Title of Invention  A METHOD FOR ADAPTIVE DIVERSITY COMBINING FOR WIDE BAND CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS 

Abstract  The present invention provides a method for adaptive diversity combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) comprising:  splitting multipath interference into Iknown and Iunknown components,  precomputing said Iknown interference components,  iteratively estimating channel interference after removing components of the multipath interference from the pilot symbols,  using the convergence/divergence of the iteration as an indicator of the channel condition, and  selecting the combining technique (MRC or EGC) automatically depending on the channel condition. The instant invention also provides a system and configured computer program product for carrying out the above method. 
Full Text  This invention relates to Adaptive Diversity Combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) based on Iterative Channel Estimation. BACKGROUND Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) is a technique used to combine the different multipath components from the fingers of a Rake Receiver in CDMA systems. In ideal conditions, MRC is known to provide better Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) than Equal Gain Combining (EGC) which is another well understood combining technique. However, MRC requires estimation of the channel impulse response. When the channel estimates are not reliable, as could happen in severe channel conditions, the performance of MRC degrades. With nonideal channel estimates the performance of MRC can degrade below that of EGC. This is because EGC does not use any channel estimates for combining the paths and therefore its performance is independent of the channel conditions. Channel Estimation is done on pilot symbols. In the downlink of WCDMA, the only source of interference is the multipath interference. The pilot symbols are degraded by multipath interference. The level of degradation will depend on the level of multipath interference. Hence the reliability of the channel estimates too will depend on the level of multipath interference. Therefore for more reliable channel estimates to be obtained, the effect of multipath interference on the pilot symbols has to be removed. It follows that a better receiver would be the one, which chooses its combining technique based on the channel conditions. The problem of the performance degradation of MRC due to nonideal channel estimates has not been addressed so far. The object of this invention is to obviate this drawback. To achieve the said objective, this invention provides a method for adaptive diversity combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) comprising: splitting multipath interference into Iknown and lunknown components, precomputing said Iknown interference components, iteratively estimating channel interference after removing Iknown components of the multipath interference from the pilot symbols, using the convergence/divergence of the iteration as an indicator of the channel condition, and selecting the combining technique (MRC or EGC) automatically depending on the channel condition. EGC is selected if said iteration diverges and MRC is selected if it converges. The precomputation of said Iknown interference components is calculated by the following formulae where, c1 = refined channel estimate of Ith finger d1 = despread data of Ith finger cm = channel estimate of mth path SN = signal component that will be received if no path other than path / is present The refined channel estimates c" are obtained using the following iteration where c1(n) = nth iterative value of channel estimate d1(j) =jth despread data of Ith finger m(n1) = (nl)th refined channel estimate of mth path The saidconvergence of the iteration is monitored using the following formula where d = convergence measurement parameter c1(n) = nth iterative value of channel estimate cm(n1) = (n1 )th refined channel estimate of mth An increasing value of convergence measurement parameter indicates a diverging iteration while a reducing value of convergence measurement parameter indicates a converging iteration and the iteration is stopped when the following condition is satisfied wherein δth is fixed depending on the degree of refinement required for the channel estimates where, δ = convergence of iteration δth = predefined threshold value of refinement required for channel estimate The instant invention also provides a system for adaptive diversity combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) comprising: means for splitting multipath interference into Iknown and lunknown components, means for precomputing said Iknown interference components, means for iteratively estimating interference after removing IKNOWN components of the multipath interference from the pilot symbols, means for monitoring the convergence/divergence of the iteration as an indicator of the channel condition, and means for selecting the combining technique (MRC or EGC) automatically depending on the channel condition. The said means for selecting chooses EGC if said iteration diverges and MRC if said iteration converges. The means for precomputation of said Iknown interference components uses following formulae where, ci = refined channel