|Title of Invention||
"A PROCESS FOR PREPARATION OF CATALYTIC COMPOSITION"
|Abstract||A novel soluble composition containing magnesium, titanium, a. halogen and a carboxylic acid ester has been invented. The composition has mainly the composition according to Formula wherein X3 is a halogen, X4 is a halogen, R(COOR')n is a carboxylic acid higher alkyl ester containing at least 8-n carbon atoms, wherein R is an n-valent substituted or unsubstituted Cj-034 hydrocarbon group, R' is a ^-C^ alkyl group, and n is an integer from 1 to 4, x is between 0.5 and 4.0, and y is between 0.8/n and 2.4/n.|
|Full Text||The invention relates to a composition containing magnesium, titanium, a halogen and a carboxylic acid ester, a process f®r its preparation, its use, and products obtained through its use.
Polymerization catalysts, and in particular polymerization catalysts of the Ziegler-Natta type, currently comprise typically an inert support on which the actual active catalyst component, or a mixture or complex made up of catalytic compounds, is deposited. The chemical composition of such a heterogenous catalyst system, its surface structure, morphology, particle size, and particle size distribution are very important f©r the activity ef the catalyst and far the properties of the polymer obtained through the use of the catalyst. By using a very active catalyst it is possible to produce a polymer from which, owing to its purity, it is not necessary to remove catalyst residues.
Heterogenous catalyst systems of the type referred to above are currently often made up of a magnesium-based support which has been treated with a transition metal compound of the titanium halide type and often also with an electron donor compound. It is also known that the support may be given an advantageous chemical composition, surface structure, morphology, particle size, and particle size distribution by allowing it to crystallize as a complex of some of its crystal solvents.
In the process according to EP publication 65700 and US publication 4,421,674, a titanium halide is reacted with a magnesium chloride catalyst in the form of microspheres, whereafter the reaction product particles are recovered by physical means and are mixed together with an organometallic cocatalyst compound. FI patent application 862459 discloses a process for the preparation of a support wherein the support
complex made up of a support and a crystal solvent is melted to form a clear liquid. When the liquid is directed through a nozzle and an atomization chamber into a crystallization chamber cooled with a cold nitrogen gas, the support complex will crystallize as small spherical particles. When the support pre-treated in this manner is contacted with a titanium halide, a large amount of catalytically active complexes between MgCl2 and the titanium halide are formed on the surface of the support as the crystal solvent is eliminated.
Now, a new composition, active in the polymerization of e.g.
ethylene, propylene and other a-olefins, has been invented, ' which composition contains magnesium, titanium, a halogen and a carboxylic acid ester and occurs in a soluble form. By solubility of the composition is meant in the present publication, its solubility at least in the synthesis mixture used in its synthesis, in the titanium tetrahalide used in the synthasis, and/or in an organic dissolving substance, such as toluene, used in the synthesis. The soluble composition according to the invention is mainly characterized in that it is soluble at least in a liquid titanium tetrahalide and/or an organic dissolving substance (S1) , and that it has a chemical composition according to the following formula (I):
wherein X3 is a halogen, X4 is a halogen, R(COOR')n is a carboxylic acid higher alkyl ester containing at least 8-n carbon atoms, wherein R is an n-valent substituted or un-substituted Ci-C34 hydrocarbon group, R' is a C,-C20 alkyl group, and n is a number between 1 and 4, x is between 0.5 and 4, and y is between 0.8/n and 2.4/n. In formula (I), the molar amount of TiX44 is basically about 1.
It has thus been realized that, in deviation from prior art, it is possible to produce a soluble composition composed of a magnesium halide, a titanium halide and a carboxylic acid
ester. Such a product has not been prepared, isolated, analyzed or tested previously.
According to one preferred embodiment, the carboxylic acid ester R(COOR')n is a carboxylic acid alkyl ester having at least 12 carbon atoms and, more preferably, such an a,/3-un-saturated carboxylic acid C6-C20 alkyl ester. Even more preferably, the carboxylic acid ester is an aromatic carboxylic acid C6-C20 alkyl ester, most preferably a phthalic acid di-C6-C20 alkyl ester, preferably a phthalic acid di-C8-C14 alkyl ester, such as di-octylphthalate, di-nonylphthalate, di-decyl-phthalate, di-undecylphthalate, di-dodecylphthalate, di-tri-decylphthalate, di-tetradecylphthalate.
As was mentioned above, the novel soluble composition according to the present invention is based, at least in part, on molecules the previous combinations of which have been insoluble and have thus formed heterogenous catalysts or heterogenous catalyst components.
