|Title of Invention||
HYDROGEL WITH INTERNAL WETTING AGENT
|Abstract||A WETTABLE SILICON HYDROGEL COMPRISING THE REACTION PRODUCT OF : A) A SILICONE CONTAINING MACROMER , B) A SILICONE CONTAINING REACTION MIXTURE, AND C) A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYMER THAT IS HYDROPHILIC REALITICE TO THE SILICONE FROM WHICH THE SILICONE REACTION MIXTURE IS COMPRISED, FROM WHICH THE SILICON REACTION MIXTURE IS COMPRISED, WHEREIN SAID HYDROPHILIC POLYMER IS ENTRAPPED IN SAID SILICONE HYDROGEL.|
|Full Text||HYDROGEL WITH INTERNAL WETTING AGENT
Background of the Invention
This invention relates to hydrophobic polymers. More particularly, it relates
to hydrophobic polymers which, when prepared with an internal wetting agent, are
suitable for use in biomedical devices such as ophthalmic lenses.
The suitability of a material for use in biomedical devices depends on a
number of factors that often include the wettability of the material and its proclivity
for adhesion or reaction with biological materials such as proteins and lipids. In
ophthalmic applications such as contact lenses and intraocular implants, oxygen
permeability is also an important consideration. High oxygen permeability is
generally desirable as is good wettability and resistance to adhesion or reaction with
Silicone hydrogels can be a particularly desirable material for making
biomedical devices such as contact lenses because of their generally high oxygen
permeability. However, their hydrophobic nature make the devices made from them
difficult to wet. One approach for dealing with this problem is to coat the hydrogels
with a more hydrophilic coating. This adds an additional level of complexity to their
manufacture. Additionally, coating material selection can be difficult as can the
determination of proper coating thickness, coating uniformity and other factors that
can affect physiological performance.
US Patent 5,219,965 and its progeny propose modifying the surface
properties of polymeric objects such as contact lenses by the inclusion of macromers
having a hydrophobic portion, a hydrophilic portion, a chain transfer agent, and an
unsaturated end group in the monomer mix used to make the objects. The
macromers can include poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone having molecular weights of 500-
10,000 with 1,000-5,000 being most preferred. The macromers are polymerized into
the hydrogel and do improve wettability of the polymers. However, the
improvement is generally not to such a degree that lenses can be made from the
hydrogels without the need for a hydrophilic coating. In any event, enhancing the
wettability of biomedical devices such as contact lenses without the need for lens
coating would be considered a significant advance in the art.
US Patents 4,045,547 and 4,042,552 propose the polymerization of large
amounts (14.25-35% wt) of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) into apoly(hydroxyethyl
methacrylate) (HEMA) based contact lens formulation. The polymerizations are
conducted without regard for the presence of water. No mention is made of the
molecular weight of the PVP.
US Patents 4,833,196; 4,791,175; and 4,678,838 are directed to the
incorporation of poly-N-vinyl lactams into polymers used to make contact lenses.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is the preferred polylactam. Low molecular weight
(~40,000 daltons) PVP is covalently bonded with the monomers used to form the
lens by first hydroperoxidizing the PVP by reaction with ozone and then
polymerizing the PVP with the other monomers.
US Patent 5,198,477 employs low molecular weight (~25,000 daltons) PVP
within an interpenetrating polymer network formed principally from macrocycles
made from vinyl containing monomers. The PVP appears to be crosslinked into the
Summary of the Invention
The invention is a wettable silicone hydrogel made by including a high
molecular weight hydrophilic polymer into the silicone hydrogel monomer mix.
The hydrophilic polymer is entrapped in the hydrogel with little or no covalent
bonding between it and the hydrogel matrix.
In one aspect of the invention, the high molecular weight hydrophilic
polymer is entrapped in the silicone hydrdogel matrix.
In another aspect of the invention, the high molecular weight hydrophilic
polymer is a polyvinylpyrrolidone.
In yet another aspect of the invention, high molecular weight hydrophilic
polymer has a molecular weight (Mw) of 100,000 to 500,000 daltons; preferably, the
molecular weight is at least about 300,000 daltons.
In yet a further aspect of the invention, ophthalmic lenses are made from the
silicone hydrogels of this invention.
