|Title of Invention||
"HEAT SEAL INFUSION WEB MATERIAL AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE"
|Abstract||A heat seal infusion sheet material for infusion packages comprising a fibrous non-woven web having a basis weight of 12 gsm to 30 gsm, a first color infusion time of less than 12 seconds, a percent transmittance of less than 70 percent and heat seal range of 110°C to 240°C, said web comprising cellulosic natural fibers and less than 50 percent by weight of discontinuous heat seal fibers, at least a portion of said heat seal fibers being multicomponent thermoplastic materials with each component thereof exhibiting different melt characteristics, wherein most of the heat seal fibers are disposed adjacent one face of the sheet material and most of the natural fibers are disposed adjacent an opposing face of the sheet material.|
|Full Text||Heat Seal Infusion Web Material and-Methud of Manufacture
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to infusion web materials and more particularly is concerned with a new and improved heat scalable fibrous web having particular application as an infusion packaging material, such as for tea bags and the like.
Background of the Invention
Heretofore, heat scalable tea bag papers have comprised both single phase and multi-phase sheet material. Both materials have included non-heat seal fibers such as long natural and synthetic cellulosic fibers in combination with wood pulps and heat seal fibers. The particular heat seal fibers used included thermoplastic fibers, such as the fibers of a copolymer of polyvinyl acetate, commonly referred to as "vinyon", polyolefin fibers, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, polyolefin pulps and combinations thereof. The heat scalable papers preferably are produced using a wet-laid papermaking process and form a highly porous and open structural arrangement which, despite the heat seal fiber's hydrophobic character, permits adequate liquid permeability and transmission of both hot water and tea liquor through the sheet materials during the normal brewing process. During manufacture the sheet material is dried by a conventional heat treatment resulting in a slight contraction of the heat seal thermoplastic materials that beneficially maintains and enhances the desired open distribution of the heat seal particles throughout the sealing phase of the web.
Two general types of thermoplastic heat scalable materials have been used heretofore in heat seal infusion web production. The first contains the polyolefin pulps, vinyon fibers, or blends of these materials which typically deliver products with a wide or broad sealing temperature range, or operational window, due to difference in the
melting point of polymers used in the formulations. A range of about 130 - 240° C is typical. Unfortunately, when these products have a moderate to low heat seal fiber concentration they do not provide a strong wet seal bond in boiling water, which is critical for tea brewing. When a high level of thermoplastic is used in the web material, such as more than 50 percent by weight, the seal strength increases, but degradation is noted in the infusion characteristics of the bag.
A second generation of teabag paper is produced with polypropylene fiber in the sealing phase. This product typically delivers high seal strength and good infusion; however, due to the higher melting point of the polypropylene fibers, it seals at higher temperatures and significantly narrows the operational window of the teabag forming equipment to about 190 - 240° C. As a result, the tea packing machines must be adjusted to more precisely monitor the temperature and pressure applied by the sealing elements in order to properly seal the bags. Also, when a teapacking machine does not have very good temperature control and the temperature profile on the sealing elements is not precise, the teapacker is likely to have quality problems with the sealed teabags such that the bags tend to leak in both the dry and wet stages.
A combination of polypropylene and polyethylene fibers have been tried in the sheet material in an effort to increase the melting range of the infusion web material and therefore increase the sealing temperature range (operational window) on the packing machine. However, it has been found that such blends of polyethylene and polypropylene fibers do not deliver the desired result. The strength of both the wet and dry seals of the paper produced using such blends is weaker than 100% polypropylene fiber.