estimate of Ith finger di = despread data of Ith finger Cm = channel estimate of mth path S11 = signal component that will be received if no path other than path / is present The said means for iterative estimation uses: where c1(n) = nth iterative value of channel estimate d1(j) jth despread data oilth finger cm(n1)  (nl)th refined channel estimate of mth path The said means for monitoring uses: where = convergence of iteration ci(n) = nth iterative value of channel estimate cm(n1) = (nl)th refined channel estimate of mth The said means for monitoring uses an increasing value of convergence measurement parameter to indicate a diverging iteration and a reducing value of convergence measurement parameter to indicate a converging iteration and the iteration is stopped when the following condition is satisfied wherein δth is fixed depending on the degree of refinement required for the channel estimates where, δ = convergence of iteration δth = predefined threshold value of refinement required for channel estimate The invention further provides a computer program product comprising computer readable program code stored on computer readable storage medium embodied therein for adaptive diversity combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) comprising: computer readable program code means configured for splitting multipath interference into components, computer readable program code means configured for precomputing said Iknown interference components, computer readable program "code means configured for iteratively estimating interference after removing Iknown components of the multipath interference from the pilot symbols, computer readable program code means configured for monitoring the convergence/divergence of the iteration as an indicator of the channel condition, and computer readable program code means configured for selecting the combining technique (MRC or EGC) automatically depending on the channel condition. The said computer readable program code means configured for selecting chooses EGk. if said iteration diverges and MRC if said iteration converges. The computer readable program code means configured for precomputation of said Iknown interference components uses following formulae where, c1  refined channel estimate of Ith finger d1 = despread data of Ith finger Cm = channel estimate of mth path SN = signal component that will be received if no path other than path / is present The said computer readable program code means configured for iterative estimation uses: where c/"^ = nth iterative value of channel estimate i//(j) =Jth despread data of Ith finger Ca/""^^  (n1 )th refined channel estimate of mth path The said computer readable program code means configured for monitoring uses: where = convergence of iteration c1(n) = nth iterative value of channel estimate Cm(n1) = (nl)th refined channel estimate of mth The said computer readable program code means configured for monitoring uses an increasing value of convergence measurement parameter to indicate a diverging i iteration and a reducing value of convergence measurement parameter to indicate a / converging iteration and the iteration is stopped when the following condition is satisfied wherein δth is fixed depending on the degree of refinement required for the channel estimates δ where, 5 = convergence of iteration 5th  predefined threshold value of refinement required for channel estimate. Brief description of the drawing: Fig. 1 shows the flow diagram for adaptive diversity combining for wide band code division multiple access (WCDMA) according to this invention. Detailed description of the drawing: Referring to drawings, figure 1 illustrates adaptive diversity combining for Wide,Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) comprising precomputing (2) Iknown component of the multipath interference followed by iterative estimation of channel interference (3) after isolating said Iknown components from the pilot symbols. EGC is selected (4) if said iteration diverges and MRC is selected (5) if it converges (6). The jth despread data fiom the Ith finger of a Rake receiver in a DSCDMA system can be expressed as where, u is scrambling code, g is the spreading code cms the channel coefficients, tms are the channel tap delays and s is the transmitted chirp. The channel is modelled as a tapped delay line. L1 is the period of the walsh spreading code that is used and j is equal to the integral value of A/I/. K1 and K2 are such that K1 = mod(k,L]) and K2 = mod(k,L2) where mod represents the modulo operator and L2 is the period of the scrambling code that is used. The noise component is neglected. Let and Then S11 is the signal component that will be received if no path other than path / is present. I1m is the interference on path / due to the existence of path m. Hence the actual received signal when a particular path component is despread can be expressed as the sum of signal from own path and the interference components from all other paths. In the above equations tm denotes the delay produced by path m. These delay values are known from the output of a multipath searcher. With t1 ... tN being known, the only unknown term in these equations is the transmitted chirp s. It follows that if a continuous stream of pilot bits is transmitted, then the receiver will have