The first molecule in the composition according to the invention is a magnesium dihalide MgX^. It is preferable that X1 is chlorine, i.e. that the magnesium halide in the composition is magnesium dichloride.
Furthermore, it is preferable that the halogen X2 in the titanium halide TiX24 in the composition is chlorine, i.e. that the titanium halide is titanium tetrachloride.
The invention thus provides a soluble composition based on magnesium dichloride and titanium tetrachloride.
Furthermore, the composition is such that there may be 0.6-4.0 magnesium halide molecules per one titanium halide molecule. Cf. Formula (I) above, wherein x is between 0.6 and 4.0. A preferred number (x) of magnesium halide molecules in the composition according to the invention is 0.7-3.0.
The solubility of the composition according to the invention seems to be due to the fact that the quality and qyantity of the donor facilitates the solvation or dissolving of the composition. As was stated above in connection with Formula (I), the number y of molecules of carboxylic acid alkyl ester in the composition is between 0.8/n and 2.4/n, wherein n is the number of carboxyl groups, y is preferably between 1.0/n and 2.4/n. Most preferably n = 2, in which case y = 0.5-1.2.
A preferred soluble composition according to Formula (I) is one having the formula (II)
(MgCl2)x-TiCl4- (Ph(COOR2)2)y (II)
wherein x is 0.5-3.0 and y is 0.5-1.2; Ph stands for ortho-j phenylene; and R2 stands for a C6-C20 alkyl, preferably a C8-C14 alkyl.
Even more preferable is a soluble complex having the approximate formula (III) (Formula Removed)
(III) wherein x is 0.5-3.0.
Very good results have been obtained, for example, in preparing a compound according to the general formula (IV):
wherein x is 0.5-3.0.
The composition according to the invention may be a mixture of molecules, a mixture of a molecule/molecules and a complex/-complexes, a single complex, or a mixture of complexes. By a complex is meant in this connection a higher ordinal number compound composed of molecules in contrast to first ordinal number compounds composed of atoms. Cf. Rompps Chemie-Lexicon,
7. Auflage, 1972, Teil 3, S. 1831. The composition according to the invention is composed of three types of molecules, MgX'2, TiX24, and R(COOR')n. The decimal numbers in the formulae indicate that what is in question is a mixture of molecules and/or complexes, having an average molecular composition indicated by the decimal numbers.
The invention also relates to a process for preparing a composition containing magnesium, titanium, a halogen and a car-boxylic acid ester, wherein a complex MgX'j-cR'OH, wherein X1 is a halogen, R1 is a Ci-C20 alkyl and c is 2.0-6.4, a titanium halide TiX24, wherein X2 is a halogen, and a carboxylic acid ester are contacted and reacted at a certain temperature. The process is mainly characterized in that said composition is prepared in liquid form by using
(a) as said carboxylic acid ester a carboxylic acid alkyl
ester having at least 8-n carbon atoms and being expressed by
the following Formula (V)
wherein R is an n-valent substituted or unsubstituted Ci-C34 hydrocarbon group, R' is a C^-Cjo alkyl group, and n is a number between 1 and 4;
(b) a molar ratio R (COOR' )n/MgX12-cR1OH, which is 2 about 0.8/n;
(c) a molar ratio TiX^/MgX^-cR'OH, which is a approx. c;
(d) optionally an organic dissolving substance S; and
(e) as said certain temperature a value between 40 and 200 °C.
In this connection, also, it is preferable that said carboxylic acid ester R(COOR')n is a carboxylic acid ester having at least 12 carbon atoms, more preferably such a carboxylic acid C6-C20 alkyl ester. Even more preferably said carboxylic acid ester R(COOR')n is an ot, /3-unsaturated carboxylic acid C6-C20 alkyl ester, more preferably an aromatic carboxylic acid C6-C20 alkyl ester, most preferably a phthalic acid C6-C20 alkyl ester, and most preferably a phthalic acid C8-C14 alkyl ester.
The halogen X1 of the complex MgX'2 • cR'OH is preferably chlorine and, independently, the group R1 in the alcohol R'OH of the complex is preferably a C,-C12 alcohol and more preferably a C2-C8 alcohol, such as ethanol. Most preferably the complex MgXl2 • cR'OH used in the process is the complex MgCl2-cC2H5OH, wherein c is 2-6, preferably about 3. It can thus be seen that, in accordance with the present invention, a usable soluble composition can be prepared from the complex of magnesium chloride and ethanol, known from the heterogenous catalysis.