Fibrillar materials formed from polyolefins and similar polymers, commonly referred to as "synthetic pulps", exhibit certain processing advantages over the smooth rod-like synthetic fibers. The synthetic
pulps exhibit a fibrilliform morphology and a resultant higher specific surface area. Additionally, they are more readily dispersible in water without the need for additional surface active agents and, although hydrophobic in nature, they do not dewater as rapidly as conventional synthetic fibers and therefore avoid plugging problems in lines, pumps, etc. within the paper-making equipment. Further, these synthetic particles do not exhibit the tendency to "float out" in chests and holding tanks used in the typical wet paper-making process. For these reasons the synthetic pulps exhibit a potential for use as the heat seal component of infusion package materials, particularly since they provide substantially improved wet seal strength under end use conditions, that is, improved wet seal strength in a hot aqueous liquid environment and improved resistance to seal delamination under boiling and steaming test conditions.
Despite the apparent advantages evident in the use of synthetic pulp for heat seal infusion web application, it has been found that such material exhibits a significant disadvantage with respect to its infusion properties and wettability. This disadvantage relates directly to its usefulness in the paper-making process, that it, its fibrilliform structure and high specific surface area. When the synthetic pulp is heat treated, as in the conventional drying operation, it tends to soften and flow, typically forming a film, albeit discontinuous, particularly in the heat seal phase of a multi-phase sheet material. Unlike the highly porous and open web structure formed by the larger and smoother synthetic fibers, the high surface area pulp with its lower density, smaller particle size and more numerous particles results in a closed, low permeability structure. The result is that certain areas of the web surface are rendered water impermeable, substantially retarding or inhibiting infusion and reducing the water permeability and wettability of the material. In use, the non-wetted or partially wetted areas of the web material are easily observed as opaque areas on the sheet while the thoroughly
wetted areas exhibit a transparent appearance. The reduced wettability of the web material coupled with its mottled opaque appearance influences the aesthetic attractiveness of the product under end use conditions and, therefore, its acceptability by the consumer.
Summary of the Invention
Accordingly, the present invention provides a new and improved heat seal fibrous web material exhibiting improved seal strength and good infusion while maintaining a broad operational window. The invention permits the utilization of some synthetic pulp in the heat seal fibrous component yet at the same time obviates the infusion and wettability deficiencies noted hereinbefore with respect to the use of such material. More specifically, there is provided a heat scalable fibrous web having a first phase comprising natural fibers and a second or heat seal phase containing a multicomponent fiber composition or blend with natural fibers resulting in these improved characteristics.
Additionally, the present invention provides a new and improved process for the manufacture of heat seal infusion web materials having excellent infusion characteristics and improved strength characteristics through the utilization of multicomponent thermoplastic fibers in the heat seal phase. This process involves the modification of essentially only the heat seal phase of a multiphase heat seal infusion web material or, more specifically, only the heat seal component of the web material to facilitate improved infusion characteristics. This is accomplished by modifying the heat seal phase to incorporate therein the multicomponent fibers, thereby improving the wet and dry seal strength while maintaining a broad operational window and achieving high infusion rates at high, moderate and low heat seal fiber concentrations.
Other features and advantages will be in part obvious and in part pointed out more in detail hereinafter.
A better understanding of the features of construction, combina-tion of elements and arrangement of parts, as well as the several steps of the process together with the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to teach of the others and the article processing the features, properties and relation of elements of the invention will be obtained from the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments and is indicative of the way in which the principles of the invention are employed.
Preferred Embodiment of the Invention
As mentioned hereinbefore, the present invention provides a technique for improving the sealing characteristics of heat seal fibrous web materials suited for use in tea bags or the like while maintaining good infusion qualities and a wide operational range. This is accomplished by incorporating multicomponent thermoplastic heat seal fibers in the web material and particularly in the heat seal phase of a multiphase infusion web material. In the preferred embodiment, the enhancement is achieved primarily by using bicomponent thermoplastic fibers preferably with a sheath and core construction wherein each component possesses different characteristics, such as different glass transition temperatures, melting and fusing ranges and/or different melt flow characteristics. However, tri-component and even quad-component fibers may be employed. Preferably, the core of the bicomponent fiber exhibits a higher melting point than the sheath.