Detailed Description of the Invention
The term "monomer" used herein refers to low molecular weight compounds
(i.e. typically having number average molecular weights less than 700) that can be
polymerized, and to medium to high molecular weight compounds or polymers,
sometimes referred to as macromonomers, (i.e. typically having number average
molecular weights greater than 700) containing functional groups capable of further
polymerization. Thus, it is understood that the terms "silicone-containing
monomers" and "hydrophilic monomers" include monomers, macromonomers and
-prepolymers. Prepolymers are partially polymerized monomers or monomers which
are capable of further polymerization.
A "silicone-containing monomer" is one that contains at least two [-Si-O-]
repeating units, in a monomer, macromer or prepolymer. Preferably, the total Si and
attached O are present in the silicone-containing monomer in an amount greater than
20 weight percent, and more preferably greater than 30 weight percent of the total
molecular weight of the silicone-containing monomer. The preferred silicone-
containing monomers of this invention have the following structure:
wherein R51 is H or CH3, q is 1 or 2 and for each q, R52, R53 and R54 are
independently ethyl, methyl, benzyl, phenyl or a monovalent siloxane chain
comprising from 1 to 100 repeating Si-0 units, p is 1 to 10, r = (3-q), X is O or NR55,
where R55 is H or a monovalent alkyl group with 1 to 4 carbons, a is 0 or 1, and L is
a divalent linking group which preferably comprises from 2 to 5 carbons, which may
also optionally comprise ether or hydroxyl groups, for example, a polyethylene
Examples of the silicone-containing monomers of Structure I that can be
used to form silicone hydrogels of this invention are
propylbis(trimethylsiloxy)methylsilane. Preferred silicone-containing monomers are
monomethacryloxyalkyl terminated polydimethylsiloxanes ("mPDMS") such as
those shown in structure II.
where b = 0 to 100, and R57 is any C1-1O aliphatic or aromatic group which may
include hetero atoms; provided that R57 is not functionalized at the point at which it
is bonded to Si. C3-8 alkyl groups are preferred with butyl groups, particularly sec-
butyl groups, being most preferred. R56 is an ethylenically unsaturated
moiety;prefereably a single polymerizable vinyl group. More preferably it is a
methacryl moiety but it can also be an acryl or styrenic moiety or other similar
It is preferred that additional silicone-containing monomers are combined
with the silicone-containing monomers of Stucture I to form the soft contact lenses
of the invention. Methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (TRIS), amide
analogs of TRIS described in US 4,711,943, and the vinylcarbamate or carbonate
analogs described in US 5,070,21 S are also suitable for use in this regard. Indeed,
any known silicone-containing monomer useful for making silicone hydrogels can
be used in combination with the silicone-containing monomer of Strucure I to form
the soft contact lenses of this invention. Many silicone-containing monomers useful
for this purpose are disclosed in US patent application Serial No. 08/948,128 filed
October 9,1997, incorporated herein by reference. Some examples of other
monomers that can be combined with the silicone-containing monomers of Structure
I to form the silicone hydrogels of this invention are the hyfroxyalkylamine-
functional silicone-containing monomers disclosed in U.S. Serial Number
09/033,348 titled Silicone Hydrogel Polymers by Vanderlaan et al. filed March 2,
1998, and incorporated herein by reference. Linear or branched hydroxyalkylamine-
functional monomers comprising a block or random monomer of the following
structures can be used:
n is 0 to 500 and m is 0 to 500 and (n + m) = 10 to 500 and more preferably 20 to
R2, R4, R5, R6 and R7 are independently a monovalent alkyl, or aryl group, which
may be further substituted with alcohol, ester, amine, ketone, carboxylic acid or
ether groups, preferably unsubstituted monovalent alkyl or aryl groups; and R1, R3
and R8 are independently a monovalent alkyl, or aryl group, which may be further
substituted with an alcohol, ester, amine, ketone, carboxylic acid or ether group,
preferably unsubstituted monovalent alkyl or aryl groups, or are the following
with the proviso that at least one of R1, R3, and R8 are according to Structure IV,
wherein R9 is a divalent alkyl group such as -(CH2)s- where s is from 1 to 10,
preferably 3 to 6 and most preferably 3;
R10 and R11 are independently H, a monovalent alkyl or aryl group which may be
further substituted with an alcohol, ester, amine, ketone, carboxylic acid or ether
group, or has the following structure:
where R14, is H, or a monovalent polymerizable group comprising acryloyl,
methacryloyl, styryl, vinyl, allyl or N-vinyl lactam, preferably H or methacryloyl;
R16 is either H, a monovalent alkyl or aryl group which can be further substituted
with alcohol, ester, amine, ketone, carboxylic acid or ether groups, or a
polymerizable group comprising acrylate, methacrylate, styryl, vinyl, allyl or N-
vinyl lactam, preferably alkyl substituted with an alcohol or methacrylate; R12, R13
and R15 are independently H, a monovalent alkyl or aryl, which can be further
substituted with alcohol, ester, amine, ketone, carboxylic acid or ether groups, or R12
and R15, or R15 and R13 can be bonded together to form a ring structure, with the
proviso that at least some of the Structure IV groups on the monomer comprises
polymerizable groups. R12, R13 and R15 arepreferably H.