It is preferable that the halogen, i.e. X2, in the titanium halide is chlorine, in which case there will be a titanium tetrachloride molecule in the composition. In a reaction between the complex MgX^-cR'OH and a titanium halide there may be formed small amounts of titanium trichloride alkoxide, part of which may remain as a small portion of the final composition. The patent's scope of protection also covers a composition containing small amounts (=s about 10 molar % of the total amount of titanium) of such a component and a process for preparing such a composition.
The ratio TiX^/MgXVcR'OH is preferably ;> about 1.7-c, more preferably between 10 and 100, most preferably between 20 and 50, when c is between 2.0 and 6.4. The process temperature is preferably between 60 and 140 °C, most preferably between 80 and 120 °C.
As is evident from the above, the molar ratio of the carboxylic acid ester to the magnesium halide may vary widely. The ratio depends very much also on other factors, such as the donor used, the solvents used, the solvent amount used, and the temperature used in the preparation of the composition. All of these parameters can be adjusted empirically so that the ester content in the composition will be sufficient and suitable for producing a soluble composition.
In the process according to the invention it is preferable to use as the carboxylic acid ester a compound according to the formula Ph(COOR2)2, wherein Ph stands for orthophenylene and R2 stands for a C6-C20 alkyl, preferably a C8-CI4 alkyl, and preferably a molar ratio of R (COOR') n/Mg, which is a about 1/n and most preferably between 1/n and 20/n.
According to one embodiment, said complex MgX'j-nR'OH, said titanium tetrahalide TiX24 and said carboxylic acid ester R(COOR')n are contacted with an organic compound S, preferably a chlorinated hydrocarbon and/or an aromatic hydrocarbon, most preferably an aromatic hydrocarbon such as toluene, which dissolves said reaction product. The molar ratio TiX24/S is in this case preferably between 0.5 and 20, most preferably between 1 and 6.
According to one embodiment, the contacting step in the process precedes the heating step. According to one embodiment of the invention:
(a) the first complex MgX^-cR^H, the titanium halide TiX24 and
optionally the dissolving substance S are contacted, whereby
a first contact product is formed;
(b) the first contact product of step (a) is contacted with
said carboxylic acid ester R(COOR')n/ whereby a second contact
product is formed.
In step (b) the carboxylic acid ester R(COOR')n is added to the contact product preferably gradually, preferably within 10-60 minutes. In this case the heating of the forming second contact product can be carried out gradually in said step (b) during the adding of the carboxylic acid ester, for example so that the adding is started at room temperature, about 20 °C, and at the end of the adding a temperature of at least about 50 °C is reached.
As the procedure has been in the embodiment examples 1 and 2 appended to the present application, the composition may be left in solution and may, when so desired, be used as a
homogenous catalyst or as a homogenous starting substance for other catalysts. According to one embodiment, however, the process according to the invention comprises an additional step, in which the dissolved composition is isolated by precipitation. In this case the precipitation can be carried out either by cooling, for example to room temperature, a reaction solution in which the composition is in solution largely in an excess of the titanium halide TiX24, whereafter the precipitated composition is separated from the rest of the reaction solution, or by adding to a reaction solution in which the composition is in solution largely in an excess of the titanium halide TiX24 a precipitating hydrocarbon, preferably a C5-C10 alkane such as heptane, either all at once, gradually or periodically, whereafter the precipitated composition is separated from the rest of the reaction solution.
A novel soluble composition containing magnesium, titanium, a halide and a carboxylic acid ester and a process for the preparation thereof has been described above. The invention also relates to the use of said composition, or a composition prepared by said process, as a catalyst in the polymerization, i.e. homo- or copolymerization, of ethylenically unsaturated monomers and preferably ethylene, propylene and other a-ole-fins. Said composition may, when necessary, be used as a catalyst together with an organometallic compound of a metal of any of groups 1, 2, 12 or 13 (IUPAC 1990) of the Periodic Table of the Elements, used as a cocatalyst.
Another area of use of the composition according to the invention relates to the preparation of polymerization catalysts. Thus the composition according to the invention can be used as an initial substance or as an intermediate in the preparation of catalysts or catalyst components intended for the polymerization, i.e. homo- or copolymerization, of ethylenically unsaturated monomers, such as ethylene and other a-olefins. Finally invention relates to polymerization products, i.e. polymers, catalyzed by using a composition
according to the invention and to catalysts or catalyst components prepared from a composition according to the invention.