As mentioned, the invention is primarily concerned with multiphase sheet material, particularly multi-phase water laid material produced in accordance with conventional paper-making techniques. In this connection, numerous different techniques have been employed heretofore to make the multi-phase fibrous webs. Typical of those
found most useful in the production of infusion web materials is the dual
headbox technique described in Osborne'U.S. Patent No. 2,414,833,
the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. Dry lay processes also may be employed.
In accordance with the Osborne process, an aqueous suspension of non-heat seal fibers flows through a primary headbox and an inclined wire screen whereby the fibers are continuously deposited as a base phase on the web-forming screen. The heat seal material is introduced into the primary headbox at a location immediately after or at the point of deposition of the non-heat seal fibers on the inclined wire. This may be carried out by means of an inclined trough or a secondary headbox in such a manner that the heat seal particles comingle slightly with the non-heat seal papermaking fibers flowing through the primary headbox. In this way, the non-thermoplastic fibers have a chance to provide a base mat or non-heat seal phase prior to the deposition of the top heat seal phase thereon. It will be understood, of course, that this can be reversed whereby the heat seal fibers are incorporated into the primary headbox with non-heat seal in the secondary headbox. As is appreciated, the heat seal phase is secured to the base phase by an interface formed by the intermingling of the particles within the aqueous suspensions. Typically, sheets produced in this manner have non-heat seal fibers covering the entire surface area of the sheet materials on the surface in contact with the inclined fiber collecting screen while the top of the sheet material has some non-heat seal fibers and some heat seal fibers, with the latter predominating. In this way there is no clear line of demarcation between the two phases of the multi-phase sheet material; yet there is a predominance of heat seal thermoplastic material on the top surface or top phase of the multi-phase sheet. The central or interface boundary, or course, is composed of a mixture of the two different types of fibers.
Although the technique or process described in the aforementioned U.S. Patent No. 2,414,833 is preferably followed, the heat seal material used in preparing the heat seal phase of the sheet material is
different. To this end, it is advantageous to use multicomponent and preferably bicomponent or tricomponent fibers in forming the heat seal phase of the fibrous nonwoven web. Such thermoplastic fibers come in a wide variety of configurations including, but not limited to, side-by-side and sheath-core fiber configurations as well as trilobal, cross, tipped, and segmented structures. Suitable polymers for such multi-component fibers include, but are not limited to, polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate and polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene.
As indicated above, the multicomponent fibers of the wetlaid nonwoven web preferably have a sheath-core configuration whereby the sheath member has a lower melting point than that of the core member. Typically the sheath and core members are made of different thermoplastic synthetic material although it is possible for the sheath member and the core member to be made of the same synthetic polymer such as polyesters so long as the polymer which forms the sheath member has a lower melting point than the polymer which forms the core member. Typical bicomponent fibers comprise a polyolefin sheath, for example, polyethylene surrounding a polypropylene or polyester core. The polyethylene sheath has a melting point low enough so that the bicomponent fibers can be bonded to one another by passing the nonwoven web through the dryer section of a papermaking machine. Other effective combinations include a sheath member made of polypropylene or of polyester with the same or different core materials.
The thermoplastic synthetic fibers which can be utilized for the sheath and core members of the present invention include those fibers which will melt or soften at a temperature below about 300° C. Typical thermoplastic synthetic fibers included in the present invention include those fibers which will melt of soften at a temperature within the range of about 110 - 240° C. Typical thermoplastic synthetic fibers include polyolefins containing 1 to 8 carbon atoms, e.g., polyethylene, poly-
propylene, polybutylene and copolymers thereof, polytetrafluoroethyl-ene, polyesters, e.g., polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride acetate, polyvinyl butyral, acrylic resins, e.g., poly-acrylate, polymethylacrylate and polymethylmethacrylate, polyamides, namely nylon, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polystyrene, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethanes, cellulosic resins, namely cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, ethyl cellulose, etc., copolymers of any of the above materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers, styrene-butadiene block copolymers, and the like.