knowledge of s and hence S11 and I1,m=1) can be calculated for all / and all m=l. If the only channel in the downlink is a pilot stream and if the path profile is entirely known and if the noise component is neglected, the ideal channel estimation problem becomes the problem of solving a system of simultaneous equations as shown below. Hence for this case the channel coefficients can be determined exactly by solving the above system of equations. In the actual scenario, a multitude of channels exist simultaneously in ttie downlink, carrying the data for multiple users. For multiple channels in the downlink, the above analysis has to be modified. For this case, the interference component is split into two, namely, Iknown and Iunknown Iknawn consists of all interference components that can be calculated at the mobile receiver with the knowledge of the multipath profile. This will include the selfinterference due to same spreading code from other paths. It can also include the other channels in the downlink of which the mobile receiver has information, for example the auxiliary pilot channels. For each path, these components are clubbed under Iknownn The multipath interference components caused by other users" spreading codes cannot be calculated by the mobile receiver as the spreading and scrambling codes are unknown. Also, if the number of paths detected by the searcher is less than the number of taps of the channel, the interference caused by the extra paths cannot be determined at the UE. Noise can also be considered as producing a form of interference. All these components are clubbed under Iunknown for all the paths. With this we have. The entire unknown interference on path I from path m, including the noise effect, is clubbed under the term ITERA TIVE CHANNEL ESTIMA TION From the above equations, are precomputed once the pathprofile is known. The initial values of c1 for all are obtained by Refined estimates c1(n") are obtained using the following iteration; Convergence of the iteration is monitored using the term If 5 is increasing after a few iterations, then the iteration diverges. If S is decreasing, the iteration converges. A converging iteration is stopped when the condition is met. Sth, is fixed depending on the degree of refinement required for the channel estimates. Convergence of the above iteration depends on the magnitude of Iunknown relative to Iknown For Small and intermediate values of Iunknown the iteration converges while for large values of lunknown the iteration diverges. The adaptive combining technique is derived from the observations made in the above two sections. These observations are listed below When interference is high the channel estimates are bad and hence performance of MRC becomes worse than that of EGC When unknown interference is high the channel estimates cannot be refined and the iterative estimation diverges. From the above, it can be observed that if the iteration diverges then it is also likely that the MRC performance is degraded because of bad channel estimates. From these an iterative algorithm is obtained which is shown below. This algorithm selects the diversity combining technique depending on the channel conditions. If the channel is bad and the interference is high then it selects EGC. When the interference is low and the channel estimates are reliable, it selects MRC as the combining technique. We claim: 1, A method for adaptive diversity combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) comprising: splitting multipath interference into Iknown and lunknown components, precomputing said Iknown interference components as herein described, iteratively estimating channel interference after removing Iknown components of the multipath interference from the pilot symbols as herein described, using the convergence/divergence of the iteration as an indicator of the channel condition as herein described, and selecting the combining technique (MRC or EGC) automatically depending on the channel condition. 2, A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein EGC is selected if said iteration diverges and MRC is selected if it converges. 3. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein an increasing value of convergence measurement parameter indicates a diverging iteration while a reducing value of convergence measurement parameter indicates a converging iteration and the iteration is stopped when δ 4. A method for adaptive diversity combining for Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawing. 

0328mas2000 abstractduplicate.pdf
0328mas2000 claimsduplicate.pdf
0328mas2000 correspondenceothers.pdf
0328mas2000 correspondencepo.pdf
0328mas2000 description (complete)duplicate.pdf
0328mas2000 description(complete).pdf
0328mas2000 description(provisional).pdf
0328mas2000 drawingsduplicate.pdf
Patent Number  216191  

Indian Patent Application Number  328/MAS/2000  
PG Journal Number  13/2008  
Publication Date  31Mar2008  
Grant Date  10Mar2008  
Date of Filing  27Apr2000  
Name of Patentee  SILICON AUTOMATION SYSTEMS LTD  
Applicant Address  3008, 12TH B MAIN, 8TH CROSS, HAL, 2ND STAGE, INDIRANAGAR, BANGALORE  560 008,  
Inventors:


PCT International Classification Number  H04L 25/02  
PCT International Application Number  N/A  
PCT International Filing date  
PCT Conventions:
