of maximum mushrooms yields per unit weight of the straw substrate.
|Indian Patent Application Number||217/DEL/2002|
|PG Journal Number||31/2008|
|Date of Filing||14-Mar-2002|
|Name of Patentee||COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH|
|Applicant Address||RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110001, INDIA|
|PCT International Classification Number||C12N 1/14|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|