The multicomponent fibers should be of a size that permits their use in a wet-laid papermaking process. Thus, lower denier per filament materials, for example, less than 20 dpf and as low as about 1.0 dpf, should be employed. The operable range is about 1.0 - 1 5.0 dpf while the preferred material falls into the range of 1.5 - 6.0 dpf and most preferably 1.5-3 dpf.
The fiber lengths employed also must be suited to the wet-laid process and therefore are generally less than 25 mm and preferably less than 20 mm in length. A typical operable range is about 4-10 mm while the preferred length is 5 - 6 mm.
The bicomponent heat seal material may be present in the web in amounts up to about 45% by weight, preferably about 5 to 40% by weight. A preferred fiber mix contains about 15 - 35% by weight of the bicomponent fibers with the remainder comprised of natural fibers. The use of the wood pulp reduces the overall cost of the final product without materially affecting the physical properties thereof. Optimally, the concentration of bicomponent fibers is about 25% by weight, but lesser amounts are employed when combined with other heat seal fibers or pulp such as polyethylene pulp.
Bicomponent fibers retain their fibrous character even when the low-melting component is at or near its melting temperature, as the
high-melting component provides a supporting structure to retain the low-melting component in the general area in which it was applied. The high-melting component provides the bicomponent fibers with additional strength resulting in more open webs than those containing unicom-ponent fibers.
Any type of thermoplastic multicomponent fibers can be used in the manufacture of the nonwoven fabrics of this invention. For example, sheath-core, side-by-side, and other types of bicomponent or tricomponent fibers can be used. Also, a variety of thermoplastic resin combinations is available.
Currently preferred fibers according to the present invention are the composites wherein the bicomponent fibers in the web layers are selected from the group consisting of sheath/core fibers of the following resin combinations: polyethylene/polypropylene, polyethylene/polyester, polyethylene/polyethylene, polypropylene/polypropylene, polypropylene/ polyester, and polyester/polyester. Specific examples of such fibers are the 2.0 denier polyethylene/polypropylene sheath/core fibers available from Fibervisions Inc. as Product Type 426. It is provided at a length of 4 - 6 mm and denier of 1.8 - 2.2 dpf and has a sheath/core bicomponent configuration. Other 1.5-3 denier polyethylene/polypropylene sheath/core fibers are available from various suppliers.
While it is not desired to limit the invention to any particular theory, it is believed that the improvements of the present invention are attained because heat applied to the multicomponent fiber web causes the lower melting component to become progressively softer as the temperature increases. The lower melting materials plasticize and, as long as the temperature does not exceed the plasticizing point of the higher melting fibers, the intermolecular bond of the lower melting fibers causes bonding to occur to the other fibers. Complete high strength sealing is subsequently achieved in the tea packing machines under localized pressure and temperature.
In view of the characteristics of synthetic pulp materials, including their high specific surface area, water insensitivity, low density and smaller particle size, substantially improved seal strength characteristics under end use conditions can be achieved. These synthetic pulps are typically synthetic thermoplastic materials, such as polyolefins, having a structure more closely resembling wood pulp than synthetic fibers. That is, they contain a micro-fibrillar structure comprised of micro-fibrils exhibiting a high surface area as contrasted with the smooth, rod-like fibers. The synthetic thermoplastic pulp-like material can be dispersed to achieve excellent random distribution throughout the aqueous dispersing media in a paper-making operation and, consequently, can achieve excellent random distribution within the resultant sheet product. The pulps found particularly advantageous in the manufacture of infusion sheet materials are those made of the high density polyolefins of high molecular weight and low melt index.