In alternative embodiments, the silicone hydrogels of this invention may also
comprise hydrophilic monomers. The hydrophilic monomers optionally used to
make the hydrogel polymer of this invention can be any of the known hydrophilic
monomers disclosed in the prior art to make hydrogels. Preferred hydrophilic
monomers used in such embodiments are either acrylic- or vinyl-containing. Such
hydrophilic monomers may themselves be used as crosslinking agents. The term
"vinyl-type" or "vinyl-containing" monomers refer to monomers containing the
vinyl grouping (-CH=NH2) and are generally highly reactive. Such hydrophilic
vinyl-containing monomers are known to polymerize relatively easily. "Acrylic-
type" or "acrylic-containing" monomers are those monomers containing the acrylic
(CH2=CRCOX) wherein R is H or CH3, and X is O or N, which are also known to
polymerize readily, such as N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA), 2-hydroxyethyl
methacrylate (HEMA), glycerol methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylamide,
polyethyleneglycol monomethacrylate, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid.
Hydrophilic vinyl-containing monomers which may be incorporated into the
silicone hydrogels of the present invention include monomers such as N-vinyl
lactams (e.g. N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), N-vinyl-N-methyl acetamide, N-vinyl-N-
ethyl acetamide, N-vinyl-N-ethyl formamide, N-vinyl formamide), with NVP being
Other hydrophilic monomers that can be employed in the invention include
polyoxyethylene polyols having one or more of the terminal hydroxyl groups
replaced with a functional group containing a polymerizable double bond. Examples
include polyethylene glycol, ethoxylated alkyl glucoside, and ethoxylated bisphenol
A reacted with one or more molar equivalents of an end-capping group such as
isocyanatoethyl methacrylate ("IEM"), methacrylic anhydride, methacryloyl
chloride, vinylbenzoyl chloride, or the like, to produce a polyethylene polyol having
one or more terminal polymerizable olefinic groups bonded to the polyethylene
polyol through linking moieties such as carbamate or ester groups.
Still further examples are the hydrophilic vinyl carbonate or vinyl carbamate
monomers disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,070,215, the hydrophilic oxazolone
monomers disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,910,277, and polydextran. Other suitable
hydrophilic monomers will be apparent to one skilled in the art.
More preferred hydrophilic monomers which may be incorporated into the
polymer of the present invention include hydrophilic monomers such as N,N-
dimethyl acrylamide (DMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), glycerol
methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylamide, N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP),
polyethyleneglycol monomethacrylate, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid with DMA
being the most preferred.
Other monomers that can be present in the reaction mixture used to form the
silicone hydrogel of this invention include ultra-violet absorbing monomers, reactive
tints and the like. Additional processing aids such as release agents or wetting
agents can also be added to the reaction mixture.
The polymer mix used to form me lenses of this invention include one or
more high molecular weight hydrophilic polymers in addition to the hydrophilic
monomers identified above. The hydrophilic polymers, act as internal wetting
agents. That is, they imbue the hydrogels into which they are incorporated with
greatly improved wettability. Preferentially, this occurs to an extent such that
hydrophobic hydrogels that would ordinarily require a hydrophobic coating for good
physiological compatibility can be fashioned without a coating and yet still have
good physiological compatibility with, for example, the surface of the eye.
However, a hydrophilic coating such as polyacrylic acid may still be applied to the
surface of the hydrogel if desired. When this is done, the hydrogel incorporating the
wetting agent in it improves the physiological compatibility of the hydrogel (relative
to a coated lens without the instant wetting agent) by reducing contact between
tissue and hydrophobic domains within the hydrogel.