The present publication thus describes a new soluble magnesium halide - titanium halide - ester composition having catalytic polymerization activity. The invention is illustrated below with examples, of which the first two concern the preparation of a homogenous (catalyst) composition in solution, the third example describes the bringing of the (catalyst) composition to solid form, and the fourth example concerns the preparation of a (catalyst) composition, its bringing into a solid form, and its use for gas phase copolymerization. In examples 5 to 8, compositions based on different carboxylic acid esters have been prepared, analyzed and tested. The following examples are only by way of illustrating the invention.
Preparation of a soluble composition
150 ml of toluene was introduced into a one-liter jacketed reactor in inert conditions at room temperature. 25.0 g of MgCl2-3EtOH material was added into the reactor. The stirring speed of the reactor was 150 r/min. Then 300 ml of TiCl4 was added.
After the slurry had been prepared, the adding of the electron donor, i.e. undecylphthalate (DUP), was started, the adding taking place gradually, while the reaction temperature was raised at the same time by using a temperature profile of +1.5 °C/min. The added DUP amounts and the corresponding adding temperature are shown in Table 1.
Adding of DUP to the reaction mixture and the corresponding temperatures. The total amount of DUP added was 20 ml (0.04 mol)
When the temperature of the mixture was raised further, the color of the liquid became darker and slightly brownish red. When a temperature of 129.0 °C had been reached, the reaction mixture was kept at that temperature for one hour. Thereafter the reaction mixture was filtered to indicate any undissolved ingredient. However, the dissolving had been substantially complete.
Finally 300 ml of TiCl4 was added. The obtained solution was completely clear, and no solids were visible.
Preparation of another soluble composition
150 ml of toluene was introduced into a one-liter jacketed reactor in inert conditions at room temperature. 25.0 g of MgCl2'3EtOH material was added into the reactor. The speed of the stirrer was 150 r/min. Next, 300 ml of TiCl4 was added. The liquid in the mixture became dark red. After the dispersion had been prepared, the adding of the donor, i.e. di-undecyl-phthalate (DUP) was started, the reaction temperature being at the same time raised using a temperature profile of +1.5 °C/min. The DUP amounts added and the corresponding
adding temperatures are shown in Table 2. In total, 25 ml of DUP was added.
Adding of DUP to the reaction mixture and the corresponding adding temperatures. The total amount of DUP added was 25 ml (0.05 mol)
Time from the first Temperature of Added DUP
addition (min) the mixture (°C) (ml)
The reaction mixture had not yet dissolved immediately after the adding of DUP. The stirring speed was 160 r/min. When the temperature was raised further, the liquid in the mixture became darker and somewhat reddish brown. When the temperature was 129.3 °C, the reaction mixture was very dark. It was noted that the catalyst components had dissolved. This showed that all solid magnesium chloride insoluble in titanium tetrachlor-ide and toluene had disappeared and a soluble composition had formed.
Preparation, separation and analysis of a composition
75 ml of toluene was introduced into a one-liter jacketed reactor in inert conditions at room temperature. 12.5 g of MgCl2-3EtOH was added into the reactor. The stirring speed was 150 r/min. The temperature was lowered to 0 °C. Thereafter 150 ml of TiCl4 was added, whereupon the mixture became dark red. Thereafter the temperature of the mixture was raised at a rate of +0.25 -°C/min. When the temperature was 22.6 °C,
12.5 ml of the donor, i.e. di-undecylphthalate (DUP) , was added. Thereafter the reaction temperature was raised at a rate of +1.5 °C/min.
Immediately upon the adding of the donor the mixture still
contained undissolved material. The stirring speed was
200 r/min. When the temperature was raised further, the
mixture became dark and turned slightly more brick red. When
the temperature was 94.7 °C, the reaction mixture was very
dark. All of the catalyst components had dissolved. This
showed that a soluble composition had formed.
The solution was transferred into a one-liter vessel and was
allowed to cool to room temperature, at which time the
composition was allowed to precipitate and deposit on the
bottom of the vessel. Thereafter the liquid was syphoned off
as precisely as possible.
The precipitated composition was washed twice with 150 ml of heptane at room temperature, whereafter the composition was dried in a nitrogen stream until it was completely dry. The chemical composition of the product was analyzed. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 3.
Chemical composition of the solidified composition
Hardly any di-ethylphthalate was found in the composition. Instead, it contained a small amount of ethoxide EtO-, which originated in the reaction between TiCl4 and the first complex
MgCl2-3EtOH. Calculated as ethanol EtOH, the concentration of EtOH was 1.6 %, i.e. 7.96 mol.%. However, the results show that hardly any inter-esterification had occurred between di-undecylphthalate and ethanol. Although the composition contained slightly less magnesium than required by a precise composition, its approximate formula was as follows:
An X-ray diffraction spectrum was also taken of the solid composition. The diffraction pattern has a typical peak at 50° 2theta and a halo between 30° and 35° 2theta. In addition, there is a considerable second halo between 15° and 22° 2theta. This second halo does not appear in the corresponding X-ray diffraction of a heterogenous MgCl2-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst. By a heterogenous MgCl2-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst is meant here a MgCl2/TiCl4/internal electron donor catalyst.