The fibrils can be formed under high shear conditions in an apparatus such as a disc refiner or can be formed directly from their monomeric materials. Patents of interest with respect to the formation of fibrils are the following: U.S. Patent Nos. 3,997,648, 4,007.24)7 and 4,010,229. As a result of these processes the resultant dispersions are comprised of fiber-like particles having a typical size and shape comparable to the size and shape of natural cellulosic fibers and are commonly referred to as "synthetic pulp". The particles exhibit an irregular surface configuration, have a surface area in excess of one square meter per gram, and may have surface areas of even 100 square meters per gram. The fiber-like particles exhibit a morphology or structure that comprises fibrils which in turn are made up of micro-fibrils, all mechanically inter-entangled in random bundles generally having a width in the range of 1 to 20 microns. In general, the pulp-like fibers of polyolefins such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and mixtures thereof have a fiber length well suited to the paper-making technique,
e.g., in the range of 0.4 to 2.5 millimeters with an overall average length of about 1 to 1.5 millimeters.
Typically, the fiber composition of the heat seal phase is such that it contains cellulosic paper-making fibers in addition to the heat seal fibers. In this connection, it has been found that for optimum results it is preferred that the heat seal component constitute approximately 40 to 75% of the fiber composition within the heat seal fiber phase and about 25% by weight of the infusion web. As will be appreciated, variations in the amount of heat seal material will depend on the specific material utilized as well as the source of that material. For example, the multicomponent fiber concentration may be near the low end of the range, e.g., about 45% of the heat seal phase, when synthetic pulp is also employed. In such a formulation the multicomponent fiber constitutes only about 14 - 18% by weight of the infusion web. Of course, a sufficient amount of heat seal component must be employed to provide satisfactory heat scalability in the end product.
It should be noted that the preferred heat seal polymers are those which have already received approval for use in food and beverage applications. Consequently, the multicomponent fibers and synthetic pulp made from polyolefins and vinyon are the preferred materials while other materials may be used for different end use applications. As will be appreciated, the remaining fibers may be of a wide variety depending upon the end use of the fibrous web material. However, for infusion packages having application in the food and beverage field, it is preferable to employ approved natural or man-made fibers and preferably cellulosic natural fibers, for example, fibers of bleached or unbleached kraft, manila hemp, abaca, jute, sisal and other wood fibers. A variety of infuser web materials may be made from these fibers and utilized in accordance with the present invention. However, for ease of understanding and clarity of description, the invention is being described in its
application to porous infusion web materials for use in the manufacture of teabags and the like.
The infusion characteristics of importance relative to heat seal web material relate to the rate at which water can pass into the teabag and tea liquor can pass out of the teabag as well as the degree of extraction which is able to take place within a specified time. This is usually reported in terms of "first color" and "percent transmittance", respectively. When testing for first color, a teabag made from the material to be tested is carefully placed in quiet distilled water after the water has been brought to a boil. Using a stopwatch, the time is recorded at which the first amber stream appears at the bottom of the sample. A first color time of less than 12 seconds is required with less than 10 seconds being preferred. A first color of about 5 - 6 seconds is considered indicative of excellent infusion characteristics. Of course, thicker, heavier weight, 25 - 30 gsm and preferably 25 - 26 gsm, materials typically will have higher first color values than lighter materials of less than 25 gsm, preferably 12-22 gsm and most preferably 14-18 gsm.
The percent transmittance test is conducted by measuring the transmittance of the brew after a 60 second steep time using a Markson Colorimeter Model T-600 at a wavelength of 530 mµ and using a 1 cm cell. A target value for good infusion is in the mid-sixty percentile range with transmittance decreasing as infusion improves.
The test procedure used for determining wet delamination strength of the heat seal bond measures the time it takes for the seal to fail when subject to a standard static weight. A standard sample size of the heat scalable web material is formed into a loop with the two heat seal sides contacting each other. Heat and pressure are applied to form a seal therebetweeen. A dumbbell weight of a known value, e.g., 60 g or 100 g, is placed in the loop to apply equal force along the entire length of the seal, and the complete sample including the weight is
suspended in hot water kept at a temperature of 100° C. The time in seconds from immersion until the seal fails allowing the weight to fall is recorded. The reported value is the value of repeatability based on two replicate tests, each from ten samples wherein all samples give test results within the range of 45-155 seconds.
The test procedure to quantify the dry seal strength measures the maximum force required to separated the dry sealed area. A strip of test material is folded in half with the heat seal sides contacting each other. The seal is formed under heat and pressure. The folded sample is cut remote of the seal and the unsealed ends are clamped in the jaws of an Instron tensile tester. The maximum force required to effect seal failure is recorded.
Accordingly, there is provided Heat seal infusion sheet material for infusion packages comprising a fibrous non-woven web having a basis weight of 12 gsm to 30 gsm, a first color infusion time of less than 12 seconds, a percent transmittance of less than 70 percent and heat seal range of 110°C to 240°C, said web comprising cellulosic natural fibers and less than 50 percent by weight of discontinuous heat seal fibers, at least a portion of said heat seal fibers being multicomponent thermoplastic materials with each component thereof exhibiting different melt characteristics, wherein most of the heat seal fibers are disposed adjacent one face of the sheet material and most of the natural fibers are disposed adjacent an opposing face of the sheet material.
The following examples are given in order that the effectiveness
of the present invention may be more fully understood. These examples are set forth for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended in any way to limit the practice of the invention. All parts are given by weight.
This example shows the improved infusion and wet seal strength characteristics obtained by using bicomponent fibers according to the present invention.
A base phase fiber dispersion was prepared from hemp fibers and wood fibers and a separate heat seal fiber dispersion was prepared using a fiber formulation comprising polyethylene synthetic pulp, polyethylene/ polypropylene sheath/core bicomponent fibers of 2 dpf and 5-6 mm length and kraft wood pulp. Using these dispersions, a two phase heat seal sheet material was formed on a papermaking machine to provide a web material having a basis weight of about 16.5 grams per square meter. That material is designated Sample A.
For comparison purposes, commercial web material was produced in the identical manner as Sample B using vinyon and synthetic pulp as the heat seal material. The web material was tested for infusion characteristics and wet seal strength and the results are reported in Table I. The first color and percent transmittance data is the average of four separate tests conducted in the manner set forth hereinbefore.
Table I(Table Removed)
This example compares the wet seal strength of infusion webs having different heat seal materials at different heat sealing temperatures.
The procedure of Example I was followed except that the heat seal material only was changed. The wet delamination strength was tested using a 100 g weight. An acceptable target level is 300 seconds or greater. The results are set forth in Table II.
As can be seen, the bicomponent heat seal fibers with or without polyethylene synthetic pulp resulted in improved wet delamination strength.
When a bicomponent fiber was evaluated with the same total seal weight as previous formulation and the same PP/PE ratio, the seal strength of the paper was significantly increased and temperature range for sealability was increased from 190 - 240° C (in 100% PP heat seal paper) to 160 - 240° C (in bicomponent heat seal paper). Bicomponent fiber containing paper also delivered good infusion characteristics.
The same results were obtained when bicomponent fibers/PE pulp blends were compared to PP fibers/PE fibers/PE pulp blends. Product with bicomponent fiber delivered higher strength at lower temperatures.
(Table Removed)EXAMPLE III
The procedure of Example I was repeated except that rayon fiber was added. The infusion web material produced had a basis weight of about 26 gsm and no synthetic pulp was used. The results are set forth in Table III.
Table III(Table Removed)
As will be apparent to persons skilled in the art, various modifications, adaptations and variations of the foregoing specific disclosure
can be made without departing from the teaching of the present
1. Heat seal infusion sheet material for infusion packages charaterized by a fibrous non-woven web having a basis weight of 12 gsm to 30 gsm, a first
color infusigfa time of less than 12 seconds, a percent transmittance of less than 60% and heat seal range of 110°C to 240°C, said web comprising-celIulosic natural fibers and less than 50 percent by weight of discontinuous heat seal fibers, at least a portion of said heat seal fibers being multicomponent thermoplastic materials with each component thereof exhibiting different melt characteristics, wherein most of the heat seal fibers are disposed adjacent one face of the sheet material and most of the natural fibers are disposed adjacent an opposing face of the sheet material.
2. The sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the
multicomponent materials are selected from the group consisting of
bicomponent and/or tricomponent materials.
3. The sheet material as claimed in claim 2, wherein said
multicomponent materials are bicomponent heat seal fibers having a central
Score and an outer sheath.
4. The sheet material as claimed in claim 3, wherein the softening
temperature of said central core is higher than the softening temperature of
said outer sheath.
5. The sheet material as claimed in claim 2, wherein said
multicomponent materials are bicomponent heat seal fibers having a side-
by-side component configuration.
6. The sheet material as claimed in claim 2, wherein said
multicomponent materials are comprised of materials selected from the
group consisting of polyolefins of 1-8 carbon atoms and polyesters.
7. The sheet material as claimed in claim 2, wherein the
multicomponent materials are bicomponent and are selected from the group
consisting of polyethylene/polypropylene, polyethylene/polyester,
polyethylene / polyethylene, polypropylene / polypropylene,
polypropylene/polyester and copolyester/polyester.
8. The sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein said
multicomponent materials comprise 5-40% by weight of the sheet material
91. The sheet material as claimed in claim 8, wherein said multicomponent materials comprise 15-35% by weight of the sheet material.
10. The sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the nonwoven web
includes a heat seal phase and a non heat seal phase with dubotoptiolly all
of the heat seal fibers being located in and adjacent the heat seal phase
11. The sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein said web host
Synthetic pulp;, 'and said multicomponent materials comprise 14-30% by weight of said sheet material.
12. The sheet material as claimed in claim 1, wherein said
multicomponent materials have a denier per filament size in the range of
1.0-20.0 dpf and a length of less than 25mm.
13. The sheet material as claimed in claim 12, wherein said denier per
filament range is 1.5 -6.0 dpf.
14. The sheet material as claimed in claim 1, having a wet delamination
seal strength of greater than 300 seconds at 100°C using a static weight of
15. A method of forming a heat seal infusion sheet material as claimed in
claim 1 comprising the steps of:
forming a first phase of said non-woven fibrous web by depositing a first dispersion of fiber on a fiber collecting wire, wherein said first dispersion comprises fibers selected from at least one of:
(i) non-heat sealable fibers; or
(ii) discontinuous heat sealable thermoplastic fibers, wherein at
least a portion of said fibers are multicomponent fibers;
subsequently forming a second phase of said non-woven fibrous web by depositing a second dispersion of fiber over the first, wherein said second dispersion of fibers comprises fibers selected from the other of (i) or (ii); and
dewatering and drying the deposited fibers to thereby form a heat seal infusion sheet material.
16. The method as claimed in claim 15, wherein the structure of said
multicomponent fibers are bicomponent.
17. The method as claimed in claim 16, wherein said bicomponent fibers
have a central core and an outer sheath.
18. The method as claimed in claim 15, wherein said multicomponent
heat seal fibers are water dispersible.
19. Heat seal sheet material infusion sheet material for tea bags
substantially as herein described with reference to the foregoing examples.
20. The sheetpaaterial as claimed injzlaim 10, whereirj^said~~cellulosic
natural fibej?scomprise at leastjjaeof hemp fibers^-etDaca fibers, juteubers
and sisai fibers.
|Indian Patent Application Number||3195/DEL/1998|
|PG Journal Number||28/2008|
|Date of Filing||29-Oct-1998|
|Name of Patentee||DEXTER CORPORATION|
|PCT International Classification Number||D21H 13/00|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|