The hydrophilic polymers useful as internal wetting agents are polyamides,
polylactams, polyimides and polylactones. Preferably, they are hydrogen bond
receivers which in aqueous environments, hydrogen bond to water, thus becoming
effectively more hydrophilic. In any event, incorporation of the hydrophilic
polymer in the hydrophobic hydrogel matrix without the presence of water facilitates
compatibility with hydrophobic polymers such as silicones. Upon subsequent
contact with water (i.e., hydration) they render the silicones wettable.
Preferably these hydrophilic polymeric wetting agents are linear polymers
having a cyclic moiety incorporated into the polymer backbone. This cyclic moiety
is even more preferably a cyclic amide or imide cyclic moiety. This class of
polymers preferably includes for example, polyvinylpyrrolidone and
polyvinylimidazole but polymers such as polydimethylacrylamide are also useful in
this capacity. Polyvinylpyrrolidone is the most preferred hydrophilic polymeric
Hydrophilic polymers useful as wetting agents in this invention have high
average molecular weights (Mw"s of no less than 50,000 daltons and preferably
100,000 to 500,000 daltons). More preferred molecular weight ranges are 300,000
to 400,000 with a range of 320,000 to 370,000 being most preferred. Molecular
weights of hydrophilic polymers can also be expressed by the so-called K-value,
based on kinematic viscosity measurements, as described in N-Vinyl Amide
Polymers by E.S. Barabas in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering,
Second edition, Vol. 17, pp 198-257, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Expressed in this
manner, hydrophilic polymers with K-values of 46 to 100 are preferred. Hydrophilic
polymers are employed in amounts such that about l-15%wt of the wetting agent
(e.g., PVP) is present in the final hydrogel formulation. Preferably, 3-8% will be
present in the final hydrogel formulation. Such polymers, when prepared as part of
the hydrogel matrix in the manner described herein, are incorporated into the
hydrogel formulation of this invention without significant covalent bonding to the
hydrogel. The absence of significant covalent bonding means that while a minor
degree of covalent bonding may be present, it is incidental to the retention of the
wetting agent in the hydrogel matrix. Whatever incidental covalent bonding may be
present, it would not by itself be sufficient to retain the wetting agent in the hydrogel
matrix. Instead, the vastly predominating effect keeping the wetting agent
associated with the hydrogel is entrapment. The polymer is "entrapped", according
to this specification, when it is physically retained within a hydrogel matrix. This is
done via entanglement of the polymer chain of the wetting agent within the hydrogel
polymer matrix. However, van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole interactions,
electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding can also contribute to this entrapment
to a lesser extent.
The hydrogels of this invention are best made by the preparation of a
macromer and polymerization of this macromer with other components of a
monomer mix. "Macromer", as the term is used in this specification, refers to a
prepolymer formed by Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP) of one or more
siloxanes with one or more acrylic or methacrylic materials. The methacrylates or
acrylates useful in this capacity are capable of contributing hydroxyl moieties to the
overall macromer formulation. Thus, methyl methacrylate, while beneficial to the
overall formulation of macromer is not, as the sole (meth)acrylate component, itself
sufficient to form the macromer of this invention. However, its presence together
with a hydroxy methacrylate would be sufficient as the (meth)acrylate components).
The preferred macromers of this invention are the GTP reaction products of hydroxy
methacrylates or acrylates, trimethylsiloxanes, and polydimethylsiloxanes. More
preferably, the macromer is the GTP reaction product of 2-hydroxyethyl
methacrylate (HEMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA),
methacryloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (TRIS), and mono-
methacryloxypropyl terminated mono-butyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane
(mPDMS). Most preferably, 18-21 (even more preferably about 19.1) moles HEMA
is combined with about 2-3 (even more preferably about 2.8) moles MMA, about 7-
9 (even more preferably about 7.9) moles TRIS, and 2.5-4.5 (even more preferably
about 3.3 moles) mPDMS. The GTP formation of macromer is completed by
reacting the aforementioned combination of materials with 2.0 moles per mole of 3-
isopropenyl-a,a-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate using dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst.
This reaction is typically conducted at about 60-120°C for about 2-10 hours.