The results show that the composition prepared had a clearly demonstrable chemical composition and a distinct X-ray diffraction spectrum.
Use of the composition as a polymerization catalyst
200 ml of toluene was introduced into a one-liter jacketed reactor in inert conditions. 25.0 g of MgCl2-3EtOH material was added into the reactor. Thereafter, 25.0 ml of di-undecyl-phthalate (DUP) was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction solution was stirred for 30 min at room temperature (22 °C). The stirring speed was 150 r/min.
After the reaction suspension had stabilized for 30 min, 300 ml of TiCl4 was added. Thereafter the temperature was raised rapidly to 100 °C. At 86 °C all the components had already dissolved, i.e. reacted to form a soluble composition.
When the mixture, i.e. the solution, in the reactor was completely clear, the composition was precipitated out from the solution by adding heptane to the solution. The heptane amounts added are shown in Table 4, together with the temperature of the reaction solution. In order to avoid a drastic cooling effect, the heptane was preheated to 90 °C before the adding.
Heptane amounts added and reaction solution temperatures used
Adding time (min) Reaction solution Heptane amount
After the adding of the heptane the reaction solution was allowed to cool to 65 °C, and the composition was allowed to settle on the bottom. Thereafter the solution was filtered off and the catalyst composition was washed four times with 400 ml of heptane. Finally the catalyst composition was dried in the nitrogen stream. The chemical composition of the catalyst composition was measured. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 5.
Table 5Chemical composition of the catalyst(Table Removed)
No trans -esterif led di- ethylphthalate was found in the catalyst composition. Thus the chemical composition of the catalyst composition was very close to the following:
The catalyst composition was recovered for test polymerization. 20.2 mg of said catalyst composition was weighed for the copolymerization of propylene and ethylene. Tri-isobutylaluminum (TIBA) was used as a cocatalyst. The Al/Ti molar ratio was 200. Cyclohexylmethyldimethoxysilane (CMMS) was used as an external donor. The molecular weight was adjusted by adding 4 mmol of H2. The cocatalyst and the external donor were pre- contacted in 30 ml of pentane before use, whereafter one half of the solution was fed directly into a gas phase reactor and the other half was pre- contacted with the catalyst composition before the adding of the catalyst. The propylene monomer feed contained ethylene comonomer 4.7 %. The polymerization was carried out at a temperature of 70 °C and a total pressure of 7.4 bar for 2 hours.
25 g of copolymer was obtained as the result. The corresponding activity was 1.23 kg EP/g cat and 20.2 kg EP/g Ti. According to infrared spectra, the polymer contained ethylene units 7.8 %, out of which 4.7 % were in a random pattern, which caused a 60 % random distribution.
This test polymerization result showed clearly that the novel composition had catalytic polymerization activity.
Preparation of a soluble MgCl2-TiCl4-D, composition, wherein Dt stands for a phthalic acid higher alkyl ester
These examples describe the preparation of a MgCl2 -catalyst composition by using different types of long- chain alkyl esters of phthalic acid. Four phthalic acid esters (Dj)
were used in the examples, i.e. di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DOP), di-isodecylphthalate (DIEP), di-undecylphthalate (DUP), and di-tridecylphthalate (DTDP). The polymerization active complexes were analyzed and their efficiency in bulk homo-polymerizations of propylene were investigated. In this context, the word "complex" can be used of the composition according to the invention without limiting the protective scope, since the molecular composition of the product is very uniform.
Synthesis of the MgCl2-TiCl4-D1 composition
12.5 g (131.4 mmol) of MgCl2- 3EtOH complex was fed into a thermostat-controlled glass reactor. The MgCl2-3EtOH complex had been prepared by spray crystallization. 100 ml (0.94 mol) of toluene and thereafter 150 ml (1.37 mol) of titanium tetra-chloride TiCl4 were added. All of the additions were done at room temperature. The molar ratio TiCl4/toluene was 3:2. Last, 65.7 mmol of the phthalic acid ester concerned was added. The molar ratio of the ester to magnesium was 0.5. The temperature was raised in the course of an hour to 100 °C, and the reaction mixture was kept at that temperature for 30 min in order to obtain a clear solution which no longer contained any solid matter. Thus a soluble MgCl2-TiCl4-DUP composition was formed. The molar ratio of the titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 to the composition was about 20. Thereafter the solution was allowed to cool to about 90 °C, and 550 ml of cold heptane was added. Thereby the temperature was lowered to about 70 °C, and the composition precipitated in the form of a yellow mass. After the solution composed of toluene, titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 and titanium trichloride ethoxide TiCl3OR had been removed by decanting, the solid composition was washed three times with 650 ml of heptane. The product was dried with nitrogen.
The product was analyzed for Ti, Mg, Cl, phthalic acid ester and any phthalic acid mixed esters, as well as for phthalic acid anhydride. The product was also analyzed for its ethanol content, which was considered to be derived from titanium trichloride ethoxide TiCl3-OEt remaining in the product. In addition, the composition was re-dissolved in 500 ml (4.7 mol) of toluene in order to obtain better morphology. In order to improve solubility, the temperature was raised to 90 °C. When a clear solution had been produced, it was allowed to cool in half an hour to a temperature of about 30-40 °C. Thereafter 330 ml of heptane was added and the composition re-precipitated. Finally the composition was washed three times with 500 ml of heptane. After drying, the composition was analyzed in the same manner as described above.
Propylene was polymerized in a stirred tank reactor having a volume of 5 liters. About 0.9 ml of a triethylaluminum cocat-alyst, about 0.5 ml of a 25 vol.% n-heptane solution of cyclo-hexylmethyldimethoxysilane (external donor) and 30 ml of n-pentane were mixed together and were reacted for 5 minutes. One-half of the obtained mixture was fed into the polymerization reactor and the other half was mixed with about 20 mg of a catalyst consisting of said composition. After five more minutes, the catalyst/TEA/external donor/n-heptane mixture was fed into the reactor. The molar ratio Al/Ti was 250 and the molar ratio Al/external donor was 10. 70 mmol of hydrogen and 1400 g of propylene were added into the reactor, and the temperature was raised within 15-30 min to 70 °C. The polymerization time was 60 min, whereafter the formed polymer was removed from the reactor. The melt flow rate (MFR2) , bulk density (BD) and xylene-soluble total fraction (TS) were determined from the polymer.
In the preparation of the composition, probably the following reactions occur in the titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) - toluene solution:
MgCl2-3ROH(s) + 3TiCl4(1) + TiCl4(1) =
MgCl2*(s) + 3TiCl3-OR(1) + TiCl4(1) + x HCL^ (1)
When titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 reacts with the alcohol ROH of the complex MgCl2-3ROH, there forms hydrogen chloride, which leaves in the form of gas. The titanium trichloride ethoxide TiCl3OEt is first partly solid, partly in solution in an excess of titanium tetrachloride, but as the temperature rises, most of this titanium trichloride ethoxide dissolves. The MgCl2* releasing from its alcohol complex is in an amorphous state. Some of the titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 and some of the titanium trichloride ethoxide react with the amorphous magnesium chloride MgCl2*.
After a long-chain alkyl ester of phthalic acid, such as DUP, has been added, there occurs a reaction of dissolving in un-reacted titanium tetrachloride TiCl4:
2MgCl2*(s) + DUP(1) + TiCl4(1) + xTiC!4(1) =
MgCl2TiCl4DUP(1) - - xTiC!4(1) (2)
At this stage, a clear solution has formed. When heptane (C7) is added, the dissolving TiCl4 is eluted from the complex and the complex precipitates:
MgCl2TiCl4DUP--xTiCl4(1) + C7 =
MgCl2TiCl4DUP(s) + xTiC!4--C7 (3)
Also a small amount of titanium trichloride ethoxide precipitates together with the complex. The invention relates both to a complex without titanium trichloride ethoxide and a complex which contains some titanium trichloride ethoxide. During the
hydrocarbon wash, some titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 and some phthalic acid higher alkyl ester DUP are removed from the complex, at a molar ratio of TiCl4/DUP = 1:1.
The purpose of the above explanation model is only to illustrate the invention and by no means to limit the patent protection of the invention. There may be also other explanations for the phenomena of the invention.
Preparation of catalytic compositions
The preparation of precipitated compositions took place without difficulty. After 15 ml of liquid TiCl4 had been added to a slurry of toluene and the complex MgCl2-3EtOH, the color of the slurry became red. After another 15 ml of TiCl4 had been added, the color of the slurry was dark red. After the adding of the phthalic acid ester there formed a dark red solution which became completely clear when heated to 100 °C. When heptane was added, a yellow precipitate formed. Upon being dried the precipitate became tarry.
All of the precipitates dissolved well in hot toluene. In most cases the morphology improved upon re-precipitation. Only when di-undecylphthalate DUP was used did re-precipitation not improve the morphology. When di-tridecylphthalate DTDP was used, two precipitates were obtained when the toluene solution was treated with heptane: one dark and coarse (cf. Example 8b) and the other lighter and more fine-grained (cf. Example 8c). The numbers of the examples, the phthalates used in them, and their outer appearance and morphology are shown in Table 6.
Chemical composition of the compositions
Table 7 shows the chemical composition of the compositions. In Table 8 the composition is shown as molar proportions, and in Table 9 these molar proportions are compared with the molar amount of titanium. The results show that the compositions of all of the products are close to a 1:1:1 composition, in which
the numbers refer to titanium tetrachloride TiCl4, magnesium chloride MgCl2 and a phthalic acid higher alkyl ester Dt. Only in the dark coarse re-precipitate of Example 8b was the magnesium Mg content higher. Otherwise the atom ratio Mg/Ti was between 0.7 and 0.8. The amount of phthalic acid ester was even closer to the titanium amounts, the molar ratio D^Ti being in most cases between 0.8 and 0.9.
The amount of alcohol, or ethanol, reflects the amount of titanium in the form of titanium trichloride ethoxide, because the alcohol amount given by the analysis is viewed as being derived from said titanium trichloride ethoxide. In these examples the amount of alcohol is very low, which means that less than 10 % of the total amount of titanium is in the form of titanium trichloride ethoxide. The amount varies between 5 and 8 mol-% of the total amount of titanium. The compositions also contain small amounts of trans-esterified phthalate, its percentage being about 10 %.
There was no systematic trend as a function of the length of the phthalate alkyl chain. Instead, the results seem to be constant regardless of which phthalate alkyl was used in the synthesis of the composition.
Test polymerization of the compositions
All of the compositions were test polymerized in accordance with the description of the experimental section. The test polymerization results are shown in Table 10. The results are also shown in Figures 1 and 2. The polymer material obtained from the reactor was wool-like, and it had a low bulk density.
All of the activities were low, being between 1 and 3 kg PP/g cat composition. The activity with respect to titanium was between 20 and 40 kg PP/g Ti. With respect to magnesium Mg, a
slight trend was observed that as the magnesium concentration increased, the activity increased.
The melt flow rate MFR2, which indicates the hydrogen sensitivity of the catalyst, varied only slightly, between 5 and 7. There was no systematic trend.
As was stated above, the polymer product had a poor morphology. This was to be expected, because the morphology of the catalyst is usually repeated in polymers, and if the morphology of the catalyst is indefinite, the morphology of the polymer is also indefinite. In one experiment the bulk density was only 70 kg/m3.
Xylene-soluble total fraction TS
Again, no systematic trend was observable between the TS values and the chain lengths of the phthalate alkyls used. There is, however, a clear difference between the TS values of polymers produced by using newly precipitated compositions and the TS values of polymers produced by using compositions which had been re-dissolved or washed with toluene. The TS values decreased clearly by more than one percentage point in those polymers which were produced by using compositions washed with toluene (cf. Figure 2).
Examples 5-8 describe a process for the preparation of a soluble catalyst composition or catalyst complex MgCl2-TiCl^D, by using long-chain alkyl esters (Dt) of phthalic acids. The examples show that the composition according to the invention has in the described conditions the approximate composition MgCl2-TiCl4-D,. The catalyst complex is prepared by reacting
MgCl2-3EtOH with titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 in a toluene solution. After the long-chain alkyl ester of phthalic acid, such as di-undecylphthalate (DUP), has been added at a molar ratio of mg/DUP = 0.5, a soluble catalyst complex forms. This catalyst complex MgCl^TiCl^D, is soluble not only in titanium tetrachloride TiCl4 but also in toluene. Four different phthalic acid esters were used, i.e. di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DOP), di-isodecylphthalate (DIDP), di-undecylphthalate (DUP), and di-tridecylphthalate (DTDP). The examples show that the solubility of the catalyst complexes formed was good. In standard tests of bulk polymerization of propylene, the activity of the complexes was between 1 and 3 kg PP/g cat complex, and the MFR2 of the polymer product was between 6 and 7. The xylene-soluble total fraction (TS) was between 2 and 3 %, and it dropped to below 2 % when the catalyst complex had been washed with toluene.
Donors in the synthesis, carbon numbers of the donor alkyls, and toluene washes. DOP = di-ethylhexylphthalate, DIDP = di-isodecylphthalate, DUP = di-undecylphthalate, DTDP = di-tridecylphthalate . (Table Removed)
Chemical composition of the compositions. EOF = ethyloctylphthalate, DEP = di-ethylphthalate, EIDP = ethyl-isodecylphthalate, EUP = ethyl-undecylphthalate, ETDP ethyltridecylphthalate, PSA = phthalic acid anhydride.
(Table Removed)Table 8
Molar proportions in the composition
(Table Removed)Table 9
Molar proportions of compositions in comparison to titanium
Test polymerizations of compositions(Table Removed)
1. A process for the preparation of a catalyst composition containing magnesium, titanium, a halogen and a carboxylic acid ester, said process comprises the step of;
a. contacting MgX1? cRK)! 1, and titanium halide with a carboxylic acid ester and optionally an organic dissolving compound S, at a temperature in the range of 4()°C to 200°C to obtain the composition^
b* which io oepai'fllcd in a manner as hereindescribed; Wherein,
the "carboxylic acid ester have at least 8 n carbon atoms according to Formula (V)
wherein R is an n valent substituted or unsubstituted Ci-C/M hydrocarbon group, R' is a Ci-C:>oalkyl group and n is a number between 1 and /l. X1 is a halogen, R1 is a Ci-Cao alkyl and c is a number between 2.0 and 6.0 and X2 is a halogen; and wherein,
(a) a molar ratio of R(COOR')n/M.gX12- cR'Ql I, which is
(b) a molar ratio of TiX2i/ MgX12, is>"^^fel c
2. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein R(COOR'),, is a carboxylic acid
ester having at least 12 carbon atoms, preferably a carboxylic acid C;, C?o alkyl
3. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein R(CXX)R'),, is an a, p-
unsaturated carboxylic acid ester, preferably an aromatic carboxylic acid Cs
C20 alkyl ester, most preferably a phthalic acid di-C(,-C?o alkyl ester, most
preferably a phthalic acid di-~ Cg-C-14 alkyl ester.
4. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein X1 is chlorine.
5. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein X2 is chlorine.
6. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the complex MgXV cR'Ol 1, R1
is a Ci-Ci2 alkyl, preferably a Ca-Cs alkyl, e. g. -C?! I;,, c in the complex being,
for example, 2-6 preferably 3.
7. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the molar ratio of
R(CCX)R')n/MgX12- cIOl 1 is 1/n.
8. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the preferred carboxylic acid ester is having formula Ph. (COOR2)?., wherein Ph stands for orthophenylene and R2 stands for a Cf,-C2o alkyl, preferably a Cs-Ci.-i alkyl and the molar ratio of gX1:)- cR'Ol 1 is 1/n, preferably in the range of 1/n to 20/n.
9. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the molar ratio of TiX2]/ MgX';, is
> 1.7c, more preferably in the range of ]() to TOO, most preferably in the range
of 20 to 50.
10. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the reaction temperature is in the
range of 60°C to 140°C, preferably in the range of 80°C to 12()°C.
11. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the organic: compound S is
selected from a group comprising chlorinated hydrocarbon, aromatic
hydrocarbon and preferably an aromatic hydrocarbon.
12. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the organic compound S is
13. The process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the molar ratio of TLX2i /S is in
the range of 0.5 to 20 and preferably in the range of 1 to 6.
14. The process as claimed in claim 1, whereinf«rfV\ ^OEjp (ty f
(a) complex MgX1?- cRK)! 1, Titanium halide TiX:'i and the optional
organic compound S are 'contacted, whereupon a first contact
product is formed as herein described, and
(b) the first contact product is contacted with the carboxylic acid
ester R(COOR')n to obtain a second contact product as herein
15. The process as claimed in claim 14, wherein in step (b) the carboxylic acid
ester R(COOR')n is added to the first contact product gradually, preferably
within 10-60 min.
L^ 1 _/
an excess of titanium halide TiX2i, thereafter the composition is precipitated from the rest of the reaction solution.
. The process as claimed in claim 14, wherein optionally precipitating hydrocarbon is preferably a Cs-Cio alkarie.
A process tor the preparation of a composition such as herein described with reference to accompanying examples.
|Indian Patent Application Number||843/DEL/1997|
|PG Journal Number||28/2008|
|Date of Filing||31-Mar-1997|
|Name of Patentee||BOREALIS A/S.|
|PCT International Classification Number||C08F 4/44|
|PCT International Application Number||N/A|
|PCT International Filing date|