The hydrogel is prepared by reacting the following reaction mixture
(sometimes referred to as the "monomer mix"): macromer; silicone containing
monomers, optional hydrophilic polymers (other than the wetting agent)
crosslinking agents, and high molecular weight hydrophilic polymer (wetting agent).
The monomer mix is reacted in the absence of water and in the optional presence of
an organic diluent. The hydrogel is completed by hydration of the reaction product
of this reaction mixture. Preferably, the siloxanes comprise Si7-9 monomethacryloxy
terminated polydimethyl siloxane and trimethylsiloxy silanes. More preferably, the
monomer mix is comprised of macromer, Si7.9 monomethacryloxy terminated
polydimethyl siloxane; methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethylsiloxy) silane, "TRIS";
dimethyl amide, "DMA"; hydroxyethyl methacrylic acid, "HEMA";
triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate, "TEGDMA", polyvinylpyrrolidone, "PVP";
additives and photoinitiators.
The preferred range of the combined silicone-containing monomers is from
about 5 to 100 weight percent, more preferably about 10 to 90 weight percent, and
most preferably about 15 to 80 weight percent of the reactive components in the
reaction mixture (monomer mix plus macromer). The preferred range of optional
hydrophilic monomer if present in the above invention is from about 5 to 80 weight
percent, more preferably about 10 to 60 weight percent, and most preferably about
20 to 50 weight percent of the reactive components in the reaction mixture. The
preferred range of high molecular weight hydrophilic polymer (wetting agent) is 1 to
15 weight percent, more preferably 3 to 10 weight percent, and most preferably 5 to 8
weight percent. The preferred range of diluent is from about 0 to 70 weight percent,
more preferably about 0 to 50 weight percent, and most preferably about 0 to 20
weight percent of the total reaction mixture. The amount of diluent required varies
depending on the nature and relative amounts of the reactive components.
Most preferably, the reaction mixture comprises the most preferred
macromer (described above); Si7-9 rnonomethacryloxy terminated polydimethyl
siloxane (~28%wt); methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethyl siloxy) silane, "TRIS"
(~14%wt); dimethyl amide, "DMA" (~26%wt); hydroxy ethyl methacrylic acid,
"HEMA" (-5%); triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate, "TEGDMA" (-1%),
polyvinylpyrrolidone, "PVP" (~5%); with the balance comprising minor amounts of
additives and photoinitiators The polymerization is most preferably conducted in the
presence of 20% (weight % of the complete monomer and diluent blend) dimethyl-
A polymerization catalyst is preferably included in the reaction mixture. The
polymerization catalyst can be a compound such as lauroyl peroxide, benzoyl
peroxide, isopropyl percarbonate, azobisisobutyronitrile, or the like, that generates
free radicals at moderately elevated temperatures, or the polymerization catalyst can
be a photoinitiator system such as an aromatic alpha-hydroxy ketone or a tertiary
amine plus a diketone. Illustrative examples of photoinitiator systems are 1-
hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone, 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-l-phenyl-propan-l-one,
bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl)-2,4-4-trimethylpentyl phosphine oxide (DMBAPO), and
a combination of camphorquinone and ethyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate. The
catalyst is used in the reaction mixture in catalytically effective amounts, e.g., from
about 0.1 to about 2 parts by weight per 100 parts of reactive monomer.
Polymerization of the reaction mixture can be initiated using the appropriate choice
of heat or visible or ultraviolet light or other means depending on the polymerization
initiator used. Alternatively, initiation can be conducted without a photoinitiator
using, for example, low voltage e-beam. However, when a photoinitiator is used, the
preferred initiator is a combination of 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone and
bis(2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl)-2,4-4-trimethylpentyl phosphine oxide (DMBAPO) , and
the preferred method of polymerization initiation is visible light.
Typically after curing the reaction mixture, the resulting polymer is treated
with a solvent to remove the diluent (if used) or any traces of unreacted components,,
and hydrate the polymer to form the hydrogel. The solvent used may be water (or an
aqueous solution such as physiological saline), or depending on the solubility
characteristics of the diluent (if used) used to make the hydrogel of this invention
and the solubility characteristics of any residual unpolymerized monomers, the
solvent initially used can be an organic liquid such as ethanol, methanol,
isopropanol, mixtures thereof, or the like, or a mixture of one or more such organic
liquids with water, followed by extraction with pure water (or physiological saline)
to produce the silicone hydrogel comprising a polymer of said monomers swollen
with water. The silicone hydrogels after hydration of the polymers preferably
comprise 10 to 55 weight percent water, more preferably 20 to 50 weight percent
water, and most preferably 25 to 45 weight percent water of the total weight of the
silicone hydrogel. These silicone hydrogels are particularly suited for making
contact lenses or intraocular lenses, preferably soft contact lenses.
Various processes are known for molding the reaction mixture in the
production of contact lenses, including spincasting and static casting. Spincasting
methods are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,408,429 and 3,660,545, and static casting
methods are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,113,224 and 4,197,266. The preferred
method for producing contact lenses comprising the polymer of this invention is by
the direct molding of the silicone hydrogels, which is economical, and enables
precise control over the final shape of the hydrated lens. For this method, the
reaction mixture is placed in a mold having the shape of the final desired silicone
hydrogel, to thereby produce a polymer in the approximate shape of the final desired
product. Then, this polymer mixture is optionally treated with a solvent and then
water, producing a silicone hydrogel having a final size and shape that are quite
similar to the size and shape of the original molded polymer article. This method
can be used to form contact lenses and is further described in U.S. Patents
4,495,313; 4,680,336; 4,889,664; and 5,039,459, incorporated herein by reference.
After producing the silicone hydrogel, the lens may be coated with a hydrophilic
coating if desired. Some methods of adding hydrophilic coatings to a lens have been
disclosed in the prior art, including U.S. Patents 3,854,982, 3,916,033, 4,920,184
and 5,002,794; WO 91/04283, and EPO 93810399.
The reaction mixtures of the present invention can be formed by any of the
methods known to those skilled in the art, such as shaking or stirring, and used to
form polymeric articles or devices by the methods described earlier. For some
monomer reaction mixtures it is preferred to polymerize the reaction mixtures at
temperatures slightly above room temperature, such as 30-40°C, or even as high as
80°C, or below room temperature, such as 0-10°C, so as to prevent phase separation
of the components.
Silicone hydrogels of the instant invention have high oxygen permeability.
They have O2 Dk values between 40 and 300 barrer determined by the polarographic
method. Polarographic method measurements of oxygen permeability are made as
follows. Lenses are positioned on the sensor then covered on the upper side with a
mesh support. The oxygen that diffuses through the lens is measured using a
polarographic oxygen sensor consisting of a 4 mm diameter gold cathode and a
silver ring anode. The reference values are those measured on commercially
available contact lenses using this method. Balafilcon A lenses available from
Bausch & Lomb give a measurement of approx. 79 barrer. Etafilcon lenses give a
measurement of 20 to 25 barrer.
In the examples the following abbreviations are used:
TRIS 3-methacryloxypropyltris (trimethylsiloxy) silane
TMI dimethyl meta-isopropenyl benzyl isocyanate
HEMA 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate
MMA methyl methacrylate
TBACB tetrabutyl ammonium-m-chlorobenzoate
mPDMS 800-1000 MW monomethacryloxypropyl terminated
CGI 1850 1:1 (wgt) blend of 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone and bis(2,6-
dimethoxybenzoyl)-2,4-4-trimethylpentyl phosphine oxide
PVP poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)
IPA isopropyl alcohol
Example 1 Macromer Formation
To a solution of 13.75 ml of a 1M solution of TBACB in THF, 30.0g
bis(dimethylamino)methylsilane, 61.39 g p-xylene, 154.28 g methyl methacrylate,
and 1892.13 g 2-(trimethylsiloxy)ethyl methacrylate in 4399.78 g THF at 14°C,
under a N2 atmosphere, was added 191.75 g of 1-trimethylsiloxy-l-methoxy-2-
methylpropene. 30 ml of additional TBACB in THF (0.40 M) was added over a
period of 260 minutes, during which time the reaction mixture was allowed to
exotherm, and then cooled to 30°C. Sixty minutes after addition of 2-
(trimethylsiloxy)ethyl methacrylate, a solution of 467.56 g 2-(trimethylsiloxy)ethyl
methacrylate, 3636.6 g mPDMS and 3673.84 g TRIS and 20.0 g
bis(dimethylamino)methylsilane was added, and the mixture was allowed to
exotherm and then cooled to 30°C for 2 hours. A solution of 10.0g
bis(dimethylamino)methylsilane, 154.26 g methyl methacrylate, and 1892.13 g 2-
(trimethylsiloxy)ethyl methacrylate was then added and the mixture was again
allowed to exotherm. After 2 hours, 2 gallons of anhydrous THF was added,
followed by a solution of 439.69 g water, 740.6 g methanol and 8.8 g dichloroacetic
acid after the solution was allowed to cool down to 34°C. The mixture was refluxed
for 4.5 hours, heating with an oil bath at l10°C, and volatiles were distilled off at
135°C, with addition of toluene to aid in removal of water, until a vapor temperature
of 110°C is reached.
The reaction flask was cooled to 110°C, and a solution of 443 g TMI and 5.7
g dibutyltin dilaurate was added. The mixture was reacted for 3.5 hours, then cooled
to 30°C. The toluene was evaporated under reduced pressure to yield off-white,
anhydrous, waxy, reactive macromer. The theoretical OH content of the macromer
is 1.69 mmol/g.
Contact lenses were made from blends of the macromer from Example 1, and
other components as indicated in Table 1, curing under visible light at 75°C. (All
component amounts are given as weight % of reactive components, except diluent,
which is given as weight percent of the final monomer-diluent blend). The PVP that
was used is sold as "POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE (PVP K90)" by ICN
Biomedicals, Inc. After curing, the molds were opened, and the lenses were released
into a 1:1 blend of water and ethanol, then leached in ethanol to remove any residual
monomers and diluent. Finally the lenses were equilibrated in physiological borate-
Example 15 Wettability
Lenses were made from a blend of 8% (by weight) PVP (K90 from ICN
Biomedicals, Inc.), 20% macromer from Example 1,28.5% mPDMS, 8.0% TRIS,
5.0% HEMA, 26% DMA, 1.5% TEGDMA, 2.0% Norbloc and 1.0% CGI 1850, in a
blend with 37.5% (based on total monomer/diluent blend) 3M3P as diluent,
following the procedure of example 2. The lenses were worn in a clinical study and
found to be wettable and comfortable. The above lenses (n =10 eyes) were
compared to an ACUVUE+ (n=12 eyes) historical control and found to be 100%
wettable (no non-wetting spots seen while worn); similar with respect to pre-lens
tear film noninvasive tear break-up time (PLTF-NIBUT) 7.1 ± 2.7 vs. ACUVUE®
12.7 ± 4.7; and comfortable on a 50-point scale 44.3 ± 4.5 vs. ACUVUE® 46.8 ±2.8.
Example 16 (Comparative)- Extraction of K-value 29-32 PVP
Contact lenses were made following the procedure of Example 2, from a
blend of 20% (weight) 40,000 Mw PVP (from Sigma Chemicals, ave. mol. wgt.
10,000, K value (intrinsic viscosity) 29-32), 12% macromer from Example 1,20%
TRIS, 39% HEMA, 5% DMA, 3% TEGDMA, and 1% DAROCUR 1173, in a blend
with 50% (based on total monomer/diluent blend) hexanol as diluent, except that
lenses were removed from the molds without initial extraction. Each lens was
weighed and extracted in 5.0 ml of water or methanol, analyzing the extracts as a
function of time. The results, in Table 2, illustrate that relatively low molecular
weight PVP diffuses out of the polymer matrix in methanol. Approximately all of
the PVP was gone after two hours. In water however, the PVP was not completely
lost from the lens matrix. The diffusion reached a plateau after 24 hours, where no
further release of PVP was observed.
Lenses that were leached in methanol were placed into borate buffered saline.
The dynamic contact angles of these lens with borate buffered saline were 104°
advancing, and 41° receding, also illustrating that this relatively low molecular
weight PVP is not sufficiently retained in the polymer matrix to survive alcohol
Example 17 - Extraction of K-valne 80-100 PVP
Contact lenses were made following the procedure of Example 2, from a
blend of 8% (weight) 360,000 Mw PVP (from Sigma Chemicals, ave. mol. wgt.
360,000, K value (intrinsic viscosity) 80-100), 20% macromer from Example 1, 35%
mPDMS, 5% HEMA, 26% DMA, 2% TEGDMA, 2% Norbloc and 2% CGI 1850,
in a blend with 35% (based on total monomer/diluent blend) 3M3P as diluent,
except that lenses were removed from the molds without initial extraction. Each
lens was weighed and extracted in 10.0 ml of water or IP A, analyzing the extracts as
a function of time. The results, in Table 3, illustrate that this higher molecular
weight PVP is mostly retained in the lens, even after extraction with aggressive
Example 17. Dust Adhesion Assay. Ease of Processabilitv
Lenses were made from a blend of 5% (weight) PVP (from Sigma
Chemicals, ave. mol. wgt. 360,000, K value (intrinsic viscosity) 80-100), 18%
macromer from Example 1,28% mPDMS, 14% TRIS, 5% HEMA, 26% DMA, 1%
TEGDMA, 2% Norbloc and 1% CGI 1850, in a blend with 20% (based on total
monomer/diluent blend) 3,7-dimethyl-3-octanol as diluent, following the procedure
of example 2. One of these lenses was shaken in a dispersion of household dust in
borate buffered saline, cleaned by a 10 second digital rub, and examined under a
comparator. The amount of dust adhered to the surface was about 25% or less of
that adhered to a similarly treated lens made without PVP. In addition it was
observed that lenses made with PVP were much less sticky to other lenses and to
glass and plastic surfaces, thus making them easier to handle during processing.
1. A wettable silicone hydrogel comprising the reaction product of:
a) a silicone containing macromer,
b) a silicone containing reaction mixture, and
c) a high molecular weight polymer that is hydrophilic relative to the silicone
from which the silicone reaction mixture is comprised,
wherein said hydrophilic polymer is entrapped in said silicone hydrogel.
2. The hydrogel of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is a homopolymer.
3. The hydrogel of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is a copolymer made
from the combination of at least two different monomers.
4. The hydrogel of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is selected from the
group consisting of polyamides, polylactams, polyimides, polylactones, and
5. The hydrogel of claim 1 wherein said hydrophilic polymer incorporates a cyclic
moiety throughout its backbone.
6. The hydrogel of claim 4 wherein said polyvinyl polymer is polyvinylpyrrolidone.
7. The hydrogel of claim 6 wherein said polyvinylpyrrolidone has a number average
molecular weight greater than 50,000.
8. The hydrogel of claim 6 wherein said polyvinylpyrrolidone has a number average
molecular weight greater than about 80,000.
9. The hydrogel of claim 4 wherein said polyvinylpyrrolidone has a number average
molecular weight greater than 100,000.
10. A method of making a silicone hydrogel comprising:
a) combining 5 to 100 wt.% of a silicone hydrogel monomer mix
with 1 to 15 wt.% of a high molecular weight hydrophilic
polymer under polymerization conditions, and
b) recovering a silicone hydrogel with said hydrophilic polymer
11. The method of claim 10 wherein said monomer mix is a macromer
having a substantial hydrogel content.
12. The method of claim 10 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is a
13. The method of claim 10 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is a
copolymer made from the combination of at least two different
14. The method of claim 10 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is
selected from the group consisting of polyamides, polylactams,
polyimides, polylactones, and polydextrans.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein said hydrophilic polymer is
16. The method of claim 14 wherein said polyvinylpyrrolidone has a
weight average molecular weight of at least 50,000.
17. The method of claim 14 wherein said polyvinylpyrrolidone has a
weight average molecular weight of at least 100.000.
18. An article made from the process of claim 10.
19. An ophthalmic lens made from the process of claim 10.
A wettable silicone hydrogel comprising the reaction product of:
a) a silicone containing macromer,
b) a silicone containing reaction mixture, and
c) a high molecular weight polymer that is hydrophilic relative to the
silicone from which the silicone reaction mixture is comprised,
from which the silicone reaction mixture is comprised, wherein said
hydrophilic polymer is entrapped in said silicone hydrogel.
|Indian Patent Application Number||IN/PCT/2002/1191/KOL|
|PG Journal Number||07/2008|
|Date of Filing||20-Sep-2002|
|Name of Patentee||JOHNSON & JOHNSON VISION CARE, INC.|
|Applicant Address||7500 CENTURIAN PARKWAY, SUITE 100, JACKSONVILLE. FL32256|
|PCT International Classification Number||G02B 1/04|
|PCT International Application Number||PCT/US01/09072|
|PCT International Filing date||2001-03-22|